|This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Russian Wikipedia. (October 2010)|
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2011)|
Bolshoi Theatre in 2012
|Address||Teatralnaya Square 1|
The Bolshoi Theatre (Russian: Большо́й теа́тр, tr. Bol'shoy Teatr, IPA: [bɐlʲˈʂoj tʲɪˈatr] is a historic theatre in Moscow, Russia, designed by architect Joseph Bové, which holds performances of ballet and opera. The theatre's original name was the Imperial Bolshoi Theatre of Moscow, while the St. Petersburg Bolshoi Theatre (demolished in 1886), was called the Imperial Bolshoi Kamenny Theatre.
At that time, all Russian theatres were imperial property. Moscow and St. Petersburg each had only two theatres, one intended for opera and ballet (these were known as the Bolshoi Theatres), and one for plays (tragedies and comedies). Because opera and ballet were considered nobler than drama, the opera houses were named "Grand Theatres" ("Bolshoi" is Russian for "large" or "grand") and the drama theatres were called the "Smaller Theatre" ("Maly" is Russian for "small", "lesser", or "little").
The Bolshoi Ballet and Bolshoi Opera are amongst the oldest and most renowned ballet and opera companies in the world. It is by far the world's biggest ballet company, having more than 200 dancers. The theatre is the parent company of The Bolshoi Ballet Academy, a world-famous leading school of ballet. It has a branch at the Bolshoi Theatre School in Joinville, Brazil.
The main building of the theatre, rebuilt and renovated several times during its history, is a landmark of Moscow and Russia (its iconic neoclassical facade is depicted on the Russian 100-ruble banknote). On 28 October 2011, the Bolshoi was re-opened after an extensive six-year renovation. An official cost for the renovation is 21 billion rubles ($688 million). However, other Russian authorities claimed much more public money were spent.$1.1 billion according to Der Spiegel The renovation included restoring acoustics to the original quality (which had been lost during the Soviet Era), as well as restoring the original Imperial decor of the Bolshoi.
The company was founded on 17 March 1776 by Prince Pyotr Vasilyevich Urusov and Michael Maddox. Initially, it held performances in a private home, but it acquired the Petrovka Theatre and on 30 December 1780 it began producing plays and operas, thus establishing what was to become the Bolshoi Theatre. With the destruction by fire of the Petrovka Theatre on 8 October 1805, it was replaced on 13 April 1808 with the opening of New Arbat Imperial Theatre, but, as a consequence of the French invasion of Moscow in 1812, fire destroyed that theatre.
The current theatre was built on Theatre Square between 1821 and 1824. It was designed by architect Andrei Mikhailov (who had also built the nearby Maly Theatre in 1824) and it opened on 18 January 1825 as the Bolshoi Petrovsky Theatre with a performance of Fernando Sor's ballet, Cendrillon. Initially, it presented only Russian works, but foreign composers entered the repertoire around 1840.
In 1843 the large-scale reconstruction of the theatre took place from the design by A. Nikitin, but a fire in 1853 caused extensive damage and reconstruction was carried out by Alberto Cavos, son of Catterino Cavos, an opera composer. On 20 August 1856 the Bolshoi Theatre reopened. Other repairs of the building of the theatre took place in 1896.
20th century and beyond
On 7 December 1919, the house was renamed as the State Academic Bolshoi Theatre, although only a few days later, on 12 December, there was an attempt to abolish it. Beethoven Hall opened on 18 February 1921 and there was further reconstruction of the theatre between 1921 and 1923 under the auspices of Ivan Rerberg. Bomb damage occurred during World War II, but it was immediately repaired.
The Bolshoi has been the site of many historic premieres including:
- Tchaikovsky's The Voyevoda and Mazeppa,
- Rachmaninoff's Aleko and Francesca da Rimini.
- On 16 December 1888 the première of Boris Godunov by Modest Mussorgsky took place.
- The première of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov's opera The Maid of Pskov with Feodor Chaliapin singing the role of Ivan the Terrible
- 4 May 1919 saw the first symphony concert given by the theatre orchestra, conducted by Serge Koussevitzky.
- In 1935 the Moscow première of Dmitri Shostakovich's opera Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District took place.
The New Stage of the Bolshoi Theatre was opened on 29 November 2002. It was built to the left of the historic Main Stage of the Bolshoi. Together with auxiliary buildings (a restored 17th-century building, two rehearsal halls, and artists' recreation rooms) it became a single theater complex, the Bolshoi Theatre of Russia. The new building is built on a natural hill, where until recently there were blocks of old houses with communal apartments.
From July 2005 to October 2011 the Theatre was closed for restoration. It had undergone many renovations in its time, but none as major as this. The building, whose architecture includes three different styles, was damaged, and a quick renovation seemed to be necessary. The repairs were initially due to cost 15 billion rubles ($610 million), but engineers found that more than 75% of the structure was unstable and it was then estimated that about 25.5 billion rubles (app. $850 million) would need to be spent. However, at the completion of the restoration, it was announced that only 21 billion rubles ($688 mil) were spent. According to The Moscow Times the real cost could have been even the double, and Der Spiegel quotes a figure of $1.1 billion. The work was funded entirely by the federal government.
Despite the reconstruction, the company was working, with performances held on the New Stage and on the stage of the Great Kremlin Palace. On 28 October 2011, the Bolshoi Theatre was re-opened with a concert featuring international artists and the ballet and opera companies.
The renovation included an improvement in acoustics to restore the sound to the level of the pre-Soviet era as well as the restoration of the original Imperial decor. The foundation and brickwork were also repaired.
Inside the theatre, the entire space was stripped from the bottom up. The 19th-century wooden fixtures, silver stage curtain and French-made red velvet banquettes were removed for repair in specialist workshops. Outside, on the top of the facade, the double-headed eagle of the original Russian coat of arms was installed in the place where the Soviet hammer and sickle had been mounted for decades.
Anastasia Volochkova, a former Bolshoi prima ballerina said she sees this theater "as a big brothel". She told ballerinas are invited to parties through theater's administration and refused roles if they don't accept.
Ballet and opera
The Bolshoi is a repertory theatre, meaning that it draws from a list of productions, any one of which may be performed on a given evening. It normally introduces two to four new ballet or opera productions each season and puts a similar number on hold. The sets and costumes for most productions are made in the Bolshoi's own workshops. The performers are drawn primarily from the Bolshoi's regular ballet and opera companies, with occasional guest performances. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, there have been a few attempts to reduce the theatre's traditional dependence on large state subsidies. Corporate sponsorship occurs for some productions, but state funding is still the lifeblood of the company.
The Bolshoi has been associated from its beginnings with ballet. Tchaikovsky's ballet Swan Lake premiered at the theatre on 4 March 1877. Other staples of the Bolshoi repertoire include Tchaikovsky's The Sleeping Beauty and The Nutcracker, Adam's Giselle, Prokofiev's Romeo and Juliet, and Khachaturian's Spartacus.
The chief ballet conductor from 1923 to 1963 was Yuri Fayer.
After the death of Joseph Stalin, the company toured internationally and became an important source of cultural prestige, as well as foreign currency earnings. As a result, the "Bolshoi Ballet" became a well-known name in the West. However, the Bolshoi suffered from losses through a series of defections of its dancers. The first occurrence was on 23 August 1979, with Alexander Godunov; followed by Leonid Kozlov and Valentina Kozlova on 16 September 1979; and other cases in the following years. Bolshoi continues to tour regularly with opera and ballet productions in the post-Soviet era.
The opera company specializes in the classics of Russian opera such as Mussorgsky's Boris Godunov, Glinka's A Life for the Tsar, and Rimsky-Korsakov's The Tsar's Bride, as well as the operas of Tchaikovsky. Many operas by western composers are also performed, especially works of Italian composers such as Rossini, Verdi, and Puccini. Until the mid-1990s, most foreign operas were sung in Russian, but Italian and other languages have been heard more frequently on the Bolshoi stage in recent years.
Some operas, such as Borodin's Prince Igor, include extensive ballet sequences. Many productions, especially of classic Russian opera, are performed on a grand scale, with dozens of costumed singers and dancers on stage for crowd or festival scenes.
Current cultural status
The Bolshoi Theatre is famous throughout the world. It is frequented by tourists. As a result prices can be much higher than in other Russian theatres. This is especially the case for ballet, where prices are comparable to those for performances in the West. For local citizens concerts and operas are still relatively affordable, with prices ranging from 100 (50 for students) rubles (balcony seats for matinee performances) to 5,000 rubles (for seats in the orchestra or stalls).
- The Bolshoi Kamenny Theatre used to exist in Saint Petersburg. It stood next to the Circus Theatre (rebuilt in 1860 as the Mariinsky Theatre), but it was replaced in the 1890s by the present-day building of the St. Petersburg Conservatory. It was at St. Petersburg's Bolshoi that the first great Russian operas, Glinka's A Life for the Tsar and Ruslan and Lyudmila, premiered.
- In a bit of ideological editing, the Bolshoi theater appears to be "destroyed" by the device of a split screen in Dziga Vertov's Man with a Movie Camera.
- Miriam Elder, "Bolshoi Rocked by Scandal and Intrigue", The Guardian (London), 22 March 2011] Retrieved 12 February 2013
- "Bolshoi Theatre to reopen after major refit", BBC News on bbc.co.uk, 28 October 2011
- Bolshoi Theater to reopen after restoration The Moscow Times, retrieved 11 Feb 2013
- Jealousy and corruption rumors surround attack on Bolshoi director, Der Spiegel, retvieved 11 Feb 2013
- The New Stage of Bolshoi Theatre, See You in Moscow
- Saving Bolshoi Theater New York Times, 4 February 2008
- "Bolshoi Theater raises curtain after six-year restoration". RIA Novosti. 28 Oct 2011. Retrieved 29 Oct 2011.,
- "Bolshoi to reopen late in 2009 after rescue work" "Entertainment", on reuters.com
- "The State Academic Bolshoi Theatre of Russia: Reconstruction & Renovation: Theatre Reconstruction" on bolshoi.ru/en
- Bolshoi boss Sergei Filin leaves hospital for Germany
- Turmoil on the Tarmac TIME Magazine, September 3, 1979
- "Today in History - September 18". WorldofQuotes. Retrieved 2011-10-30.
- "Brouhaha at the Bolshoi" TIME Magazine, October 1, 1979
- Conductor exits left as Bolshoi Theatre's woes mount[dead link]
- Amie Ferris-Rotman (2010-09-21). "New musical director opens Bolshoi's 235th season". Reuters. Retrieved 2011-06-01.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bolshoi Theatre.|
- Bolshoi Theatre website (English)
- Bolshoi Theatre in Theatrical Russia Annual Dictionary
- For Ballet Lovers Only: Bolshoi dancers of the past and of today in biographies and photos
- Chief Conductors
- Bolshoi Theatre School in Brazil website
- Bolshoi Delights Cuba Audience Photo Feature, Havana Times, Feb 15, 2010
- Reconstruction of Bolshoi Theatre, Pictures
- The New Stage of Bolshoi Theatre, Pictures