Bolshoy Cheremshan (Russian: Большой Черемшан, literally Greater Cheremshan, TatarCyrillic: Олы Чирмешән, Latin: Olı Çirmeşän) is a river in Russia, the left tributary of the Volga between the Kama River and Samara River. It flows southwest to the Volga near Dimitrovgrad. The main inflows are Bolshaya Sulcha and Maly Cheremshan. The maximal discharge is 1660 m³/s (1979) and the minimal mineralization is 600-800 mg/l. The riverbed is meandering and the meadows are wide. From around 1650 the Trans-Kama Line of forts ran along or near the Cheremshan.