|Town or city||Castle Bolton, North Yorkshire|
|Client||Richard le Scrope|
|Design and construction|
Bolton Castle is a 14th-century castle located in Wensleydale, North Yorkshire (grid reference SE03379183). The nearby village Castle Bolton takes its name from the castle. The castle is a Grade I listed building and a Scheduled Ancient Monument. The castle was damaged in the English Civil War, but much of it remains. It has never been sold and is still in the ownership of the descendants of the Scrope family.
The castle was built between 1378 and 1399 by Richard le Scrope, 1st Baron Scrope of Bolton and Chancellor of England, and is an example of a quadrangular castle. The licence to build it was granted in July 1379 and a contract with the mason Johan Lewyn was made in September 1378. Construction was reputed to cost 18,000 Marks. The 16th century writer John Leland described 'An Astronomical Clock' in the courtyard and how smoke was conveyed from the hearth in the hall through tunnels. Bolton Castle was described by Sir Francis Knollys as having 'The highest walls of any house he had seen'.
In 1536 Sir John Scrope, 8th Baron Scrope of Bolton supported the Pilgrimage of Grace rebellion against the religious reforms of King Henry VIII and gave Adam Sedbar, Abbot of Jervaulx sanctuary in the castle. In consequence John Scrope had to flee to Skipton pursued by the King's men but Abbot Sedbar was caught and executed. In retribution the king ordered Bolton castle to be torched, causing extensive damage. Within a few years the damage had been repaired and Sir John had regained his seat in Parliament.
Mary, Queen of Scots, at Bolton
Mary, Queen of Scots stayed at Bolton for six months. After her defeat in Scotland at the Battle of Langside in 1568 she fled to England, posing a threat to the position of the Protestant Queen Elizabeth I. Mary was initially held at Carlisle Castle under the watch of Henry Scrope, 9th Baron Scrope of Bolton, but Carlisle proved unsuitable and in July 1568 Mary was moved to Bolton. Mary was given Henry Scrope's own apartments in the South-West tower. Of her retinue of 51 knights, servants and ladies-in-waiting only 30 of her men and six ladies-in-waiting were able to stay in the castle, the rest taking lodgings nearby. Her household included cooks, grooms, hairdresser, embroiderer, apothecary, physician and surgeon. Bolton Castle was not initially suitable for housing a Queen, so tapestries, rugs and furniture were borrowed from local houses and nearby Barnard Castle in County Durham. Queen Elizabeth herself loaned some pewter vessels as well as a copper kettle.
Mary was allowed to wander the surrounding lands and often went hunting. Her prime occupation while at the castle was having her hair done by her friend Mary Seton. Sir Francis Knollys, whom Mary nicknamed 'Schoolmaster', taught her English, as she only spoke French, Latin and the Scots language. She even met with local Catholics, something for which Knollys and Scrope were severely reprimanded. In January 1569 Mary left Bolton Castle for the last time, being taken to Tutbury in Staffordshire where she spent much of the 18 years before her execution in 1587.
After the death in 1630 of Emanuel Scrope, 1st Earl of Sunderland, without any legitimate children, Bolton Castle was inherited by Mary the eldest of his three illegitimate daughters. She married Charles Powlett, 6th Marquess of Winchester and 1st Duke of Bolton.
The castle is currently owned by their descendant, Harry, the eighth Baron Bolton, who resides at nearby Bolton Hall, which was originally built in 1675. Bolton Castle is run by his son and daughter-in-law, Tom and Katie Orde-Powlett. There is a garden including a maze, herb garden, wild flower meadow, rose garden and a vineyard on the site in addition to the castle.
- Fry, Plantagenet Somerset, The David & Charles Book of Castles, David & Charles, 1980. ISBN 0-7153-7976-3
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