were a set of Kassel World War II bombings Allied strategic bombing attacks which took place from February 1942 to March 1945. The fire of the most severe air raid burned for seven days, at least 10,000 people died, 150,000 inhabitants were bombed-out, and the vast majority of the city center was destroyed. The US First Army captured Kassel on 3 April 1945, where only 50,000 inhabitants remained, versus 236,000 in 1939. [ ] citation needed
Targets [ edit ]
Bomb damaged buildings in Kassel, Untere Königsstraße
As well as being the capital of the provinces of
Hesse-Nassau & Kurhessen, Kassel had some important targets.
Fieseler aircraft plant
Henschel facilities, maker of the Tiger I and King Tiger heavy tanks
locomotive plant engine plant
motor transport plant
Military HQs at Wehrkreis IX, and Bereich Hauptsitz Kassel
Central Germany HQ, highway & railway construction
Regional Supreme Court
Bombing raids [ edit ]
bombing raids on Kassel during World War II
1942-02-17 ! 17/18 February 1942
10 Wellingtons and 3 Stirlings to Emden, Hamburg, Kassel and Aachen.
1942-08-27 ! 27/28 August 1942 Henschel
306 aircraft destroyed/seriously damaged 144/317 buildings, particularly in the city southwest. Three Henschel buildings were seriously damaged, and 43/251 were killed/injured. [1 ]
2/3 October 1943
The Pathfinder Force (PFF) was not able to find the center of the city, and most bombs into Ihringshausen and Bettenhausen. In addition to considerable damage, an ammunition store was hit.
3–4 October 1943
547 aircraft used H2S radar; the main weight of bombs fell on the western suburbs and outlying towns and villages.
22/23 October 1943
569 bombers dropped more than 1,800 tons of bombs (including 460,000 magnesium fire sticks) in a concentrated pattern. For deception, the attack used [2 ] Operation Corona radio spoofing and a Frankfurt diversionary raid. The blaze caused a minor firestorm similar in nature to that at Hamburg. Damage to the main telephone exchange and the city's water pipes hindered firefighting efforts.
18–19 March 1944
11 Mosquitos on a diversionary raid.
30–31 March 1944
34 Mosquitos on diversionary raids to Aachen, Cologne and Kassel.
27–28 September 1944
46 Mosquitos on a diversionary raid.
Henschel motor transport plant
Mission 652: 243 of 262 dispatched B-24s bombed the Kassel/Henschel motor transport plant. [3 ]
3–4 October 1944
15/16 October 1944
2 Mosquitos on a diversionary raid.
9/10 November 1944
27/28 December 1944
7 Mosquitos on Oboe (navigation) trials (some flew over Kassel). [ ] citation needed
6/7 January 1945
18/19 January 1945
21/22 January 1945
2/3 March 1945
67 Mosquitos on a training raid.
8/9 March 1945
176 aircraft; the last heavy raid by the RAF on Kassel.
18/19 March 1945
20/21 March 1945
16 Mosquitos on a diversionary raid.
References [ edit ]
^ "Campaign Diary". Royal Air Force Bomber Command 60th Anniversary. UK Crown . Retrieved 2009-03-22. ] February 1942, August 1942, October 1943, November 1943, December 1943 January 1944, February 1944 March 1944, September 1944, October 1944, November 1944, December 1944 January 1945, February 1945 March 1945, April 1945
^ Bomber Command October 1943
^ McKillop, Jack. "Combat Chronology of the USAAF". usaaf.net . Retrieved 2009-04-09.
1942: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December
1943: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December
1944: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December
1945: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September
Sources [ edit ]
Die Zerstörung Kassels im Oktober 1943. Hesse, Fuldabrück 1983, ISBN 3-924259-00-3 Gebhard Aders:
Bombenkrieg/Strategien der Zerstörung. licoverlag 2004
External sources [ edit ]