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- Hikayat Aceh 127:7 "... gajah tuanku ini. Diperhamba suruh ubati kepada [bo]mo gajah tuanku. Berilah makanannya."
- Hikayat Aceh 127:7 "... this king's elephant. The king asked it to be treated by the elephant [bo]moh. Give it food."
The bomoh's original role was that of a healer and their expertise was first and foremost an in-depth knowledge of medicinal herbs and tajul muluk or Malay geomancy. This was supplemented by Sanskrit mantera (mantras) owing to the ancient Hindu-Buddhist influence in the region.
The bomoh's craft remained largely unchanged even after Islam became dominant until the Islamic revival in the 1970s and 80s. Bomoh were then seen as deviant from the Muslim faith because of their invocation of spirits and the potentially harmful black magic they were accused of practicing. This period saw a drastic decline in authentic bomoh and many fraudulent shamans filled the void. As a result, bomoh are today looked at with suspicion even though they are still commonly consulted for personal reasons.
Cosmology and function
Malay metaphysical theory holds that the body, and in fact the universe itself, is made up of the four classical elements of fire, water, earth, and wind. Illnesses are often said to be caused by an imbalance of these elements. To restore this balance, patients are advised to bathe in cool water to which lime juice is added. The bomoh also works with rituals and incantations, called jampi.
Some bomoh use cemeteries to summon spirits to fulfill requests by supplicants, while others only deal with a single spirit. It is said that sometimes the bomoh selects the spirit, while other times, it is the spirit who selects the bomoh. Spirits are said to be able to heal the sick, seek missing persons or even investigate reasons for bad luck. Spirits can also be used to attack people, cause sickness and misery and many other bad things. Bomoh who have a particular religion may incorporate their religious practices into their craft.
Traditionally, healing rituals of some bomoh involved music and dance, such as the main puteri or main peteri (a trance-dance from Kelantan and Trengganu often connected to mak yong), the main lukah (a fisherman's dance from Pahang), and the main saba (which re-enacts the heavenly princesses [puteri kayangan] dancing around a saba tree). The music is played by an assistant called the tuk minduk.
In popular culture
In 2014, shortly after the disappearance of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370, a group of three male bomoh attempted to locate the missing flights by conducting a series of rituals at the Kuala Lumpur International Airport. The incidents drew international ridicule until it became a subject of an online game application called “Bomoh: Rescue Run” developed by Triapps, which has surpassed more than 100,000 downloads in Google Play.
- Graham Harvey; Robert J. Wallis (5 February 2007). Historical Dictionary of Shamanism. Scarecrow Press. pp. 129–. ISBN 978-0-8108-6459-7.
- Hikayat Aceh
- Edwin R. Van Teijlingen; George W. Lowis; Peter McCaffery; Maureen Porter (1 January 2004). Midwifery and the Medicalization of Childbirth: Comparative Perspectives. Nova Publishers. pp. 243–. ISBN 978-1-59454-031-8.
- A Dictionary of Malayan Medicine, ISBN 0-19-638149-5
- "‘Raja Bomoh’ at KLIA to help find missing plane – Bernama". Bernama. The Malaysian Insider. 10 March 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- Pathma Subramaniam (18 March 2014). "Bomoh-inspired app gets more than 100,000 downloads". The Malay Mail. Retrieved 22 October 2014.