Boot camp (correctional)
Boot camps can be governmental being part of the correctional and penal system of some countries, but predominantly in the United States. Modeled after military recruit training camps, these programs are based on shock incarceration grounded on military techniques. Private boot camps, using generally the same methods, offer programs as "quick-fix solutions" for the children of parents who hope to regain lost control of their teens or who desire behavior modification. The aggressive training used has resulted in deaths in a variety of circumstances.
Other countries have been closely watching the boot camp system in the U.S. but so far have been slow to copy it, if at all.
There are no research findings in favor of boot camps in light of any of the initial intentions. Recidivism rates in the U.S. among former prison inmates and boot camp participants are roughly the same. Yet, the effects of boot camps are controversially disputed, some surveys claiming lower re-offence rates, others showing no change as compared to persons serving normal time. Surveys also show different results concerning the reduction of costs. Critics add that the emphasis on authority can only result in frustration, resentment, anger, short temper, a low self-esteem and aggression rather than respect.
Usage around the world
In Australia the Premier of the state of Queensland Campbell Newman has announced that boot camps for convicted youths will open in Townsville and Rockhampton by September 2013, along with two other camps.
In Canada participation in boot camp programs is voluntary, so as to avoid any challenges under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms under which treatment at boot camps could be seen as an infringement on a youth's right to not be subject to cruel and unusual punishment and to ensure security of person. Canada started a boot camp project for non-violent juveniles with differences from the American models. The first one was opened in 1997 in Ontario. Unlike in the US system it is not possible to trade or shorten a jail sentence with a significantly shorter boot camp program.
Canadian boot camps do not have the time frame of 90 to 180 days and they are restricted to juveniles under 18, and are not yet open to female offenders. The judges do not directly possess the authority to send a youth to a boot camp. They may impose a sentence of secure or open custody. The latter is defined as, "a community residential center, group home, child care institution or forest or wilderness camp..." Once an open custody sentence is granted, a correctional official decides whether a sentence is served in a boot camp program. But the ultimate decision rests with the young person and the decision is made purely on the merits of the program because the time served remains the same.
The Canadian system is too new to show any comparable results but research has been done among US boot camps with different emphases, e.g. more on drug treatment or education than solely on military drill. According to the findings treatment has a slightly positive impact on the reduction of recidivism over strict discipline.
New Zealand set up its first boot camps in 1971 but they were abandoned in 1981. Prior to being elected into Government in 2008 the National Party released a policy of using boot camps for those with drug problems.
In most U.S. states participation in boot camp programs is offered to young first-time offenders in place of a prison term or probation; in some states[where?] a youth can also be sentenced to participate in such a program. The time served can range from 90 to 180 days, which can make up for prison sentences of up to 10 years. Federal shock incarceration programs are authorized under 18 U.S.C. § 4046, although the placement requires consent of the prisoner.
In 1995 the U.S. federal government and about two-thirds of the 50 states were operating boot camp programs. Presently, there are no statistics as to how many boot camps there are in the U.S. today. In 2000, there were 51 boot camps still open.
There are many different types of boot camps. Some boot camps are more therapeutic. Boot camps such as West Ridge Academy in West Jordan, Utah offer a wide range of activities, academics, and boarding school treatment programs to give students a well-rounded education.
State run boot camps were banned in Florida on June 1, 2006 through legislation signed by Florida Governor Jeb Bush after 14-year-old Martin Lee Anderson died during his abidance in a boot camp. Anderson died as drill instructors beat him and encouraged him to continue physical exercise after he had collapsed. While Anderson was unconscious, guards placed ammonia tablets near his nose in an attempt to revive him, and he suffocated. Anderson attended Bay County Boot Camp in Panama City, Florida. The Victory Forge Military Academy in Florida has come under intense scrutiny of its methods, which border on physical abuse. The camp's defense is that the parents had signed a contract authorizing the use of physical force against their children.
Boot camps claim to remove children "from environments filled with negative influences and triggering events that produce self-defeating, reckless or self-destructive behavior". Other types of programs (see outdoor education, adventure therapy, and wilderness therapy) use this method while avoiding all or some of the controversial methods of boot camps, and they claim lower recidivism.
- Janofsky, Michael (2001-07-15). "States Pressed As 3 Boys Die At Boot Camps". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-06-09.
- "Newman announces boot camps for young offenders". Brisbane Times. 24 March 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
- "Boot Camps no more than "Correctional Quackery" - Rethinking Crime and Punishment press release". Scoop. 17 February 2009. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
- "Boot camps for teen crims in Nats' plan". The Dominion Post. 29 January 2008. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
- Windmeyer, Shane. "Boarding School Spotlight: West Ridge Academy". Collegebound.net. Retrieved 2013-02-16.
- "Boot Camps Abolished in Florida". WJHG.
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- "BHIP: Studies Find Boot Camps Have High Rearrest Rates.", February 18, 1998
- Cowles et al. "Boot Camp" Drug Treatment and Aftercare Intervention: An Evaluation Review. (Washington: National Institute of Justice, July 1995).
- Jones, P. Young Offenders and the Law. (North York: Captus Press, 1994).
- Mackenzie et al. "Boot Camp Prisons and Recidivism in Eight States." Canadian Journal of Criminology (1995), Vol. 3, No. 3: 327-355.
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- Boot Camps: Issues for Canada (PDF). John Howard Society of Alberta. 1996.
- Rhue, Morton (Todd Strasser) (2010). Boot-Camp. Ravensburger Buchverl. ISBN 9783473582556.
- Boot camps at Project NoSpank