Booz Allen Hamilton

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Booz Allen Hamilton Holding Corporation
Type Public
Traded as NYSEBAH
Industry Management consulting
Government contractor
Founded 1914 (1914)
Founder(s) Edwin G. Booz
James L. Allen
Carl L. Hamilton
Headquarters Tysons Corner, Virginia
(McLean mailing address)
, U.S.[1]
Key people Ralph Shrader, Chairman & Chief Executive Officer[1]
John Michael McConnell, Vice Chairman
Services Management and Technology Consulting
Revenue Increase US$ 5.859 billion (FY 2012)[2]
Net income Increase US$ 239.955 million (FY 2012)[2]
Employees 26,000 (2012)
Website www.boozallen.com

Booz Allen Hamilton Inc. (/ˈbz ˈælən ˈhæməltən/,[3]) (informally: Booz Allen[4]) is an American management consulting firm headquartered in Tysons Corner, Fairfax County, Virginia in Greater Washington DC, with 80 other offices throughout the United States. Its core business is the provision of management, technology and security services, primarily to civilian government agencies and as a security and defense contractor[5] to defense and intelligence agencies, as well as civil and commercial services.[6] The scope of services includes strategic planning, human capital and learning, communications, operational improvement, information technology work, systems engineering, organizational change efforts, modeling and simulation, program management, assurance and resilience, and economic business analysis.

Booz Allen Hamilton was founded in 1914. It is one of the oldest management consulting firms in the world. By the end of the 1950s, Time Magazine dubbed the firm "the world's largest, most prestigious management consulting firm."[7] In 1970, Booz Allen went public with an initial offering of 500,000 shares at $24 per share. Trading continued through 1976.[7]

As of August 2008, Booz Allen Hamilton’s former parent company (which used the Booz Allen name itself) divided in two. The Booz Allen Hamilton moniker was retained by the half focusing on U.S. governmental matters, with Booz & Company taking sole control of its commercial strategy and international portfolio. However, as Booz Allen's three-year noncompete provision has expired, it is now building out its commercial consulting practice focusing on technology integration and cybersecurity programs.[8] Booz Allen Hamilton is majority owned by private equity firm The Carlyle Group, while Booz & Company is owned and operated as a partnership.[9] Booz & Company was subsequently acquired by PricewaterhouseCoopers and is now known as Strategy&. On November 17, 2010, Booz Allen's shares of common stock began trading at the New York Stock Exchange, and Ralph Shrader rang the opening bell on January 2, 2014.

As of 2013, 99% of the company's revenue comes from the Federal government.[10][11] It has been ranked 1st by Vault in public sector consulting in 2014,[12] and from 6th to 4th best technology consulting firm worldwide on a number of criteria, including prestige and quality, since 2012.[13]


History[edit]

Early years[edit]

After graduating from Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois in 1914, Edwin G. Booz developed the business theory that companies would be more successful if they could call on someone outside their own organizations for expert, impartial advice.[14] This theory developed into a new profession – management consulting – and the firm that would bear his name.

According to the company, "In 1940, the firm was hired to help the United States Secretary of the Navy with World War II preparations. Since then, Booz Allen has had a hand in several notable private and public engagements throughout its years, such as advising on the breakup of Ma Bell and helping organize the National Football League in the 1960s."[15] In point of fact, the National Football League was founded in the 1920s; perhaps Booz Allen helped with the merger with the AFL in the 1960s and is exaggerating its role.

The firm has gone through several name changes in its 100 years of existence. These include: Edwin G. Booz, Business Engineering Service; Edwin G. Booz Surveys; Edwin G. Booz and Fry Surveys; Booz, Fry, Allen & Hamilton; Booz, Allen & Hamilton; and finally Booz Allen Hamilton.[16]

Organization[edit]

In 1970, Booz Allen first went public with an initial offering of 500,000 shares at $24 per share.[17][18] However, in 1976 public trading ceased in the largest-ever leveraged buyout involving a consulting firm where Booz Allen's partners bought back the stock, through one of the first management buyouts (MBO), and returned the firm to private ownership with a new governance structure. In 2007 managing director Marc Gerencser said that being privately held allowed the firm to consider long-range investments that companies beholden to shareholders might not be able to make.[19]

New South Wales, Australia[edit]

In 1988, the newly elected Greiner State Government commissioned a report into the State Rail Authority (SRA) of New South Wales by Booz Allen Hamilton. The resulting report recommended up to 8,000 job losses, including the withdrawal of staff from 94 country railway stations, withdrawing services on the Nyngan- Bourke line, Queanbeyan – Cooma line and Glen Innes- Wallangarra line, the discontinuation of several country passenger services (the Canberra XPT, the Silver City Comet to Broken Hill and various diesel locomotive hauled services) and the removal of sleeper trains from services to Brisbane and Melbourne. The report also recommended the removal of all country passenger services and small freight operations, but the government did not consider this to be politically feasible.[20] The SRA was divided into business units – CityRail, responsible for urban railways; CountryLink, responsible for country passenger services; FreightRail, responsible for freight services; and Rail Estate, responsible for rail property.[21]

Internal Revenue Service[edit]

In 1998, Booz Allen was chosen to help the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) modernize and shed its reputation for dismal customer service. The firm developed a strategy for the IRS to reshuffle its 100,000 employees into units focused on particular taxpayer categories: individuals, charities, businesses and so on. "We made some very dramatic changes in the way the IRS is organized," said CEO Ralph Shrader.[22] (Reports from the Government Accountability Office (GAO) have pointed to mixed results, including poor management of the IRS's IT portfolio and contractors.)[23]

SWIFT[edit]

In 2006 at the request of the Article 29 Working Group, an advisory group to the European Commission (EC), the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and Privacy International (PI) investigated the U.S. government's SWIFT surveillance program and Booz Allen's role therein. The ACLU and PI filed a memo at the end of their investigation which called into question the ethics and legality of a government contractor (in this case Booz Allen) acting as auditors of a government program, when that contractor is heavily involved with those same agencies on other contracts. The basic statement was that a conflict of interest may exist. Beyond that, the implication was also made that Booz Allen may be complicit in a program (electronic surveillance of SWIFT) that may be deemed illegal by the EC.[24][25]

Democracy Now![edit]

Another controversy, related to some of the senior staff of Booz Allen (past and present) and related to its performance on some specific U.S. intelligence agency contracts, was brought to light on January 12, 2007 in an interview conducted by Democracy Now! with Tim Shorrock,[26] an independent investigative journalist, and separately in an article he wrote for the Salon online magazine. Through investigation of Booz Allen employees, Shorrock asserts that there is a sort of revolving-door conflict of interest between Booz Allen and the U.S. government, and between multiple other contractors and the U.S. government in general. Regarding Booz Allen, Shorrock referred to such people as John M. McConnell, R. James Woolsey, Jr., and James R. Clapper, all of whom have gone back and forth between government and industry (Booz Allen in particular), and who may present the appearance that certain government contractors receive undue or unlawful business from the government, and that certain government contractors may exert undue or unlawful influence on government. Shorrock further relates that Booz Allen was a sub-contractor with two programs at the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA), called Trailblazer and Pioneer Groundbreaker.[citation needed]

Homeland Security[edit]

A June 28, 2007 Washington Post article related how a U.S. Department of Homeland Security contract with Booz Allen increased from $2 million to more than $70 million through two no-bid contracts, one occurring after the DHS's legal office had advised DHS not to continue the contract until after a review. A Government Accountability Office (GAO) report on the contract characterized it as not well-planned and lacking any measure for assuring valuable work to be completed.

According to the article,

A review of memos, e-mail and other contracting documents obtained by The Washington Post show that in a rush to meet congressional mandates to establish the information analysis and infrastructure protection offices, agency officials routinely waived rules designed to protect taxpayer money. As the project progressed, the department became so dependent on Booz Allen that it lost the flexibility for a time to seek out other contractors or hire federal employees who might do the job for less.

Elaine C. Duke, the department's chief procurement officer, acknowledged the problems with the Booz Allen contract. But Duke said those matters have been resolved. She defended a decision to issue a second no-bid contract in 2005 as necessary to keep an essential intelligence operation running until a competition could be held.[27]

National Institutes of Health[edit]

In March 2011, The National Institutes of Health reported that Booz Allen Hamilton spent at least $350M of public funds to develop the caBIG "Cancer biomedical Informatics Grid" not including supplemental grants and stimulus recovery funds. The NIH report recommended an immediate moratorium on software contracts and a full audit of budget expenditures. The original goals of the program were to share cancer data between NIH funded study centers. caBIG quickly grew in scope beyond the funded objectives, which the NIH cited as a key cause of failure. Funding levels for caBIG were the largest ever spent for a US biomedical research network. As of May 2012, the caBIG program was retired.

2011 Anonymous hack[edit]

On July 11, 2011[28][29] the group Anonymous, as part of its Operation AntiSec,[30] hacked into Booz Allen servers, extracting e-mails and non-salted passwords from the U.S. military. This information and a complete dump of the database were placed in a file uploaded to The Pirate Bay.[31] Despite Anonymous' claims that 90,000 emails were released, the Associated Press counted only 67,000 unique emails, of which only 53,000 were military addresses. The remainder of the addresses came from educational institutions and defense contractors.[32] Anonymous also said that it accessed four gigabytes of Booz Allen source code and deleted those four gigabytes. According to a statement by the group, "We infiltrated a server on their network that basically had no security measures in place."[33][34]

Anonymous accused Booz Allen of working with HB Gary Federal by creating a project for the manipulation of social media. Anonymous also accused Booz Allen of participating in intelligence-gathering and surveillance programs of the U.S. federal government and, as stated by Kukil Bora of the International Business Times, "possible illegal activities."[30] Booz Allen confirmed the intrusion on 13 July, but contradicted Anonymous' claims in saying that the attack never got past their own systems, meaning that information from the military should be secure.[35] In August of that year, during a conference call with analysts, Ralph Shrader, the chairman and CEO, stated that "the cost of remediation and other activities directly associated with the attack" were not expected to have a "material affect on our financial results."[36]

PRISM media disclosures[edit]

In June 2013, Booz Allen gained considerable media coverage, when Edward Snowden – at the time a Booz Allen employee[37] contracted to NSA projects – publicly disclosed details of classified mass surveillance and data collection programs, including PRISM. The alleged leaks are said to rank among the most significant breaches in the history of the NSA[38] and led to considerable concern worldwide. Booz Allen condemned Snowden's leak of the existence of PRISM as "shocking" and "a grave violation of the code of conduct and core values of our firm".[39] The company fired Snowden in absentia shortly after and stated he had been an employee for less than 3 months at the time. Market analysts considered the incident "embarrassing" but unlikely to cause enduring commercial damage.[40] Booz Allen stated that it would work with authorities and clients to investigate the leak. Charles Riley of CNN/Money said that Booz Allen was "scrambling to distance itself from Snowden."[41]

According to Reuters, a source "with detailed knowledge on the matter" stated that Booz Allen's hiring screeners detected possible discrepancies in Snowden's résumé regarding his education since some details "did not check out precisely", but decided to hire him anyway; Reuters stated that the element which triggered these concerns, or the manner in which Snowden satisfied the concerns, were not known.[42]

On Wednesday July 10, 2013, the United States Air Force stated that it cleared Booz Allen of wrongdoing regarding the Snowden case.[43]

Political contributions[edit]

In 2013 David Sirota of Salon said that Booz Allen and parent company Carlyle Group make significant political contributions to the Democratic Party and the Republican Party as well as individual politicians, including Barack Obama and John McCain.[44] According to Maplight, a company that tracked campaign donations, Booz Allen gave a total of just over $87,000 to U.S. lawmakers from 2007 to June 2013.[45] Sirota concluded that "many of the politicians now publicly defending the surveillance state and slamming whistleblowers like Snowden have taken huge sums of money from these two firms", referring to Booz Allen and Carlyle, and that the political parties are "bankrolled by these firms."[44]

Activities in foreign countries[edit]

In June 2012 Booz Allen announced plans to expand its operations in North Africa and the Middle East, with initial plans to add operations in Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates. It planned to later add operations to Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey, during when those countries, as stated by Jill R. Aitoro of the Washington Business Journal, "recover from the turmoil associated with the Arab Spring."[46] The Booz Allen employee base, when it was a part of Booz & Company, had long-term relationships with many North African and Middle Eastern countries; Booz Allen had split from Booz & Company[46] David Sirota of Salon said that politicians in the United States who received financing from Booz Allen and "other firms with a similar multinational business model" have vested interests in "denigrating the democratic protest movements that challenge Mideast surveillance states that make those donors big money, too."[44]

Booz Allen helped the Government of the United Arab Emirates create an equivalent of the National Security Agency for that country. According to David E. Sanger and Nicole Perlroth of The New York Times, "one Arab official familiar with the effort" said that "They are teaching everything. Data mining, Web surveillance, all sorts of digital intelligence collection."[47] In 2013 Sanger and Perlroth said that the company "profits handsomely from its worldwide expansion".[47]

Employee demographics[edit]

In 2013 Booz Allen had 25,000 employees. Half of them carried top secret security clearances.[47]

Significant personnel and associates (past and present)[edit]

Business[edit]

Government[edit]

Other[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Top 100 Federal Prime Contractors: 2007. 13: Booz Allen Hamilton Inc. at the Wayback Machine (archived June 26, 2007). washingtontechnology.com
  2. ^ a b XNYS:BAH Booz Allen Hamilton Holding Corp Annual Report 10-K Filling. Quote.morningstar.com (March 31, 2012). Retrieved on June 25, 2013.
  3. ^ "NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden: 'I don't want to live in a society that does these sort of things'" (video). The Guardian (London). June 9, 2013. 
  4. ^ "Booz Allen Hamilton website: About Booz Allen". Booz Allen Hamilton. Retrieved June 25, 2013. 
  5. ^ "Edward Snowden was NSA Prism leak source – Guardian". BBC News. June 10, 2013. Retrieved June 24, 2013. 
  6. ^ "Booz Allen hamilton website: Who We Serve". Booz Allen Hamilton. Retrieved June 24, 2013. 
  7. ^ a b "Booz, Allen & Hamilton, Inc. - Lehman Brothers Collection". Library.hbs.edu. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  8. ^ Boye, Will (2011-10-26). "Booz Allen expanding in Charlotte". bizjournals.com. 
  9. ^ Booz Allen separate. Boozallen.com (May 16, 2008). Retrieved on June 25, 2013.
  10. ^ Riley, Charles (June 10, 2013). "Booz Allen Hamilton in spotlight over leak". CNN. 
  11. ^ Sirota, David (June 18, 2013). "How cash secretly rules surveillance policy: Today's congressional hearing was a joke. The reason: Firms like Booz Allen bankroll and own Congress. Here's how". Salon. 
  12. ^ "The Best Firms in Each Practice Area". Vault.com. 
  13. ^ "Tech Consulting Firm Rankings 2012: Vault IT Consulting 25". Vault.com. April 30, 2012. 
  14. ^ Booz Allen History. Boozallen.com. Retrieved on June 25, 2013.
  15. ^ Vault Snapshot of Booz Allen Hamilton at the Wayback Machine (archived February 21, 2008). vault.com
  16. ^ History of Booz Allen Hamilton. Boozallen.com. Retrieved on June 25, 2013.
  17. ^ Booz Allen Hamilton Historical Timeline
  18. ^ Booz Allen Hamilton – History of Booz Allen 1970s at the Wayback Machine (archived June 11, 2008). boozallen.com
  19. ^ Welsh, William (May 14, 2007). "To counter scrutiny Booz Allen puts ethics first". Washington Technology 22 (8). 
  20. ^ Moore, M Lagan, B. SRA takes axe to 8000 jobs. Sydney Morning Herald, July 14, 1989.
  21. ^ State Rail Authority of New South Wales
  22. ^ Booz Allen's Sweet Spot, November 24, 2002
  23. ^ Tax Whistleblowers: Incomplete Data Hinders IRS's Ability to Manage Claim Processing Time and Enhance External Communication, August 10, 2011
  24. ^ Booz Allen's Extensive Ties to Government Raise More Questions About SWIFT Surveillance Program. Aclu.org (September 26, 2006). Retrieved on June 25, 2013.
  25. ^ Booz Allen Not An Independent Check On SWIFT Surveillance at the Wayback Machine (archived January 4, 2007), A Memo by the American Civil Liberties Union and Privacy International For the Article 29 Working Party of the European Commission. privacyinternational.org (September 27, 2006)
  26. ^ Mike McConnell, Booz Allen and the Privatization of Intelligence, democracynow.org (January 12, 2007)
  27. ^ O'Harrow, Robert Jr. (June 28, 2007) Costs Skyrocket As DHS Runs Up No-Bid Contracts: $2 Million Security Project Balloons to $124 Million, Washington Post.
  28. ^ Gerwirtz, David (11 July 2011). "Military Meltdown Monday: 90,000 military email profiles released by AntiSec". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on 12 July 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  29. ^ Storm, Darlene (11 July 2011). "AntiSec hackers mangle & pwn defense contractor, leak Booz Allen Hamilton's data". Computerworld. International Data Group. Archived from the original on 12 July 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  30. ^ a b Bora, Kukil. "Why Did Anonymous Hack Booz Allen Hamilton, Release 90K U.S. Military E-mails?" International Business Times. July 11, 2011. Retrieved on June 28, 2013.
  31. ^ Henry, Alan. "Anonymous hacks Booz Allen Hamilton, 90,000 military emails stolen." Geek.com. Ziff Davis. July 11, 2011. Retrieved on June 28, 2013.
  32. ^ Hennigan, W.J. (11 July 2011). "Hacking group AntiSec says it stole 90,000 U.S. military email passwords". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles). Tribune Company. Archived from the original on 12 July 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  33. ^ Greenberg, Andy. "Anonymous Hackers Breach Booz Allen Hamilton, Dump 90,000 Military Email Addresses." Forbes. July 11, 2011. Retrieved on June 28, 2013.
  34. ^ Gohring, Nancy. "Anonymous hacks Booz Allen, posts 90K military email addresses and passwords." Computerworld. July 11, 2011. Retrieved on June 28, 2013.
  35. ^ Stevenson, Alastair (13 July 2011). "AntiSec: Booz Allen Hamilton Confirm Anonymous Hacker Raid's Authenticity". International Business Times (New York City). Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  36. ^ McMillan, Robert. "Booz Allen CEO Downplays Effect of Anonymous Hack." IDG News Service at PCWorld. August 9, 2011. Retrieved on June 28, 2013.
  37. ^ (Danish) Edward Snowden: the whistleblower behind the NSA surveillance revelations. Guardian (June 9, 2013). Retrieved on June 25, 2013.
  38. ^ Scott Shane and Ravi Somaiya (June 16, 2013). "New Leak Indicates U.S. and Britain Eavesdropped at ’09 World Conferences". The New York Times. 
  39. ^
  40. ^ "Booz Allen Hamilton shares fall". Yahoo! finance news / Associated Press. June 10, 2013. Retrieved June 24, 2013. 
  41. ^ Riley, Charles. "Booz Allen Hamilton in spotlight over leak." CNN/Money. June 10, 2013. Retrieved on June 28, 2013.
  42. ^ "Booz Allen hired Snowden despite discrepancies in his résumé." (print title: "Snowden hired despite discrepancies in résumé"). Reuters. South China Morning Post (Hong Kong). June 22, 2013. Retrieved June 22, 2013.
  43. ^ "Air Force clears Booz Allen of wrongdoing in Snowden case." Russia Today. July 11, 2013. Retrieved on July 12, 2013.
  44. ^ a b c Sirota, David. "How cash secretly rules surveillance policy." Salon. Tuesday June 18, 2013. Retrieved on June 27, 2013.
  45. ^ Waterman, Shaun. "Surveillance contractors gave millions in campaign cash to congressional lawmakers." The Washington Times. Friday June 21, 2013. Retrieved on June 27, 2013.
  46. ^ a b Aitoro, Jill R. "Booz Allen Hamilton expands overseas footprint." Washington Business Journal. June 8, 2012. Retrieved on July 27, 2013.
  47. ^ a b c Sanger, David E. and Nicole Perlroth. "After Profits, Defense Contractor Faces the Pitfalls of Cybersecurity." The New York Times. June 15, 2013. Retrieved on June 27, 2013.
  48. ^ Jonathan Black: Associate Fellow, Director of Corporate Affairs, and Sector Consultant in Media and Management Consulting at the Wayback Machine (archived February 18, 2009). sbs.ox.ac.uk
  49. ^ Barclays Global Investors Appoints Rohit Bhagat as Global Chief Operating Officer, June 21, 2005
  50. ^ Sir Christopher Bland: Chairman at the Wayback Machine (archived January 12, 2007). btplc.com.
  51. ^ SEC and BT, AccountancyAge Publication, January 6, 2005.
  52. ^ Pictures, National Portrait Gallery, retrieved January 12, 2008.
  53. ^ a b Making Their Mark, Entrepreneur Magazine, 2005
  54. ^ 2006 Leadership in the Healthcare Markets, December 5, 2006
  55. ^ Collins To Serve On New Department Of Commerce Advisory Panel On Measuring Innovation at the Wayback Machine (archived February 23, 2007), Medtronic Media Release, December 6, 2006
  56. ^ Business Week Names Tim Collins '78 A "Star of Asia" at the Wayback Machine (archived January 10, 2005), depauw.edu (July 8, 2002)
  57. ^ Edward Davies, Managing Partner, Civilian Agencies, Federal Systems Biography at the Wayback Machine (archived November 27, 2003). unisys.com
  58. ^ House Committee on Veteran's Affairs: Testimony of Mr. Edward C. Davies (Ted), Managing Partner Unisys U.S. Federal Government Group accompanied by Mr. Joseph Macies, Partner at the Wayback Machine (archived February 3, 2010), March 17, 2004
  59. ^ Standard Chartered Bank Malaysia Berhad (Company No. 115793 P) (Incorporated in Malaysia) and its subsidiaries: Financial statements for the financial year ended December 31, 2006, retrieved November 25, 2007
  60. ^ Richard Gay was named senior vice president of strategy and business operations for VH1 and CMT at the Wayback Machine (archived December 10, 2008), Black Enterprise (July 1, 2004)
  61. ^ Richard Gay, SVP, Strategy and Business, MTV Networks at the Wayback Machine (archived October 5, 2007), boozallen.com, retrieved November 25, 2007
  62. ^ Honeywell Names Rhonda Germany Vice President, Strategy and Business Development, October 25, 2002
  63. ^ Booz Allen Hamilton Alumni Profile: Rhonda Germany of Honeywell International at the Wayback Machine (archived November 25, 2006). boozallen.com
  64. ^ Booz Allen Hamilton Alumni Profile: Gerry Horkan, VP, Strategy, Yahoo! at the Wayback Machine (archived October 5, 2007) boozallen.com.
  65. ^ Paul Idzik at the Wayback Machine (archived May 10, 2008), COO at Barclays PLC, Officer since November 2004, forbes.com
  66. ^ Barclays PLC Corporate Executives, retrieved from Wikipedia on November 25, 2007
  67. ^ Ray Lane, General Partner, Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers at the Wayback Machine (archived May 9, 2006). enigma.com
  68. ^ Ray Lane, Former Oracle Executive, Joins MetaMatrix Board of Directors, BNET Research Center, March 2003
  69. ^ Four leaders named to West Virginia Business Hall of Fame at the Wayback Machine (archived March 30, 2004), West Virginia University, August 20, 2003
  70. ^ Ray Lane Joins Asera Board of Directors, Internet News, November 17, 2000
  71. ^ Poletti, Therese, "Ray Lane’s power move at H-P", MarketWatch, Sep 27, 2011, 12:00 a.m. EDT. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
  72. ^ Swisher, Kara, "Whitman Talks to ATD About New Job at HP: 'This Is an Icon'", All Things D, September 22, 2011 at 2:21 pm PDT. Meg Whitman, new HP CEO, and Lane both interviewed. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
  73. ^ GSAs OHare Named Chief Information Officer for Federal Acquisition Service at the Wayback Machine (archived October 9, 2008). GSA News Releases, September 18, 2007
  74. ^ Former GSA official Ed O'Hare to return, Capital Reps Federal e-Newsletter, December 14, 2006
  75. ^ Torsten Oltmanns, Said Business School sbs.ox.ac.uk, retrieved October 27, 2010
  76. ^ Torsten Oltmanns verstärkt bei Booz Allen Hamilton das Beratungssegment ‚Public Sector', presseportal.de (April 1, 2003)
  77. ^ Todd Park to Focus On Strategy as Chief Athenista; Elected to Board of Directors, COMTEX News Network, December 14, 2007
  78. ^ The Bush Health-Care Solution: No, not Dubya's. The president's first cousin Jonathan is an entrepreneur whose company, athenahealth, is trying to free doctors from the nightmare of insurance paperwork so they can get back to practicing medicine., FastCompany.Com, July 2005
  79. ^ Mark F. DeSantis, CEO – ANGLE Technology Consulting and Management – US email: mark.desantis@angletec.com, Carnegie Mellon Heinz School News Release, retrieved January 4, 2008
  80. ^ Biography of Dr. Mark DeSantis, President, Formation3 News Release, retrieved January 4, 2008
  81. ^ Henry Stuart Conference Studios at the Wayback Machine (archived June 21, 2007), The Henry Stuart Marketing Operations Management Symposium, May 9, 2005
  82. ^ Speaker Bio at the Wayback Machine (archived August 26, 2004), Global Society for Asset Management, November 10, 2003
  83. ^ standardandpoors.com, S&P Management Bio, retrieved January 6, 2008
  84. ^ McGraw Hill Executive Bio at the Wayback Machine (archived October 29, 2005). mcgraw-hill.com
  85. ^ MTV Networks president and operating chief Michael Wolf resigns, International Herald Tribune – Business January 11, 2007
  86. ^ Viacom's MTV Networks Announces Changes to Senior Management Team at the Wayback Machine (archived December 10, 2008). PR Newswire (January 11, 2007).
  87. ^ Ms. Wendy Alexander MSP, The Scottish Parliament Member Pages, retrieved January 11, 2008.
  88. ^ Second chance for Alexander, BBC Scotland News, August 15, 2007.
  89. ^ Biographical Data, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, retrieved on January 13, 2008.
  90. ^ a b McDonough, Denis; Rudman, Mara and Rundlet, Peter (June 2006) No Mere Oversight at the Wayback Machine (archived October 6, 2006), Center for American Progress.
  91. ^ It Takes a Rocket Scientist – Managing Department of Energy (DOE) Finances, fileburst.com (June 2007)
  92. ^ HEARING BEFORE THE COMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND NATURAL RESOURCES UNITED STATES SENATE ONE HUNDRED TENTH CONGRESS FIRST SESSION ON THE NOMINATION OF STEVEN J. ISAKOWITZ TO BE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, March 20, 2007
  93. ^ NASA Names Steve Isakowitz as New Exploration Systems Directorate Deputy, NASA, January 6, 2005
  94. ^ Berger, Brian (April 4, 2005) Profile: Steve Isakowitz – The View From the Inside at the Wayback Machine (archived August 4, 2008). Space News.
  95. ^ President Bush attends swearing-in of Mike McConnell as Director of National Intelligence, georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov (February 20, 2007)
  96. ^ Bain, Ben (October 10, 2008) Bush to name ODNI acting CIO at the Wayback Machine (archived October 16, 2008). fcw.com
  97. ^ "Olivia Goldsmith, 54, novelist; wrote 'The First Wives Club'". Boston.com. January 17, 2004. "While in the business world, Ms. Goldsmith became one of the first women to become a partner at the firm Booz Allen Hamilton." 
  98. ^ (Danish) Edward Snowden: the whistleblower behind the NSA surveillance revelations | World news. The Guardian (June 9, 2013). Retrieved on June 25, 2013.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]