Borage seed oil
Borage seed oil has one of the highest amounts of γ-linolenic acid (GLA) of seed oils — higher than blackcurrant seed oil or evening primrose oil, to which it is considered similar. GLA comprises around 24% of the oil typically. GLA is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, a precursor to a variety of the 1-series prostaglandins and the 3-series leukotrienes. It inhibits leukotriene synthesis to provide therapy in rheumatologic illness. Borage seed oil may therefore have anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects and it has been studied for its potential to treat anti-inflammatory disorders, arthritis, atopic eczema, and respiratory inflammation. However, several clinical studies have shown it to be ineffective at treating atopic eczema.
Borage oil may contain the pyrrolizidine alkaloid amabiline, which is hepatotoxic leading to a risk of liver damage. Patients should use borage oil certified free of unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Borage oil may be unsafe during pregnancy because preliminary studies suggest borage oil has a teratogenic effect and that its prostaglandin E agonist action may cause premature labor. Seizures have been reported as a complication of ingestion of borage oil in doses of 1,500 to 3,000 mg daily, although a mixed review of borage oil's effect on seizure thresholds indicates that borage oil quality varies. A specific extraction process may offer purified products with 50%+ GLA content.
- Borage at Sloan-Kettering website
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- Wretensjoe, Inger; Karlberg, Bo. (2003). "Pyrrolizidine alkaloid content in crude and processed borage oil from different processing stages". Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 80 (10): 963–970. doi:10.1007/s11746-003-0804-z.
- Kast, RE (2001). "Borage oil reduction of rheumatoid arthritis activity may be mediated by increased cAMP that suppresses tumor necrosis factor-alpha". International immunopharmacology 1 (12): 2197–9. PMID 11710548.
- Al-Khamees, W. A. A.; Schwartz, M. D.; Alrashdi, S.; Algren, A. D.; Morgan, B. W. (2011). "Status Epilepticus Associated with Borage Oil Ingestion". Journal of Medical Toxicology 7 (2): 154–157. doi:10.1007/s13181-011-0135-9. PMID 21387119.
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- Bamford, JT; Ray, S; Musekiwa, A; van Gool, C; Humphreys, R; Ernst, E (2013 Apr 30). "Oral evening primrose oil and borage oil for eczema.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 4: CD004416. PMID 23633319.
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