Asian palmyra palm, Sugar palm
Borassus flabellifer, the Asian Palmyra palm, Toddy palm, Sugar palm, or Cambodian palm, is native to South and Southeast Asia, in the Indomalaya ecozone. It is palm tree, one of the Sugar palm group, found from Indonesia to Pakistan.
Borassus flabellifer is a robust tree and can live more than 100 years and reach a height of 30 m (98 ft), with a canopy of green-bluish, leaves several dozen fronds spreading 3 meters (9.8 ft) across. The very large trunk resembles that of the coconut tree and is ringed with leaf scars. Young palmyra palms grow slowly in the beginning but then grow faster with age.
Health Benefits of ice apple:
Ice apple provides perfect balance of minerals and sugar for the body. The fruit is rich in B vitamins, iron, and even calcium. Habitually, the fruit is used to treat digestive issues and stomach ailments.
Ice apples provide hydration during soaring degrees leads to fatigue and heat strokes prominently and our systems requires essential adequate fluids which are provided by this fruit.
Ice apple helps to keep up glucose levels and provide the right balance of minerals and nutrients.
Ice apples deep red and purple colors designate the existence of the phytochemicals anthocyanin may inhibit the growth of tumors and breast cancer cells.
Palm Jaggery, the sugar made from Palmyra, has Ayurveda benefits the book; “The Ayurveda Encyclopedia” points it as rejuvenating and a tonic. The natural unique sugar forms available on the market with the vitamins and minerals kept intact during the refining process.
Ice apple is rich in Vitamin A, B and C, Iron, Zinc, Phosphorus, Potassium and lots more. They can be given to the person suffering from chickenpox its cooling effect can reduce the suffering number of days.
Ice apples contains minerals especially phosphorus and calcium. Ice apples helps to cool the body and helps to reduce exceeding white discharge in women.
Ice apples contain B complex vitamins like thiamine and riboflavin and almost no fat or carbohydrates. It is often used in ancestral therapy to cure stomach and skin disorders.
Pregnant women in particular benefit from it since it improves digestion and helps with constipation and acidity problems.
Ice apples are in favor for dieters and also an alternative to artificial juices high in calories and sugar.
Main article: Palmyra fruit
Nungu(நுங்கு) in Tamil,Taati Munjalu (తాటి ముంజలు) in Telugu, The Borassus flabellifer plant and fruit is known as Tala in Oriya, Tnaot (Khmer: ត្នោត) in Khmer, Thot Not in Vietnamese, Tari in Hindi, Taal (তাল) in Bengali, Tale Hannu or Taati ningu in Kannada, Pana Nangu(ml:പനം നൊങ്ക്)in MalayalamMunjal in Urdu, Lontar in Indonesian, Siwalan in Javanese, Ta'al in Madurese, Ton Taan in Thai, Akadiru by the East Timorese, Tao in Divehi, Tadfali (pronunciation variations are Tad-fali or Taadfali) in Gujarati, Targula in Konkani, Tadgola (ताडगोळा) in Marathi and sometimes Ice-apple in British English especially by the immigrants living in India. The fruit measures 4 to 7 inches in diameter, has a black husk, and is borne in clusters. The top portion of the fruit must be cut off to reveal the three sweet jelly seed sockets, translucent pale-white, similar to that of the lychee but with a milder flavor and no pit. The jelly part of the fruit is covered with a thin, yellowish-brown skin. These are known to contain watery fluid inside the fleshy white body. These seed sockets have been the inspiration behind certain sweets Sandesh called Jalbhara (জলভরা) found in Bengal.
The ripened fibrous outer layer of the palm fruits can also be eaten raw, boiled, or roasted. Bengali People have perfected the art of making various sweet dishes with the yellowish viscous fluidic substance obtained from a ripe palm fruit. These include Mustard oil fried Taler Bora (তালের বড়া), or mixed with thickened milk to form Taalkheer (তাল ক্ষীর).
Palm shoot is cut and the juice is traditionally collected in hanging earthen pot. The juice so collected before morning is refreshing and light drink called Thaati Kallu(తాటి కల్లు) in Telugu, Neera (नीरा) in Marathi and "Pathaneer"(பதநீர்) in Tamil has extremely cool in sensation, and sugary sweet taste. The juice collected in evening or after fermentation becomes sour - is called Tadi (ताडी) in Marathi. Tadi is consumed by coastal Maharashtra mostly by villagers as raw alcoholic beverage.
A sugary sap, called toddy, can be obtained from the young inflorescence, either male or female ones. Toddy is fermented to make a beverage called arrack, or it is concentrated to a crude sugar called jaggery or Taal Patali (তাল পাটালী) in Bengali and Pana Vellam in Tamil. It is called Gula Jawa (Javanese sugar) in Indonesia and is widely used in Javanese cuisine. In addition, the tree sap is taken as a laxative, and medicinal values have been ascribed to other parts of the plant.
Main article: Palmyra sprout
In the states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Bihar India, and in Jaffna, Sri Lanka, the seeds are planted and made to germinate and the fleshy stems (below the surface) are boiled or roasted and eaten. It is very fibrous and nutritious, Thegalu(తేగలు) or Gaygulu(గేగులు) or Gengulu(గెంగులు)(especially in Telangana areas) in Telugu and known as Panai Kizhangu or Panamkizhangu in Tamil.
The germinated seed's hard shell is also cut open to take out the crunchy kernel, which tastes like a sweeter water chestnut. It is called "dhavanai" in Tamil. The white Kernel of the ripe palm fruit after being left for a few months has got its uses. It is used as an offering in Lakshmi Puja in various parts of Bengal and is also eaten raw.
In Indonesia the leaves were used in the ancient culture as paper, known as "lontar". Leaves of suitable size, shape, texture, and maturity are chosen and then seasoned by boiling in salt water with turmeric powder, as a preservative. The leaves are then dried. When they are dry enough, the face of the leaf is polished with pumice, cut into the proper size, and a hole is made in one corner. Each leaf will make four pages. The writing is done with a stylus and has a very cursive and interconnected style. The leaves are then tied up as sheaves.
The stem of the leaves has thorny edges (called "karukku" in Tamil). Fence can be prepared from these stems by nailing it together. Skin of the stem can be peeled off and it can be used as rope. In some part of Tamil Nadu, a variety of rice flour cake (called "Kolukattai") is prepared using the leaf.
The stalks are used to make fences and also produce a strong, wiry fiber suitable for cordage and brushes. The black timber is hard, heavy, and durable and is highly valued for construction. In Cambodia, the trunk are also used to make a canoe.
When the crown of the tree is removed, the segment from which the leaves grow out is an edible cake. This is called thati adda(తాటి అడ్డ/తాటి మట్ట) in Telugu or pananchoru in Tamil.
Cultural symbolism 
The palmyra tree is the official tree of Tamil Nadu. Highly respected in Tamil culture, it is called "karpaha Veruksham" ("celestial tree") because all its parts without exception have a use. Panaiveriyamman, named after panai, the Tamil name for the Palmyra palm, is an ancient tree deity related to fertility linked to this palm. This deity is also known as Taalavaasini, a name that further relates her to all types of palms.
The Asian palmyra palm is a symbol of Cambodia. It grows near the Angkor Wat temple and is a very common palms, where it found all over the country. Palmyra tree is also symbol of South Sulawesi province (Indonesia).
This plant has captured the imagination of Bengalis in the words of Rabindranth Tagore whose nursery rhyme 'Taal Gaach ek Paye daariye' (তাল গাছ এক পায়ে দাড়িয়ে..) in Sahaj Path (সহজ পাঠ) is a staple reading material in most schools in West Bengal
See also 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Borassus flabellifer|
- Heinrich Zimmer, Myths and Symbols in Indian Art and Civilization. (1946)
- The Cambodian palm tree
- Tropical fruits: Asian Palmyra Palm
- The Hindu: Delicious Summer Fruit
- The Hindu: Slurp! It's Nungu season
- Nungu for sale
- Tamil Nadu Palm Products Development Board