Borchali (Azerbaijani: Borçalı Borchali, Georgian: ბორჩალო Borchalo, Russian: Борчалы Borchaly) is a historical name of the province in southern Georgia largely populated by ethnic Azerbaijanis. It is part of the present day region of Kvemo Kartli.
According to the etymological research "Borchali" toponymy is considered coming from the words "hole" and "empty". Means "wolf's nest".
Borchali consist of 6 region - Qardabani (Qaratepe), Marneuli (Sarvan), Dmanisi (Başkeçid), Tetiskari (Ağbulaq), Tsalka (Barmaqsız), Bolnisi (Çökük-Qemerli) including Rustavi city.
Georgia's Azeri population traces its roots to the events following the Seldjuk invasion in the second half of the eleventh century, when Oghuz tribes settled in southern Georgia. To oppose being subjected to the Seldjuk Empire, Georgians allied with the Cumans (a group of Kipchak tribes to the north of the Caucasus) thus allowing for more Turkic migration into the region. Constant influx of Turkic tribes continued until the late Middle Ages. Their further consolidation led to the formation of the Azeri community. The area populated by ethnic Azeris today is historically known as Borchali (which in the form Burjoglu was originally the name of a Kipchak tribe that settled here in the twelfth century).
According to the 1897 Russian census, the Borchali uyezd (district) of the Tiflis Governorate, which at the time also included the mainly Armenian populated historical region of Lori, had a population of 128,587. The ethnic makeup of the district was the following:
- Armenians - 47,423 (36.9%)
- Azerbaijani Tatars (Azerbaijanis) - 37,742 (29.4%)
- Greeks - 21,393 (16.6%)
- Russians - 8,089 (6.3%)
- Georgians - 7,840 (6.1%)
- Germans - 2,496 (1.9)
- Azerbaijanis - 224,606 (45.1%)
- Georgians - 222,450 (44.7%)
- Armenians - 31,777 (6.4%)
- Greeks - 7,415 (1.5%)
- Russians - 6,464 (1.3%)
- The Ancient Orient. Transcaucasia in the 11th–15th centuries by Lev Gumilev
- Cumans. The Don and the North Caucasus in the 4th–12th centuries
- (Russian) Борчалинский уезд Демоскоп Weekly
- Georgian Census 2002: Ethnic groups by major administrative-territorial units
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