Bordeaux

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Bordeaux
Top:View of Place de la Bourse and Garonne River, Middle left:View ot Saint-Andre Cathedral and Bordeaux Tramway, Middle right:Night view of Allees du Tourny and Maison de Vin, Bottom left:Front of Palais Rohan Hotel, Bottom center:Meriadeck Commercial Centre, Bottom right:Pierre Bridge in Garonne River
Top:View of Place de la Bourse and Garonne River, Middle left:View ot Saint-Andre Cathedral and Bordeaux Tramway, Middle right:Night view of Allees du Tourny and Maison de Vin, Bottom left:Front of Palais Rohan Hotel, Bottom center:Meriadeck Commercial Centre, Bottom right:Pierre Bridge in Garonne River
Coat of arms of Bordeaux
Coat of arms
Motto: Lilia sola regunt lunam undas castra leonem.
"The fleur-de-lis alone rules over the moon, the waves, the castle, and the lion" ( in French: Seule la Fleur de Lys règne sur la lune, les vagues, le château et le lion)
Bordeaux is located in France
Bordeaux
Bordeaux
Coordinates: 44°50′N 0°35′W / 44.84°N 0.58°W / 44.84; -0.58Coordinates: 44°50′N 0°35′W / 44.84°N 0.58°W / 44.84; -0.58
Country France
Region Aquitaine
Department Gironde
Arrondissement Bordeaux
Intercommunality Bordeaux
Government
 • Mayor (2008–2014) Alain Juppé (UMP)
Area
 • Urban (2008 estimate) 1,057 km2 (408 sq mi)
 • Metro (2008 estimate) 3,875.2 km2 (1,496.2 sq mi)
 • Land1 49.36 km2 (19.06 sq mi)
Population (2010)
 • Rank 9th in France
 • Urban (2008 estimate) 832,605
 • Urban density 790/km2 (2,000/sq mi)
 • Metro (2008 estimate) 1,105,000 (6th in France)
 • Population2 239,157
 • Population2 density 4,800/km2 (13,000/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 33063
Website www.bordeaux.fr

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Bordeaux (French pronunciation: ​[bɔʁˈdo]; Gascon: Bordèu; Basque: Bordele) is a port city on the Garonne River in the Gironde department in southwestern France.

The city of Bordeaux, with a population of 239,157 inhabitants in 2010, is the ninth largest city in France; its metropolitan area (aire urbaine) is the sixth largest in France, with a population of 1,127,776. It is the capital of the Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" (for men) or "Bordelaises" (women). The term "Bordelais" may also refer to the city and its surrounding region.

The city's nicknames are "La perle d'Aquitaine" (The Pearl of Aquitaine), and "La Belle Endormie" (Sleeping Beauty) in reference to the old center which had black walls due to pollution. Nowadays, this is not the case. In fact, a part of the city, Le Port de La Lune, was almost completely renovated.

Bordeaux is the world's major wine industry capital. It is home to the world's main wine fair, Vinexpo (fr),[1] while the wine economy in the metro area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century. The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century.[2]

History[edit]

UNESCO World Heritage Site
Bordeaux, Port of the Moon
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iv
Reference 1256
UNESCO region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 2007 (31st Session)
Coins of the Bituriges Vivisci, 5th–1st century BC, derived from the coin designs of Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul. Cabinet des Médailles.

In historical times, around 300 BCE it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, who named the town Burdigala, probably of Aquitainian origin. The name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city.

In 107 BCE, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, an allied Roman tribe, and the Tigurini led by Divico. The Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus was killed in the action.

The city fell under Roman rule around 60 BC, its importance lying in the commerce of tin and lead towards Rome. Later it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing especially during the Severan dynasty (3rd century). In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414 and the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city.

Merovingian tremisses minted in Bordeaux by the Church of Saint-Étienne, late 6th century. British Museum.

In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Circa 585, a certain Gallactorius is cited as count of Bordeaux and fighting the Basques.

The city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732, after he had defeated Duke Eudes in the Battle of the River Garonne near Bordeaux and before the former was killed during the Battle of Tours on 10 October. After Duke Eudes's defeat, Aquitaine pledged allegiance formally to the new rising Carolingian dynasty, but still remained out of Frankish central rule until 768 (Duke Waifer defeated). In 736, the Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion after his father Eudes's death, at which Charles responded by sending an expedition that captured and plundered Bordeaux again, while the Frankish commander didn't retain it for long, since he left south-east to wage war in Narbonnaise.

In 778, Seguin (or Sihimin) was appointed count of Bordeaux, probably undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, and possibly leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that very year. In 814, Seguin was made Duke of Vasconia, but he was deposed in 816 for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion. Under the Carolingians, sometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia. They were meant to keep in check the Basques and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the Vikings when the latter appeared c. 844 in the region of Bordeaux. In Autumn 845, count Seguin II marched on the Vikings assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes but was captured and put to death. There are no bishops mentioned during the whole 8th century and part of the 9th in Bordeaux.

From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux regained importance following the marriage of Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine with the French-speaking Count Henri Plantagenet, born in Le Mans, who became, within months of their wedding, King Henry II of England. The city flourished, primarily due to wine trade, and the cathedral of St. André was built. It was also the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince (1362–1372), but in the end, after the Battle of Castillon (1453) it was annexed by France which extended its territory. The Château Trompette (Trumpet Castle) and the Fort du Hâ, built by Charles VII of France, were the symbols of the new domination, which however deprived the city of its richness by halting the wine commerce with England.

In 1462, Bordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the center of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies along with the traditional wine.[3]

Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde, being effectively annexed to the Kingdom of France only in 1653, when the army of Louis XIV entered the city.

Édouard Manet: Harbour at Bordeaux, 1871
Rue Sainte-Catherine in 1905

The 18th century was the golden age of Bordeaux. Many downtown buildings (about 5,000), including those on the quays, are from this period. Victor Hugo found the town so beautiful he once said: "take Versailles, add Antwerp, and you have Bordeaux". Baron Haussmann, a long-time prefect of Bordeaux, used Bordeaux's 18th-century big-scale rebuilding as a model when he was asked by Emperor Napoleon III to transform a then still quasi-medieval Paris into a "modern" capital that would make France proud.

In 1870, at the beginning of the Franco-Prussian war against Prussia, the French government relocated to Bordeaux from Paris. This happened again during the First World War and again very briefly during the Second World War, when it became clear that Paris would soon fall into German hands. However, on the last of these occasions the French capital was soon moved again to Vichy. In May and June 1940, Bordeaux was the site of the life-saving actions of the Portuguese consul-general, Aristides de Sousa Mendes.

From 1940 to 1943, the Italian Royal Navy (Regia Marina Italiana) established BETASOM, a submarine base at Bordeaux. Italian submarines participated in the Battle of the Atlantic from this base which was also a major base for German U-boats as headquarters of 12th U-boat Flotilla. The massive, reinforced concrete U-boat pens have proved impractical to demolish and are now partly used as a cultural center for exhibitions.

Geography[edit]

Bordeaux is located close to the European Atlantic coast, in the southwest of France and in the north of the Aquitaine region. It is around 500 km (310 mi) southwest of Paris. The city is built on a bend of the river Garonne, and is divided into two parts: the right bank to the east and left bank in the west. Historically the left bank is more developed because when flowing outside the bend, the water makes a furrow of the required depth to allow the passing of merchant ships, which used to offload on this side of the river. In Bordeaux, the Garonne River is accessible to ocean liners. The left bank of the Garonne is a low-lying, often marshy plain.

Climate[edit]

Bordeaux's climate is usually classified as an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb); however, the summers tend to be warmer and the winters milder than most areas of similar classification. Substantial summer rainfall prevents its climate from being classified as Mediterranean.

Winters are mild because of the prevalence of westerly winds from the Atlantic. Summers are warm and long due to the influence from the Bay of Biscay (surface temperature reaches 21 to 22 °C (70 to 72 °F). The average seasonal winter temperature is 7.1 °C (44.8 °F), but recent winters have been warmer than this. Frosts in the winter are commonplace, occurring several times during a winter, but snowfall is very rare, occurring only once every three years. The average summer seasonal temperature is 20.7 °C (69.3 °F). The summer of 2003 set a record with an average temperature of 23.3 °C (73.9 °F).[4]

Climate data for Bordeaux-Mérignac (1981–2010 averages)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.2
(68.4)
26.2
(79.2)
27.7
(81.9)
31.1
(88)
35.4
(95.7)
39.2
(102.6)
38.8
(101.8)
40.7
(105.3)
37.0
(98.6)
32.2
(90)
25.1
(77.2)
22.5
(72.5)
40.7
(105.3)
Average high °C (°F) 10.1
(50.2)
11.7
(53.1)
15.1
(59.2)
17.3
(63.1)
21.2
(70.2)
24.5
(76.1)
26.9
(80.4)
27.1
(80.8)
24.0
(75.2)
19.4
(66.9)
13.7
(56.7)
10.5
(50.9)
18.5
(65.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.6
(43.9)
7.5
(45.5)
10.3
(50.5)
12.4
(54.3)
16.1
(61)
19.3
(66.7)
21.4
(70.5)
21.4
(70.5)
18.5
(65.3)
14.9
(58.8)
9.9
(49.8)
7.2
(45)
13.8
(56.8)
Average low °C (°F) 3.1
(37.6)
3.3
(37.9)
5.4
(41.7)
7.4
(45.3)
11.0
(51.8)
14.1
(57.4)
15.8
(60.4)
15.7
(60.3)
12.9
(55.2)
10.4
(50.7)
6.1
(43)
3.8
(38.8)
9.1
(48.4)
Record low °C (°F) −16.4
(2.5)
−15.2
(4.6)
−9.9
(14.2)
−5.3
(22.5)
−1.8
(28.8)
2.5
(36.5)
4.8
(40.6)
1.5
(34.7)
−1.8
(28.8)
−5.3
(22.5)
−12.3
(9.9)
−13.4
(7.9)
−16.4
(2.5)
Precipitation mm (inches) 87
(3.43)
72
(2.83)
65
(2.56)
78
(3.07)
80
(3.15)
62
(2.44)
50
(1.97)
56
(2.2)
84
(3.31)
93
(3.66)
110
(4.33)
106
(4.17)
944.1
(37.169)
Avg. precipitation days 12 10 11 12 11 8 7 8 9 11 13 12 124
Mean monthly sunshine hours 96 115 170 182 217 239 249 242 203 147 94 82 2,035
Source: Météo France

Economy[edit]

Vine[edit]

Sauternes vineyard

The vine was introduced to the Bordeaux region by the Romans, probably in the mid-1st century, to provide wine for local consumption, and wine production has been continuous in the region since then.[5]

Bordeaux now has about 116,160 hectares (287,000 acres) of vineyards, 57 appellations, 10,000 wine-producing châteaux and 13,000 grape growers. With an annual production of approximately 960 million bottles,[6] Bordeaux produces large quantities of everyday wine as well as some of the most expensive wines in the world. Included among the latter are the area's five premier cru (first growth) red wines (four from Médoc and one, Château Haut-Brion, from Graves), established by the Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855: The first growths are:

*In 1855 Mouton-Rothschild was ranked a Second Growth. In 1973, it was elevated to First Growth status.[7]

Both red and white wines are made in Bordeaux. Red Bordeaux is called claret in the United Kingdom. Red wines are generally made from a blend of grapes, and may be made from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Petit verdot, Malbec, and, less commonly in recent years, Carménère. White Bordeaux is made from Sauvignon blanc, Sémillon, and Muscadelle. Sauternes is a subregion of Graves known for its intensely sweet, white, dessert wines such as Château d'Yquem.

Because of a wine glut (wine lake) in the generic production, the price squeeze induced by an increasingly strong international competition, and vine pull schemes, the number of growers has recently dropped from 14,000 and the area under vine has also decreased significantly. In the meanwhile however, the global demand for the first growths and the most famous labels markedly increased and their prices skyrocketed.

Others[edit]

The Laser Mégajoule will be one of the most powerful lasers in the world, allowing fundamental research and the development of the laser and plasma technologies. This project, carried by the French Ministry of Defence, involves an investment of 2 billion euros. The "Road of the lasers", a major project of regional planning, promotes regional investment in optical and laser related industries leading to the Bordeaux area having the most important concentration of optical and laser expertise in Europe.

20,000 people work for the aeronautic industry in Bordeaux. The city has some of the biggest companies including Dassault, EADS Sogerma, Snecma, Thales, SNPE, and others. The Dassault Falcon private jets are built there as well as the military aircraft Rafale and Mirage 2000, the Airbus A380 cockpit, the boosters of Ariane 5, and the M51 SLBM missile.

Tourism, especially wine tourism, is a major industry.

Access to the port from the Atlantic is via the Gironde estuary. Almost 9 million tons of goods arrive and leave each year.

Major companies[edit]

(This list includes indigenous Bordeaux-based companies and companies that have major presence in Bordeaux, but are not necessarily headquartered there.)

Population[edit]

In the 1999 census, there were 215,363 inhabitants in the city (commune) of Bordeaux. The 2005 census showed a significant increase, as this figure reached 230,600 inhabitants. The majority of the population is French, but there are sizable groups of Italians, Spaniards (Up to 20% of the Bordeaux population claim some degree of Spanish heritage), Portuguese, Turks, Germans, North Africans, Afro-Caribbean, Sub-Saharan Afican and Asian (mostly from China and Vietnam).[citation needed]. The built-up area has grown swiftly in recent years with urban sprawl.

Evolution of the Population (See database)
1793 1800 1806 1821 1831 1836 1841 1846 1851
104,676 91,652 92,219 89,202 99,062 98,705 104,686 125,520 130,927
1856 1861 1866 1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896
149,928 162,750 194,241 194,055 215,140 221,305 240,582 252,415 256,906
1901 1906 1911 1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954
256,638 251,947 261,678 267,409 256,026 262,990 258,348 253,751 257,946
1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006 2008 -
249,688 266,662 223,131 208,159 210,336 215,374 232,260 235,891 -

Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006) · [8]


Histogram on demographic change

   
 
 
 
0
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1800
 
1820
 
1840
 
1860
 
1880
 
1900
 
1920
 
1940
 
1960
 
1980
 
2000
 
Sources - database Cassini of EHESS and Insee See database


Education[edit]

University[edit]

The university was created by the archbishop Pey Berland in 1441 and was abolished in 1793, during the French Revolution, before reappearing in 1808 with Napoleon I. Bordeaux accommodates approximately 70,000 students on one of the largest campuses of Europe (235 ha).[9] The University of Bordeaux is divided into four:

  • The University Bordeaux 1 (Maths, Physical sciences and Technologies), 10,693 students in 2002
  • The University Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux Segalen (Medicine and Life sciences), 15,038 students in 2002
  • The University Bordeaux 3, Michel de Montaigne (Liberal Arts, Humanities, Languages, History), 14,785 students in 2002
  • The University Bordeaux 4, Montesquieu(Law, Economy and Management). 12,556 students in 2002
  • Institut of Political Sciences of Bordeaux. Although technically a part of the fourth university, it largely functions autonomously.

Schools[edit]

Bordeaux has numerous public and private schools offering undergraduate and postgraduate programs.

Engineering schools:

Business and management schools:

Other:

  • École nationale de la magistrature (National school for Magistrate)
  • École d'architecture et de paysage de Bordeaux
  • École des beaux-arts de Bordeaux
  • École française des attachés de presse et des professionels de la communication (EFAP)
  • Conservatoire national des arts et métiers d'Aquitaine (CNAM)

Main sights[edit]

Porte Cailhau
Column of the Girondins on the Esplanade des Quinconces
The church of St Pierre
Façade of the Church of the Holy Cross
Place de la Bourse at night with the Miroir d'eau and tram
Church of Notre Dame

Bordeaux is classified "City of Art and History". The city is home to 362 monuments historiques (only Paris has more in France) with some buildings dating back to Roman times. Bordeaux has been inscribed on UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble".

Bordeaux is home to one of Europe's biggest 18th-century architectural urban areas, making it a sought-after destination for tourists and cinema production crews. It stands out as one of the first French cities, after Nancy, to have entered an era of urbanism and metropolitan big scale projects, with the team Gabriel father and son, architects for King Louis XV, under the supervision of two intendants (Governors), first Nicolas-François Dupré de Saint-Maur then the Marquis (Marquess) de Tourny.

Buildings[edit]

Main sights include:

  • Esplanade des Quinconces, the largest square in Europe.
  • Monument aux Girondins
  • Grand Théâtre, a large neoclassical theater built in the 18th century.
  • Allées de Tourny
  • Cours de l'Intendance
  • Place du Chapelet
  • Place de la Bourse(1730–1775), designed by the Royal architect Jacques Ange Gabriel as landscape for an equestrian statue of Louis XV.
  • Place du Parlement
  • Place Saint-Pierre
  • Pont de pierre
  • Saint-André Cathedral, consecrated by Pope Urban II in 1096. Of the Original Romanesque edifice only a wall in the nave remain. The Royal Gate is from the early 13th century, while the rest of the construction is mostly from the 14th and 15th centuries.
  • Tour Pey-Berland (1440–1450), a massive, quadrangular gothic tower annexed to the cathedral.
  • Église Sainte-Croix (Church of the Holy Cross). It lies on the site of a 7th-century abbey destroyed by the Saracens. Rebuilt under the Carolingians, it was again destroyed by the Normans in 845 and 864. It is annexed to a Benedictine abbey founded in the 7th century, and was built in the late 11th and early 12th centuries. The façade is in Romanesque style
  • The gothic Basilica of Saint Michael, constructed between the end of 14th century and the 16th century.
  • Basilica of Saint-Seurin, the most ancient church in Bordeaux. It was built in the early 6th century on the site of a palaeochristian necropolis. It has an 11th-century portico, while the apse and transept are from the following century. The 13th-century nave has chapels from the 11th and the 14th centuries. The ancient crypt houses sepulchres of the Merovingian family.
  • Église Saint-Pierre, gothic church
  • Église Saint-Éloi, gothic church
  • Église Saint-Bruno, baroque church decorated with frescoes
  • Église Notre-Dame, baroque church
  • Église Saint-Paul-Saint-François-Xavier, baroque church
  • Palais Rohan (Exterior:[10])
  • Palais Gallien, the remains of a late 2nd-century Roman amphitheatre
  • Porte Cailhau, a medieval gate of the old city walls.
  • La Grosse Cloche (15th century), the second remaining gate of the Medieval walls. It was the belfry of the old Town Hall. It consists of two 40 m-high circular towers and a central bell tower housing a bell weighing 7,800 kilograms (17,200 lb). The watch is from 1759.
  • Rue Sainte-Catherine, the longest Pedestrian street of France
  • The BETASOM submarine base

Saint-André Cathedral, Saint-Michel Basilica and Saint-Seurin Basilica are part of the World Heritage Sites of the Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France.

Contemporary architecture[edit]

  • Fire Station, la Benauge, Claude Ferret/Adrien Courtois/Yves Salier, 1951–1954
  • Court of first instance, Richard Rogers, 1998
  • CTBA, wood and furniture research center, A. Loisier, 1998
  • Hangar 14 on the Quai des Chartrons, 1999
  • The Management Science faculty on the Bastide, Anne Lacaton/Jean-Philippe Vassal, 2006
  • The Jardin botanique de la Bastide, Catherine Mosbach/Françoise Hélène Jourda/Pascal Convert, 2007
  • The Nuyens School complex on the Bastide, Yves Ballot/Nathalie Franck, 2007
  • Seeko'o Hotel on the Quai des Chartrons, King Kong architects, 2007

Museums[edit]

Parks and gardens[edit]

"Le Jardin Publique" is a park in the heart of the city.

Pont Jacques Chaban-Delmas[edit]

Europe’s largest lift bridge has been opened in Bordeaux spanning over the River Garonne. The central lift span is 117m long and can be lifted vertically up to 53m to let tall ships pass underneath. The €160 million bridge was inaugurated by President François Hollande and Mayor Alain Juppé on 16 March 2013. The Bridge was named after the late Jacques Chaban-Delmas, who was a former Prime Minister and Mayor of Bordeaux.

Shopping[edit]

Bordeaux has many shopping options. In the heart of Bordeaux is Rue Sainte-Catherine. This pedestrian only shopping street has 1.2 kilometers (0.75 mi) of shops, restaurants and cafés; it is also one of the longest shopping streets in Europe. Rue Sainte-Catherine starts at Place de la Victoire and ends at Place de la Comédie by the Grand Théâtre. The shops become progressively more upmarket as one moves towards Place de la Comédie and the nearby Cours de l'Intendance is where one finds the more exclusive shops and boutiques.

Culture[edit]

Bordeaux is also the first city in France to have created, in the 1980s, an architecture exhibition and research center, Arc en rêve. Bordeaux offers a large number of cinemas, theatres and is the home of the Opéra national de Bordeaux. There are many music venues of varying capacity. The city also offers several festivals throughout the year.

Transport[edit]

Road[edit]

Bordeaux is an important road and motorway junction. The city is connected to Paris by the A10 motorway, with Lyon by the A89, with Toulouse by the A62, and with Spain by the A63. There is a 45 km (28 mi) ring road called the "Rocade" which is often very busy. Another ring road is under consideration.

Pont-de-Pierre

Bordeaux has four road bridges that cross the Garonne, the Pont de pierre built in the 1820s and three modern bridges built after 1960: the Pont Saint Jean, just south of the Pont de pierre (both located downtown), the Pont d'Aquitaine, a suspended bridge downstream from downtown, and the Pont François Mitterrand, located upstream of downtown. These two bridges are part of the ring road around Bordeaux. A fifth bridge, the Pont Jacques-Chaban-Delmas, was constructed in 2009–2012 and opened to traffic in March 2013. Located halfway between the Pont de pierre and the Pont d'Aquitaine and serving downtown rather than highway traffic, it is a vertical-lift bridge with a height comparable to the Pont de pierre in closed position, and to the Pont d'Aquitaine in open position. All five road bridges, including the two highway bridges, are open to cyclists and pedestrians as well. Another bridge, the Pont Jean-Jacques Bosc, is to be built in 2018.[11]

Lacking any steep hills, Bordeaux is relatively friendly to cyclists. Cycle paths (separate from the roadways) exist on the highway bridges, along the riverfront, on the university campuses, and incidentally elsewhere in the city. Cycle lanes and bus lanes that explicitly allow cyclists exist on many of the city's boulevards. A paid Bicycle sharing system with automated stations has been established in 2010.

Rail[edit]

The main railway station, Gare de Bordeaux Saint-Jean, near the center of the city, has 4 million passengers a year. It is served by the French national (SNCF) railway's high speed train, the TGV, that gets to Paris in three hours, with connections to major European centers such as Lille, Brussels, Amsterdam, Cologne, Geneva and London. The TGV also serves Toulouse and Irun from Bordeaux. A regular train service is provided to Nantes, Nice, Marseille and Lyon. The Gare Saint-Jean is the major hub for regional trains (TER) operated by the SNCF to Arcachon, Limoges, Agen, Périgueux, Pau, Le Médoc, Angoulême and Bayonne.

Historically the train line used to terminate at a station on the right bank of the river Garonne near the Pont de Pierre, and passengers crossed the bridge to get into the city. Subsequently a double-track steel railway bridge was constructed in the 1850s, by Gustave Eiffel, to bring trains across the river direct into Gare de Bordeaux Saint-Jean. The old station was later converted and in 2010 comprised a cinema and restaurants.

The two-track Eiffel bridge with a speed limit of 30 km/h (19 mph) became a bottleneck and a new bridge was built, opening in 2009. The new bridge has 4 tracks and allows trains to pass at 60 km/h (37 mph).[12] During the planning there was much lobbying by the Eiffel family and other supporters to preserve the old bridge as a footbridge across the Garonne, with possibly a museum to document the history of the bridge and Gustave Eiffel's contribution. The decision was taken to save the bridge, but by early 2010 no plans had been announced as to its future use. The bridge remains intact, but unused and without any means of access.

Air[edit]

Bordeaux is served by an international airport, Aéroport de Bordeaux Mérignac, located 8 km (5.0 mi) from the city center in the suburban city of Mérignac.

Trams, buses and boats[edit]

Tramway in Bordeaux

Bordeaux has an important public transport system called Tram et Bus de la CUB (TBC). This company is run by the Keolis group. The network consists of:

  • 3 tram lines (A, B and C)
  • 75 bus routes, all connected to the tramway network (from 1 to 96)
  • 13 night bus routes (from 1 to 16)
  • An electric bus shuttle in the city center
  • A boat shuttle on the Garonne river

This network is operated from 5 am to 1 am.

There had been several plans for a subway network to be set up, but they stalled for both geological and financial reasons. Work on the Tramway de Bordeaux system was started in the autumn of 2000, and services started in December 2003 connecting Bordeaux with its suburban areas. The tram system uses ground-level power supply technology (APS), a new cable-free technology developed by French company Alstom and designed to preserve the aesthetic environment by eliminating overhead cables in the historic city. Conventional overhead cables are used outside the city. The system was controversial for its considerable cost of installation, maintenance and also for the numerous initial technical problems that paralysed the network. Many streets and squares along the tramway route became pedestrian areas, with limited access for cars.

Taxi[edit]

There are more than 400 taxicabs in Bordeaux.

Sport[edit]

Entrance to the Stade Chaban-Delmas.

The 35,000-capacity Stade Chaban-Delmas is the largest stadium in Bordeaux. It was a venue for the FIFA World Cup in 1938 and 1998, as well as the 2007 Rugby World Cup. In the 1938 FIFA World Cup, it hosted a violent quarter-final known as the Battle of Bordeaux. The ground was formerly known as the Stade du Parc Lescure until 2001, when it was renamed in honour of the city's long-time mayor, Jacques Chaban-Delmas.

There are two major sport teams in Bordeaux, both playing at the Stade Chaban-Delmas. Girondins de Bordeaux is the football team, currently playing in Ligue 1 in the French football championship. Union Bordeaux Bègles is a rugby team in the Top 14 in the Ligue Nationale de Rugby. Skateboarding, rollerblading, and BMX biking are activities enjoyed by many young inhabitants of the city. Bordeaux is home to a beautiful quai which runs along the Gironde river. On the Quai there is a skatepark divided into three sections. One section is for Vert tricks, one for street style tricks, and one for little action sports athletes with easier features and softer materials. The skatepark is very well maintained by the municipal workers.

Bordeaux is also the home of one of the strongest cricket teams in France and are the current champions of the South West League.

There is a 250 m (820 ft) wooden velodrome, Vélodrome du Lac, in Bordeaux which hosts international cycling competition in the form of UCI Track Cycling World Cup events.

People[edit]

Bordeaux was the birthplace of:

International relationship[edit]

Alain Juppé, Mayor of Bordeaux, visiting the twin town of Ashdod.

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Bordeaux is twinned with:[13][14][15]

Partnerships[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1][dead link]
  2. ^ "In Pictures | In pictures: New World Heritage sites". BBC News. 28 June 2007. Retrieved 5 May 2009. 
  3. ^ Washington Post, "Bordeaux struggles with slave past", 28 September 2009.
  4. ^ GHCN climate, GISS world climate averages, 1971–2000
  5. ^ Johnson, Hugh (1994). World Atlas of Wine (4th ed.). London: Octopus Publishing Group Ltd. p. 13. 
  6. ^ "Bordeaux Wine Region in France: World's Most Famous Fine Wine Region". IntoWine.com. Retrieved 23 October 2009. 
  7. ^ MacNeil, K. (2001). The Wine Bible. New York, NY: Workman.
  8. ^ Census of population on 1 January 2006 on the site of Insee.
  9. ^ (French) Université de Bordeaux website: www.univ-bordeaux.fr; retrieved 2010-12-07.
  10. ^ (German) http://www.artemisia.no/arc/historisk/bordeaux/1700/bilder/hotel.de.ville.ii.jpg
  11. ^ Pont Jean-Jacques Bosc | La CUB
  12. ^ Pont Ferroviaire de Bordeaux on aquitaine.fr
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Bordeaux - Rayonnement européen et mondial". Mairie de Bordeaux (in French). Archived from the original on 2013-02-07. Retrieved 2013-07-29. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "Bordeaux-Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures". Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Archived from the original on 2013-02-07. Retrieved 2013-07-29. 
  15. ^ "National Commission for Decentralised cooperation". Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Retrieved 2013-12-26. 
  16. ^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  17. ^ "Bristol City – Town twinning". 2009 Bristol City Council. Retrieved 2013-03-15. 
  18. ^ "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Retrieved 2013-07-11. 
  19. ^ "Sister Cities of Los Angeles". sistercities.lacity.org. Retrieved 2011-09-29. 
  20. ^ "Partnerstädte". muenchen.de (in German). Retrieved 3 April 2013. 
  21. ^ "International Relations of the City of Porto". 2006–2009 Municipal Directorateofthe PresidencyServices InternationalRelationsOffice. Retrieved 10 July 2009. 
  22. ^ "Twin cities of Riga". Riga City Council. Retrieved 2013-03-15. 
  23. ^ "Saint Petersburg in figures – International and Interregional Ties". Saint Petersburg City Government. Retrieved 23 March 2008. [dead link]
  24. ^ "Kraków - Miasta Partnerskie" [Kraków -Partnership Cities]. Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2013-07-02. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  25. ^ "Samsun- Bordeaux işbirliği sözleşmesini imzalandı" (in Turkish). HaberExen.com. Retrieved 22 November 2010. [dead link]

Further reading[edit]

Published in the 19th century
Published in the 20th century
  • "Bordeaux", The Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.), New York: Encyclopædia Britannica, 1910, OCLC 14782424, retrieved 2013-03-15 

External links[edit]