Border Roads Organisation

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Border Roads Organisation
Border Roads Organisation logo.svg
BRO Logo
Abbreviation BRO
Motto Shramena Sarvam Sadhyam ("Everything is Achievable through Hard Work")[1]
Formation 7 May 1960
Legal status Active
Purpose Civil engineering infrastructural development in difficult area
Headquarters New Delhi
Location
  • Border regions of India
Region served India, Bhutan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Myanmar, Libya, Sri Lanka.
Director General Lt General KT Parnaik
Parent organization Ministry of Road Transport and Highways
Budget 40 billion
(US$723 million)
(As of 2011)[citation needed]
Website http://www.bro.gov.in/

The Border Roads Organisation (BRO) maintains roads that serve the borders areas of India. It is staffed with a combination of Border Roads Engineering Service officers,Administrative officers, Medical Officers and Hindi Officers from the General Reserve Engineer Force (GREF) and officers from the Corps of Engineers Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, ASC Officers and Officers of Military Police and Personnel of the Indian Armyon ERE. The organisation develops and maintains arterial roads on the borders of India. The BRO is also involved in the construction of a tunnel at the Rohtang pass. BRO's activities have also helped to accelerate the economic development of the North and North-Eastern border states of India. The road-construction teams have to deal with harsh climatic conditions.[2] The BRO faces environments like the icy Himalayan mountaintops, the marshes of West Bengal, and the deserts in Rajasthan.[3] The BRO builds and maintains roads at high altitude; Some of the BRO roads are built as high as 5,608 metres (18,399 ft) above mean sea level.[2]

The Border Roads Organisation operates a network of over 32,885 kilometres (20,434 mi) of roads and 12,200 metres (40,026 ft) of permanent bridges.[4] BRO has operations in twenty-two states, including the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a union territory. It is currently headed by Lt General KT Parnaik.[5]

History[edit]

The BRO was formed on 7 May 1960[4] as the Border Roads Development Board with Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru as its chairman. BRO consists of BRDB and GREF and GREF is led by the Director General of Border Roads, who holds the rank of Lieutenant General.[6] BRO consists of BRDB and GREF. BRDB is akin to any other government department headed presently by Rajya Raksha Mantri as chairman of the BRDB and Chief of Army and Air Force and E-in C are its members and there are other members as well.BRO being a part and parcel of MoD but it is placed under Ministry of Road Transport and Highways for budgetary allocation only as a matter of high policy otherwise MoD has administrative control over BRO.

Structure[edit]

The BRO consists of Border Roads Develovement Board and the General Reserve Engineer Force (GREF). GREF—the execution force—under the Ministry of Surface Transport for budgetary allocation only otherwise it is under minisry of Defence for administrative control, and officers from Indian Army Corps of Engineers, who are posted to GREF on ERE .The status of GREF is equivalent to that of JAKLI in the Indian Army. The GREF includes civil, electrical, mechanical engineers Administrative Officers Medical Officers and Hindi Officers. Engineers are selected from engineering colleges across India through the Indian Engineering Services examination conducted by the Union Public Service Commission. Other Officers also includes administrative officers, medical officers who are also selected through UPSC and placed under Army act 1950 and Army rules 1954 with exceptions and modifications vide SRO 329 and 330 of 1960 and SRO 1001 of 1961 for equivalent ranks of GREF with regular army. Members of GREF are the members of Armed Forces within meaning of Article 33 of the Constitution of India as defined by the Hon'ble Supreme Court in the case of R. Viswan V/S Union of India and the President declared GREF as integral part of armed forces. Members of GREF are entitled to ration at par with regular army and drawing from ASC units located nearest to GREF units. A question arose in respect of R. Viswan v/s Union of India 1983,"WHETHER Genral Reserve Engineering Force is an armed force—The question is whether Sec 21 of the Army Act, 1950, read with Chapter1V of the Army Rules,1954 is within scope and ambit of Article 33 of the Constitution and if it is, whether Central Government notification Nos S.R.O. 329 and 330 dated 23 September 1960 making inter alia Sec 21 of the Army Act, 1950 and Chapter 1v of the Army Rules, 1954 applicable to General Reserve Engineering Force are ultra-vires of that Article since the General Reserve Engineering Force is neither an armed Force nor a Force charged with the maintenance of public order. It is a question of some importance since it affects the fundamental rights of large number of persons belonging to the General Reserve Engineering Force and in order to arrive at a correct decision of this question, it is necessary first of all to consider the true nature and character of the General Reserve Engineering Force. It is indisputable on the facts and circumstances that the function and duties of GREF are integrally connected with the operation plans and requirement of the Armed Forces and the members of GREF are integral to the Armed Forces. There can be no doubt that without the efficient and disciplined operational role of GREF the military operations in border areas during peace as well as in times of war will be seriously hampered and a highly disciplined and efficient GREF is absolutely essential for supporting the operational plans and meeting the operational requirements of the Armed Forces. It must, therefore be held that the members of GREF answer the description of the members of Armed Forces within meaning of Art. 33 and consequently the application of Sec. 21 of the Army Act 1950, to the members of GREF must be held to be protected by that Article and the Fundamental Rights of the members of GREF must be held to be validly restricted by Sec. 21 of Army Act 1950 read with Rules 19 to 21 of Army Rules 1954. If that be so, the petitioners were liable to be charged under Sec. 63 of the Army Act 1950 for the alleged violation of Rules 19 to 21 of Army Rules 1954 and their convictions by the Court-martial as also subsequent dismissal must be held to be valid.

The organisation's operations are spread across India, Bhutan, Myanmar, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan.

The fundamental unit of the BRO is similar to a platoon. The functional platoon, composed of civil engineer officers from the GREF and civil engineers from the College of Military Engineering, Kirkee Pune, is in charge of activities such as formation cutting, surfacing, and safety mechanisms to maintain correct road geometry. BRO units also handle the construction of permanent and temporary bridges, causeways, and airfields.

The BRO includes 18 Projects, which are divided into Task Forces, Road Construction Companies (RCCs), Bridge Construction Companies (BCCs), Drain Maintenance Companies (DMCs), and other functional platoons. The organisation also includes base workshops, store divisions, training and recruitment centers, and other staff.[7]

The BRO is also in charge of maintenance of its road networks. In many places landslides, avalanches and snow block the routes and have to cleared as quickly as possible. BRO also employs the more than two lakh (200,000) local workers in the task.[citation needed]

An Internal Financial Advisor supports the BRO, performing the roles of Chief Accounts Officer and Internal Auditor. This system was introduced on 23 March 1995 to introduce efficiency and improve resource utilisation.[8] The IFA secured ISO 9001 certification in December 1999.[3]

Projects/Initiatives[edit]

The BRO undertakes projects in India and friendly countries. These projects typically include developing roads, bridges, and airfields in hostile environments shunned by private enterprises, whether due to security concerns related to hostilities, or because of environmental challenges.

Some of these projects carry out some of the development initiatives of the Indian government in foreign territories like Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Myanmar, and Bhutan. These include the Delaram-Zaranj Highway in Afghanistan, completed and handed over to the Afghan government during 2008,[9] and the restoration of the Farkhor[10] and Ayni[11] air bases in Tajikistan.

The BRO also played a vital role in reconstruction work in the aftermath of the devastating 2004 Tsunami in Tamil Nadu, the 2005 Kashmir earthquake,[12] and the 2010 Ladakh flash floods.[13]

Issues[edit]

The organisation employs labourers locally. No local labourer is deployed in the GREF for more than 179 days at a stretch, thus keeping the nature of their employment casual.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Inherent Strengths". Border Roads Organisation. Border Roads Organisation. Speed, Economy and quality. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  2. ^ a b Angchuk, Jigmet (25 December 2007). "Border Roads Organisation building roads at sub-zero temperatures". TopNews.in. Mohali, India: Manas Informatics. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  3. ^ a b aurora (7 May 2008). "BRO: Bridging gaps, Connecting lives". Sankalp India Foundation. Bangalore, Karnataka, India: Sankalp India Foundation. 
  4. ^ a b "Border Roads Organisation". GlobalSecurity.org. Alexandria, Virginia: GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  5. ^ Lt General KT Parnaik
  6. ^ "DG's Message". Border Roads Organisation. Border Roads Organisation. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  7. ^ "Organisation Chart". Border Roads Organisation. Border Roads Organisation. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  8. ^ Mohan, Devendra, IFA System in Lower Formations of Border Roads Organisation (Microsoft Word), Pune, India: National Academy of Defence Financial Management, Mindistry of Defence, Government of India, retrieved 25 September 2010 
  9. ^ Pubby, Manu (23 January 2009). "India hands over Afghan road, trade can now flow via Iran". The Indian Express (New Delhi: The Indian Express Online Media). Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  10. ^ "India to deploy MiG-29 fighters at Tajikistan base". Monsters and Critics. Indianapolis: WOTR. 20 April 2006. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  11. ^ Bedi, Rahul (20 September 2007). "India may have to quit Tajik military 'base'". Monsters and Critics. Indianapolis: WOTR. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  12. ^ "Work in progress to restore vital border road". Outlook India (New Delhi: Outlook Publishing (India)). 24 October 2005. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  13. ^ Watts, Archit (15 September 2010). "Five weeks after floods, Leh-Manali road opens". Chandigarh Tribune (Chandigarh, India: The Tribune Trust). Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  14. ^ Panghat, Brig (4 February 2005). "GREF not Industry governed by Industrial Dispute Act". Daily Excelsior (Jammu, India). Archived from the original on 3 May 2006. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 

External links[edit]