|Name:||Borey (Борей), Russian designation; also Dolgorukiy, NATO designation|
|Builders:||Sevmash, designed by Rubin|
|Preceded by:||Delta IV class, Typhoon class|
|Type:||Ballistic missile submarine|
|Displacement:||14,720 t (14,488 long tons) surfaced
24,000 t (23,621 long tons) submerged
574ft (claimed)170 m (557 ft 9 in)
|Beam:||13.5 m (44 ft 3 in)|
|Draught:||10 m (32 ft 10 in)|
|Propulsion:||1 × ОК-650В nuclear reactor
1 × AEU steam turbine
1 × shaft and propeller (pump-jet)
|Speed:||knots (17 mph; 28 km/h)|
|Range:||Unlimited; (1yr+) endurance restricted by food stores|
|Test depth:||planned 450m (1,400+ft)|
|Complement:||55 officers, 52 enlisted|
|Armament:||16 (Project 955), 20 (955А Borei II) × RSM-56 Bulava SLBMs with 6 MIRVed warheads
6 × 533 mm torpedo tubes
RPK-2 Viyuga cruise missiles
The Borei class (Russian: Борей; sometimes transliterated as Borey, also known as the Dolgorukiy class after the name of the lead vessel, the Yuriy Dolgorukiy) is a class of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine produced by Russia and operated by the Russian Navy. The class is intended to replace the Delta III, Delta IV and Typhoon classes now in Russian Navy service. The class is named after Boreas, the North wind.
Despite being a replacement for many types of submarines, the Borei class submarines are slightly smaller than the Typhoon class in terms of length (170m as opposed to 175m) and crew (107 people). These changes were in part designed to reduce the cost to build and maintain the submarines. In addition, the United States and Canada provided 80% of funds for scrapping the older Typhoon class submarines, making it much more economical to build a new submarine. 
History and description
The first design work was laid down in mid-1980s and the build of the first unit of the Borei class (officially designated "Project 955") started in 1996.(A short-lived,smaller parallel design appeared in the mid-1980s was designated Project 935 Borei II) A new submarine-launched ballistic missile was developed in parallel, called the R-39UTTH "Bark". However, the work on this missile was abandoned, and a new missile called the Bulava was designed. The submarine needed to be redesigned to accommodate the new missile, and the project name was changed to Project 955. The vessels are being built at the Northern Machinebuilding Enterprise (Sevmash) in Severodvinsk, and were designed by the Rubin Marine Equipment Design Bureau (Rubin). Because of the repeated failures during Bulava test launches, some experts have suggested that the Borei submarine could instead be armed with R-29RMU Sineva missiles. The Sineva is already in active duty on the Delta IV class submarine.
Advances include a compact and integrated hydrodynamically efficient hull for reduced broadband noise and the first ever use of pump-jet propulsion on a Russian nuclear submarine. Borei is approximately 170 metres (560 ft) long, (some claimed the Borei is 574 ft long) 13 metres (43 ft) in diameter, and has a maximum submerged speed of at least 46 kilometres per hour (25 kn; 29 mph). They are equipped with a floating rescue chamber designed to fit in the whole crew. Smaller than the Typhoon class, the Borei was initially slated to carry 12 missiles but was able to carry 4 more due to the decrease in mass of the 45-ton Bulava SLBM (a modified version of the Topol-M ICBM) over the originally proposed R-39UTTH Bark. Cost is some 23 bln RUR ($890 million USD), in comparison the cost of an Ohio-class SSBN was around 2 billion USD per boat (1997 prices).
A fifth generation successor/supplement is already in development.
Launch and trials
The launch of the first submarine of the class, the Yuriy Dolgorukiy (Юрий Долгорукий), was scheduled for 2002 but was delayed because of budget constraints. The vessel was eventually rolled out of its construction hall on 15 April 2007 in a ceremony attended by many senior military and industrial personnel. The Yuriy Dolgorukiy was the first Russian strategic missile submarine to be launched in seventeen years since the end of the Soviet era. Currently, there are three more Borei-class submarines under construction, named Aleksandr Nevskiy (Александр Невский), Vladimir Monomakh (Владимир Мономах) and Knyaz Vladimir (Князь Владимир). The planned contingent of eight strategic submarines is expected to be commissioned within the next decade (five Project 955 are planned for purchase through 2015).
Although the Yuriy Dolgorukiy was officially rolled out of its construction hall on 15 April 2007 the submarine was not put into the water until February 2008. By July 2009 it had yet to be armed with Bulava missiles and was therefore not fully operational, although ready for sea trials on 24 October 2008. On November 21, 2008 the reactor on the Yuriy Dolgorukiy was activated and on 19 June 2009 began its sea trials in the White Sea. In August 2009 it was reported that the submarine would undergo up to six trials before being commissioned but the problem with the Bulava missile could delay it even more.
On 28 September 2010 the Yury Dolgoruky completed company sea trials. By late October the Russian Pacific Fleet was fully prepared to host Russia's new Borei-class strategic nuclear-powered submarines. It is expected that four subs will be deployed in the Northern fleet and four subs in the Pacific fleet. On 9 November 2010 Yury Dolgoruky passed all sea trials directed to new equipment and systems.
Initially, the plan was to conduct the first torpedo launches during the ongoing state trials in December 2010 and then in the same month conduct the first launch of the main weapon system, R-30 (RSM-56) Bulava missile. The plan was then postponed to mid-summer 2011 due to ice conditions in the White Sea 
On 2 December 2010 the second Borei-class submarine, Alexander Nevsky, was moved to a floating dock in Sevmash shipyard. There the final preparations took place before the submarine was launched. Submarine was launched on 6 December 2010 and began sea trials on 24 October 2011.
On 28 June 2011 a Bulava missile was launched for the first time from the Borei-class submarine Yury Dolgorukiy. The test was announced as a success. After long delays finally the lead vessel Yury Dolgoruky joined the Russian Navy on 10 January 2013. The official ceremony of raising the Russian Navy colors on the submarine was led by Russian Defense Minister Sergey Shoigu. Commenting on the news on Twitter, Russian Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin, posted: “Tremble, bourgeoisie! You’re done with!". It will go on full fledge combat duty in early 2014 after a series of exercises.
It has been reported that the arrival of the Borei-class submarines will enable the Russian Navy to resume strategic patrols in southern latitudes that have not seen a Russian missile submarine in 20 years.
Project 955-A Borei II
On 15 December 2009, a Defense Ministry official announced that the laydown of the fourth Borei-class submarine had been postponed from December to the first quarter of 2010. The reason for the delay was said to be "organizational and technical reasons". Fourth ship of class will be constructed under new 955A modification. It is reported by unnamed sources that this modification will include major structural changes and probably other changes. If these reports are true, technically the fourth ship will be the lead ship of a new Borei II class (not official).
The contract for five Borei-A submarines was delayed several times due to price dispute between the Russian MOD and the United Shipbuilding Corporation. The contract for modified Borei-A was finally signed on May 28, 2012.
The first 955-A submarine, Knyaz Vladimir, was laid down on 30 July 2012. Russian president Vladimir Putin attended the ceremony. Two additional 955A submarines are to be laid down in 2013.
|K-535 Yuriy Dolgorukiy||955||2 November 1996||13 February 2008||10 January 2013||Northern, 31st submarine division|
|K-550 Aleksandr Nevskiy||955(09551)||19 March 2004||6 December 2010||21 December 2013||Pacific ||In construction the hull of the unfinished Akula II class submarine Rys' (1993) was used|
|K-551 Vladimir Monomakh||955(09551)||19 March 2006||30 December 2012||December 2013, previously expected in 2014  Completed,in mooring trials ||Pacific (?)||Reportedly hull of scrapped Akula I class submarine AkBars (1993) was used in the construction. Will soon begin trials in the White Sea.|
|K-??? Knyaz Vladimir||955А||30 July 2012 ||N/A||N/A||In construction. According to some sources will carry 20 SLBMs.|
|K-??? possibly Aleksandr Suvorov||955А/||2014 ||N/A||N/A|
|K-??? possibly Mikhail Kutuzov||955А||2014 ||N/A||N/A|
|K-???||955А||2015 ||By 31 December 2020|
|K-???||955А||2015 ||By 31 December 2020|
- Проект 955. Deepstorm.ru. Retrieved on 2010-10-19.
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- Russian Borei Class Submarine
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- "SSBN Alexander Nevsky was moved to floating dock". russnavy.com Retrieved December 2, 2010.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Borei class submarines.|
- Yuriy Dolgorukiy picture gallery
- Photo of Yuriy Dolgorukiy on sea trials June 2009
- Yuriy Dolgorukiy in dry dock, Sevmash, Severodvinsk (satellite photo)
- Yuriy Dolgorukiy will carry 16 ballistic missiles[dead link]
- New pictures of the Yuriy Dolgorukiy
- Announcement that the first boat will be launched in April 2007
- Announcement (in Russian) that first boat would not be ready until 2007.
- Project 935 / Project 955 Borei
- Image gallery:Yuriy Dolgorukiy, a Borei-class nuclear missile submarine
- Borei-class missile complement
- Photos of Alexander Nevsky while the sub was launched at Sevmash shipyard