Boris Johnson

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Boris Johnson
Boris Johnson -opening bell at NASDAQ-14Sept2009-3c cropped.jpg
Mayor of London
Incumbent
Assumed office
4 May 2008
Deputy Richard Barnes
Victoria Borwick
Preceded by Ken Livingstone
Shadow Minister for Higher Education
In office
6 December 2005 – 16 July 2007
Leader David Cameron
Preceded by David Cameron
Succeeded by Adam Afriyie
Shadow Minister for the Arts
In office
14 April 2004 – 17 November 2004
Leader Michael Howard
Preceded by Gerald Howarth
Succeeded by Tony Baldry
Member of Parliament
for Henley
In office
9 June 2001 – 4 June 2008
Preceded by Michael Heseltine
Succeeded by John Howell
Personal details
Born Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson
(1964-06-19) 19 June 1964 (age 50)
New York City, United States
Political party Conservative
Spouse(s) Allegra Mostyn-Owen (1987–1993)
Marina Wheeler (1993–present)
Children Lara Lettice
Milo Arthur
Cassia Peaches
Theodore Apollo
Stephanie Carlotta
Alma mater Balliol College, Oxford
Religion Anglicanism[1]
Website Government website

Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson (born 19 June 1964) is a British Conservative Party politician, who has served as Mayor of London since 2008. Initially coming to public attention as a journalist, he became editor of The Spectator in 1999, then later served as the Member of Parliament for Henley from 2001 until 2008.

Born in New York City, Johnson was educated at the European School of Brussels, Ashdown House School, Eton College, and Balliol College, Oxford, where he read Classics. Beginning his career in journalism with The Times and then The Daily Telegraph, he became Assistant Editor from 1994 to 1999 before taking editorship of The Spectator, a position he held until 2005. Joining the Conservatives, he was elected MP for Henley in 2001. During his period in the House of Commons, Johnson became one of the most conspicuous politicians in the country, authoring books and making regular television appearances. Under Conservative leaders Michael Howard and David Cameron, Johnson served on the opposition front bench, first as Shadow Minister for Culture, Communications and Creative Industries and then for Higher Education.

Selected as Conservative candidate for the 2008 London mayoral election, Johnson defeated Labour incumbent Ken Livingstone to become Mayor, resigning his seat in parliament. During his first term, he banned alcohol on public transport and oversaw the 2012 London Olympic Games. In 2012, he was re-elected as Mayor, again defeating Livingstone.[2] On 12 September 2014, Johnson was adopted as the Conservative Party candidate for MP for Uxbridge and South Ruislip in the 2015 general election.[3]

Parental origins, education and marriages[edit]

Johnson's 8th great grandfather King George II.

Johnson is the eldest of the four children of Stanley Johnson, a former Conservative Member of the European Parliament and employee of the European Commission and World Bank, and the painter Charlotte Johnson Wahl (née Fawcett),[4] the daughter of Sir James Fawcett, a barrister[5] and president of the European Commission of Human Rights.[6] His younger siblings are Rachel Johnson, a writer and journalist; Leo Johnson, a partner in PricewaterhouseCoopers specialising in Sustainability;[7] and Jo Johnson, Assistant Government Whip and Conservative MP for Orpington. His stepfather was the American academic Nicholas Wahl.

Johnson's maternal great-grandparents were palaeographer Elias Avery Lowe and translator H. T. Lowe-Porter. On his father's side, Johnson is a great-grandson of Ali Kemal Bey, a liberal Turkish journalist and the Interior Minister in the government of Damat Ferid Pasha, Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire, who was killed during the Turkish War of Independence in 1922.[8] During World War I, Johnson's paternal grandfather and great-aunt were recognised as British subjects and took their grandmother's maiden name of Johnson. He has a grandmother who was born in Versailles, close to Paris. Johnson speaks French and has been interviewed in that language.[9] In reference to his cosmopolitan ancestry, Johnson has described himself as a "one-man melting pot"—with a combination of Muslims, Jews, and Christians comprising his great-grandparentage.[10] His father's maternal grandmother, Marie Louise de Pfeffel, was a granddaughter of Prince Paul of Württemberg, through his relationship with a German actress. Through Prince Paul, Johnson is a descendant of King George II and, through George's great-great-great grandfather James I/VI, a descendant of all of the previous British royal houses. Johnson is an 8th cousin of David Cameron.[11]

Johnson was born in New York City,[12] but his family returned to Britain soon afterwards, as his mother had yet to take her Oxford University final exams. Johnson's sister Rachel was born a year later. As a child, Johnson suffered from severe deafness and had to undergo several operations to have grommets inserted in his ears. He was reported to have been rather quiet as a child.[1] He was educated at the European School in Brussels,[13] at Ashdown House School and at Eton College, where he was a King's Scholar.

He read Classics at Oxford as a Brackenbury scholar, and was elected President of the Oxford Union at his second attempt. Frank Luntz[14] and Radosław Sikorski[1] have claimed Johnson touted himself as a supporter of the Social Democratic Party, then a dominant faction in the university, as a strategy to win the Union presidency, although Johnson denies that he was more than the SDP's preferred candidate. Along with David Cameron, George Osborne and Radosław Sikorski, he was a member of Oxford's Bullingdon Club, a student dining society known for destroying restaurant dining rooms and paying for the repairs afterwards.[15][16] He graduated from Balliol College with a 2:1.[17]

In 1987, he married Allegra Mostyn-Owen; the marriage was dissolved in 1993.[18] Later that year, he married Marina Wheeler, a barrister and daughter of journalist and broadcaster Sir Charles Wheeler and his wife, Dip Singh.[19] The Wheeler and Johnson families have known each other for decades,[1] and Marina Wheeler was at the European School in Brussels at the same time as her future husband. They have two daughters—Lara Lettice (born 1993) and Cassia Peaches (born 1997) —and two sons—Milo Arthur (born 1995) and Theodore Apollo (born 1999).[20] Johnson and his family live in Islington, North London. Johnson's stepmother, Jenny, the second wife of his father Stanley, is the stepdaughter of Teddy Sieff, the former chairman of Marks & Spencer.[21]

Journalism and history[edit]

Upon graduating from Oxford, he spent only a week as a management consultant at L.E.K. Consulting.[22] He later gave the following reason for his short tenure there: "Try as I might I could not look at an overhead projection of a growth-profit matrix and stay conscious".[23]

He then became a trainee reporter for The Times. Within a year, he was sacked for falsifying a quotation from his godfather, Colin Lucas, later Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University.[24] Years later, in a television interview, he admitted: "I mildly sandpapered something somebody said".[25]

After a short time as a writer for the Wolverhampton Express & Star, he joined The Daily Telegraph (1987) as leader and feature writer and was the paper's European Community correspondent (1989–94). He served as Assistant Editor (1994–99). In 1995, a recording of a telephone conversation was made public revealing a plot by a friend to physically assault a News of the World journalist. Johnson retained his position at the Daily Telegraph as there was no evidence that he intended to provide information that would facilitate the assault of the journalist, even though he promised under pressure to provide this information. His association with The Spectator began as political columnist (1994–95); and, in 1999, he became the editor, where he stayed until December 2005 upon being appointed Shadow Minister for Higher Education.

He wrote an autobiographical account of his experience of the 2001 election campaign Friends, Voters, Countrymen: Jottings on the Stump. He is also author of three collections of journalism, Johnson's Column, Lend Me Your Ears and Have I Got Views For You. His comic first novel Seventy-Two Virgins was published in 2004,[26] and his next book has been claimed to be The New British Revolution.[27] He was nominated in 2004 for a British Academy Television Award and has attracted several unofficial fan clubs and sites. His official website and blog started in September 2004.

Johnson is a popular historian; and his first documentary series, based on his book The Dream of Rome, comparing the Roman Empire and the modern-day European Union, was broadcast in 2006.

After being elected mayor, he announced that he would be resuming his weekly column for The Daily Telegraph. The Guardian reported that he had agreed to a £250,000 annual salary for doing so. It added that he would donate £25,000 each towards two scholarships: one for students of Journalism, and the other for the teaching of Classics.[28]

Political career[edit]

After having been defeated in Clwyd South in the 1997 general election, Johnson was elected MP for Henley, succeeding Michael Heseltine, in the 2001 general election. He described this election in his 2002 book, Friends, Voters, Countrymen. In 2004 he was appointed to the front bench as Shadow Minister for the Arts in a small reshuffle resulting from the resignation of the Shadow Home Affairs Spokesman, Nick Hawkins. He was also from November 2003 vice-chairman of the Conservative Party, with an emphasis on campaigning.[29]

Johnson was dismissed from these high-profile posts in November 2004 over accusations that he lied to Michael Howard about a four-year extramarital affair with Petronella Wyatt, The Spectator's New York correspondent and former deputy editor. Johnson derided these allegations as "an inverted pyramid of piffle", but Howard sacked Johnson because he believed press reports showed Johnson had lied, rather than for the affair itself.[30] In a 2013 television interview, Johnson, according to Guardian Political Editor Patrick Wintour, he "failed to deny he lied to [his] party leader at the time".[25]

Johnson explained his political philosophy in 2010, linking it to the One nation conservatism of Disraeli:

"I'm a one-nation Tory. There is a duty on the part of the rich to the poor and to the needy, but you are not going to help people express that duty and satisfy it if you punish them fiscally so viciously that they leave this city and this country. I want London to be a competitive, dynamic place to come to work."[31]

During his mayoralty, Johnson has been the subject of numerous rumours as to the future of his political career, and the possibility that he would stand to be the head of the Conservative Party. In 2012 Grant Shapps claimed that Johnson lacks many of the skills that are needed as the leader of a political party and prime minister.[32]

In August 2014, Johnson announced he would stand for election in the 2015 general election.[33][34]

Higher education[edit]

He was appointed Shadow Minister for Higher Education on 9 December 2005 by new Conservative Leader David Cameron, and resigned as editor of The Spectator soon afterwards. In April 2006 it was alleged in the News of the World[35] that Johnson had had another extramarital affair, this time with Times Higher Education Supplement journalist Anna Fazackerley.[36][37] A report in The Times stated that Cameron regarded the possible affair as a private matter, and that Johnson would not lose his job over it.[38][39]

Johnson stood for the February 2006 election of Rector of the University of Edinburgh, after receiving seven times more nominations than needed to stand.[40] His presence as candidate caused an unprecedented turn-out and sparked an "Anyone but Boris" campaign.[41] Protests included having drinks thrown over him at his first of two visits to the student body.[40][42] Johnson eventually polled third of four, with 2,123 votes, behind 3,052 votes for journalist Magnus Linklater and 3,597 for Green Party MSP Mark Ballard.[41] Johnson was quoted as having been pleased to mobilise the student body, but disappointed at the personal campaign against him as an "English top-up fee merchant".[41]

In September 2006, his image was used in 'Boris needs you' and 'I Love Boris' material to promote the Conservative Party's image during Freshers' Week in universities.[43]

2008 London Mayoral election[edit]

After several days of speculation, Johnson announced he was a potential Conservative candidate for the London mayoral election in 2008 on 16 July 2007.[44]

He resigned as Shadow Minister for Higher Education. He was confirmed as the Conservative candidate on 27 September 2007 after gaining 75% of the vote in a public London-wide primary.[45]

The Conservative Party hired Australian election strategist Lynton Crosby to run Johnson's campaign. Aware of Johnson's propensity for committing gaffes, Crosby prevented him from holding interviews with the print and broadcast media in favour of radio talk shows and daytime television which asked "easier" questions.[46][47] Crosby also made Johnson tell fewer jokes and have a simpler haircut to help make him appear more serious.[46] The campaign targeted Conservative-leaning suburbs in outer London to capitalise on a sense of being overlooked by the Livingstone administration which had paid most attention to inner London areas.[47]

His campaign was launched in Edmonton in March 2008 when David Cameron, introducing Johnson, commented "I don't always agree with him, but I respect the fact that he's absolutely his own man."[48]

Johnson pledged to introduce new Routemaster-derived buses to replace the city's fleet of articulated buses if elected Mayor.

Johnson's candidature received opposition from across the political spectrum. Right-wing journalists Simon Heffer and Peregrine Worsthorne described Johnson as not being serious enough to hold the role of Mayor of London,[49] Worsthorne noting that the "harder he tried [to be serious], the more insincere, incoherent, evasive and even puerile he looked and sounded".[50] Ken Livingstone described Johnson as "a joke".[51] Left-of-centre commentators claimed that Johnson was not suited to be Mayor of such an ethnically diverse city because he had previously made comments which they interpreted as racist,[52] a situation exacerbated when the British National Party urged its supporters to give their second preference votes to Johnson.[53] Johnson denied allegations of racism and stated that he did not want any BNP supporters to vote for him.

Johnson's candidacy was the subject of international interest. Germany's Der Spiegel and America's National Public Radio reported the race, both quoting Johnson as saying "if you vote for the Conservatives, your wife will get bigger breasts, and your chances of driving a BMW M3 will increase",[54][55] without however giving a source for this; the BBC has quoted the same statement by him from his 2004 campaign trail.[56]

Though most pollsters—with the exception of YouGov which accurately forecast the final result—predicted either a close result or narrow win for Livingstone,[57] it was announced on 2 May 2008 Johnson had garnered a total of 1,168,738 first and second preference votes to Livingstone's 1,028,966.[58] Johnson benefited from a large voter turnout in Conservative strongholds, in particular Bexley and Bromley where he amassed a majority of over 80,000 over Livingstone.[59] Following his victory, he praised Livingstone as a "very considerable public servant" and added that he hoped to "discover a way in which the mayoralty can continue to benefit from your transparent love of London".[58] He also announced that, as a result of his victory, he would resign as Member of Parliament for Henley.[60]

As Mayor of London[edit]

See also: Mayor of London
Johnson giving a victory speech in City Hall after being elected Mayor of London.

Staff appointments[edit]

Johnson assumed control at City Hall on 4 May 2008. He appointed Richard Barnes as his Deputy Mayor on 6 May 2008, as well as appointing the following to newly devolved offices; Ian Clement as Deputy Mayor for Government Relations, Kit Malthouse as Deputy Mayor for Policing and Ray Lewis as Deputy Mayor for Young People.[61]

The Mayor also appointed Munira Mirza as his cultural adviser and Nick Boles, the founder of Policy Exchange, as Chief of Staff.[62] Sir Simon Milton became Deputy Mayor for Policy and Planning, as well as Chief of Staff.[61] He appointed Anthony Browne as Policy Director. Kulveer Ranger was appointed to Advisor for Transport and Isabel Dedring to Advisor for the Environment.

Political opponents questioned Johnson's judgement when Ray Lewis resigned on 4 July 2008, shortly after taking up his post, following allegations of financial misconduct during his prior career as a Church of England priest and inappropriate behaviour in respect of a false claim to have been appointed as a magistrate.[63] Hazel Blears, the UK Communities Secretary, said that "People across the country will note that after just two months, the new Tory administration in London is in complete disarray. Londoners need to know what Boris knew and why the situation has changed."[64] Kit Malthouse, London's Deputy Mayor for Policing, defended Lewis and said that he had "dedicated himself to saving young lives in London", regarding his policies on tackling knife crime, and called the Labour Party "ungracious" and accused them of "dancing on his political grave".[65] Johnson himself said that he was "misled" by Lewis.[66] On 22 June 2009, Ian Clement resigned after breaking rules by paying for personal items using a corporate credit card.

Public transport ticketing[edit]

At the beginning of his tenure as Mayor, Johnson announced plans to introduce Oystercard across the entire rail network in London.[67]

One of the pledges in Johnson's election manifesto was to retain Tube ticket offices, in opposition to Livingstone's proposal to close up to 40 London Underground ticket offices.[68] On 2 July 2008 the Mayor's office announced that the closure plan was to be abandoned and that offices would remain open.[69] On 21 November 2013, Transport for London announced that all London Underground ticket offices would close by 2015.[70]

Ban on use of alcohol on public transport[edit]

On 7 May 2008, Johnson announced plans to ban the consumption of alcohol on the London transport network, effective from 1 June,[71] a policy described by Jeroen Weimar, Transport for London's director of transport policing and enforcement, as reasonable, saying people should be more considerate on the trains.[72] The ban initially applied on the London Underground, Buses, DLR and Croydon Trams. The London Overground was added later in June 2008. Press releases said that the ban would apply to "stations across the capital", but did not specify whether this included National Rail stations – especially those stations not served by the TfL lines on which alcohol is banned.

On the final evening on which alcohol was to be permitted on London transport, thousands of drinkers descended on the Underground system to mark the event. Six London Underground stations were closed as trouble began, and some staff and police were assaulted. Police made 17 arrests as several trains were damaged and withdrawn from service.[72]

Forensic Audit Panel[edit]

The formation of the Forensic Audit Panel was announced on 8 May 2008. The Panel is tasked with monitoring and investigating financial management at the London Development Agency and the Greater London Authority.[73] It is headed by Patience Wheatcroft, former editor of The Sunday Telegraph. Previously the GLA investigated allegations of financial mismanagement itself.

Johnson's announcement was criticised by Labour for the perceived politicisation of this nominally independent panel, who asked if the appointment of these key Johnson allies to the panel – "to dig dirt on Ken Livingstone" – was "an appropriate use of public funds".[74] Wheatcroft is married to a Conservative councillor[75] and three of the four remaining panel members also have close links to the Conservatives: Stephen Greenhalgh (Conservative Leader of Hammersmith and Fulham Council), Patrick Frederick (Chairman of Conservative Business Relations for South East England and Southern London) and Edward Lister (Conservative Leader of Wandsworth Council).

The panel reported in July 2008.[76] Its findings included that it had "identified failings in the LDA's leadership, governance and basic controls which have led to our overall conclusion that the former LDA board was ineffective" and also raised a number of concerns about the value for money achieved on projects that the LDA had funded. However, on the central allegations that the previous administration had misused their powers, the Panel found "their attempts to influence LDA project decisions did not breach any rules or protocols".

2008 Olympics[edit]

Johnson was present at the closing ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing as London's representative to receive the Olympic flag from Guo Jinlong, the Mayor of Beijing to announce formally London as Olympic host city. At the subsequent handover party held at London House in Beijing, he gave a speech in which he declared 'ping pong is coming home'.[77]

2012 Olympics[edit]

Johnson at the 2012 Olympics

London was successful in its bid to host the 2012 Summer Olympics while Ken Livingstone was still Mayor in 2005. Johnson's role in the proceedings was to be the co-chair of an Olympic board which oversaw the Games.[78] Two of the actions subsequent to taking on this role were to improve the transport around London by making more tickets available and laying on more buses around the capital during the busy period as thousands of spectators were temporary visitors in London,[79][80] and also to allow shops and supermarkets to have longer hours on Sundays.[81]

US presidential election[edit]

In August 2008, Johnson broke from the traditional procedure of those in public office not publicly commenting on other nations' elections when he openly endorsed then-Senator Barack Obama for the presidency of the United States.[82][83] He later wrote a comment piece in The Daily Telegraph explaining his decision.[84]

New Routemaster Bus[edit]

As part of his mayoral election campaign in 2008, Johnson pledged to introduce a replacement for the popular Routemaster bus, an icon of the city. Following a design competition and awarding of the contract to the Wrightbus company, the new bus entered service in February 2012, with the first full route run by the bus launched in the summer of 2013. He has pledged to order as many as 600 of the buses for the city.

Resignation of Ian Blair[edit]

In October 2008, Johnson forced the resignation of the Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police Ian Blair, hours after taking control of London's police authority. Those in support of this measure claimed that Blair's handling of certain events, such as the death of Jean Charles de Menezes, bonus payments and bias in favour of a piece of Government legislation left his position untenable, but critics have argued that the forced resignation makes the role of the commissioner more political.[85][86]

Expenses controversy[edit]

Johnson in 2013

Several expense claims for very short taxi journeys were submitted by the Mayor, many of which included charges for taxis to wait several hours for the Mayor to use them with the meter running (for example, a return journey from City Hall to Elephant and Castle – a journey of 3 miles/5 km – which cost £99.50).[87]

There are questions about whether some of this expenditure was allowed under GLA rules, which state taxis should be used only when there is no feasible public transport alternative and which ban paying taxis to wait more than 20 minutes.[88]

Mugging intervention[edit]

On 2 November 2009, Johnson intervened in the attempted mugging of a London resident as she was walking home. The victim, documentary film maker and Ken Livingstone supporter Franny Armstrong, was pushed against a car by a "group of young girls", one wielding an iron bar. Johnson was cycling past when he responded to Armstrong's call for help. Johnson "picked up the iron bar, called after the girls and cycled after them." He also reportedly called the girls "oiks". Johnson then returned to Armstrong and walked her home. Armstrong described Johnson as her "knight on a shining bicycle". The Mayor's office, however, declined to comment on the incident.[89][90]

Youth reoffending statistics disputed[edit]

In 2011, Johnson gave evidence to the Home Affairs Select Committee, comparing a 19% re-offending rate among those released from the Feltham Young Offenders' Institution to the then national average of around 78%. The chair of the UK Statistics Authority Sir Michael Scholar, who served as private secretary to former Conservative Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in the early 1980s, wrote to the committee's chair Keith Vaz MP to tell him the figures Johnson had quoted to a panel of MPs "do not appear to stand up to scrutiny". When Joanne McCartney, a Labour member of the London Assembly, questioned Johnson's use of the statistic, Johnson replied: "There's this guy Scholar writing me letters who sounds ... like some sort of Labour stooge."[91] Johnson later admitted that his officials told him of "caveats" around the data, but pointed out that the revised re-offending rate for the institution of 39% was still substantially lower than the national average.[92]

Ejection from London Assembly Meeting[edit]

In February 2013, during a London Assembly meeting following the publication of the 2014 budget for London, Johnson was ejected from the meeting following a vote and on the grounds that his Deputy Victoria Borwick had left the chamber. Upon realising that the vote meant that he would not be questioned on the budget, Johnson referred to his political opponents as 'great supine protoplasmic invertebrate jellies.'[93]

Cycling[edit]

Johnson is a keen cyclist and made great political capital out of supporting cycling in London since coming to office in 2008. After heavy criticism, much from bloggers, that his policies were not going far enough and that London was still an extremely dangerous place to cycle, Johnson in March 2013 announced a change in his plans and declared an intention to "de-lycrafy" cycling through nearly £1 billion of investment in a variety of cycle infrastructure over the next few years including a "Crossrail for bikes" of 15 miles/24 km of segregated cycle track running east-west through London.[94][95]

On 4 August 2013, Johnson took part in the inaugural Ride London event, a 100-mile/160 km cycle ride from the Olympic Park in Stratford, passing through the Surrey Hills and finishing on the Mall in central London.

Guardian journalist Peter Walker has questioned Johnson's "true commitment" to cycling, after journalist Andrew Gilligan was appointed as London's Cycling Commissioner with few apparent qualifications in January 2013, but later that year praised Johnson for "daring to think big about cycling".[96]

The cycle hire scheme, unveiled by Johnson's predecessor Livingstone in 2008, is commonly known as 'Boris Bike' scheme as Johnson was Mayor at the time of their introduction and has subsequently expanded the scheme while in office. In September 2013 on LBC Radio, Johnson vowed to change his name by deed poll to "Barclays Johnson" if sponsoring bank Barclays were to give a further £100 million towards the scheme.[97][98]

24-hour Tube[edit]

On 21 November 2013 Johnson announced major changes to the operation of London Underground, including the extension of Tube operating hours to run through the night at weekends. The announcement also revealed that all staffed Underground ticket offices would be closed with the aim of saving over £40 million a year, with automated ticketing systems provided instead.[99][100]

Personal life[edit]

Johnson on a demonstration against hospital closures with Liberal Democrat MP John Hemming (left) and Conservative MP Graham Stuart (centre) on 28 March 2006.

Johnson is one of the most recognisable figures in British politics[101] – partly attributable to his trademark unruly hairstyle (one exception to this trademark was during the 2008 Olympics). He is one of few British politicians identifiable by his first name alone. Reportedly, fearing that this familiarity made him more likeable and was helping his chances during the London Mayoral Campaign, Labour MP Tessa Jowell set up a 'swearbox' where any campaign member referring to him as 'Boris' would pay a fine.[102] Jowell herself denied these claims. Johnson has since attracted a variety of irreverent names, including "BoJo" (a portmanteau of his forename and surname).[103]

Johnson has been a frequent target for satirists. The magazine Private Eye pictured him on the front cover of issues 1120 (26 November 2004), 1156 (14 April 2006), and 1214 (11 July 2008). He has featured frequently in its cartoon strip (currently called Dave Snooty and his Pals) as "Boris the Menace" (cf. Dennis the Menace).[104]

He has shown himself to be outspoken on issues which are treated by some as belonging to the realms of political correctness. In Friends, Voters, Countrymen (2001), Johnson wrote that "if gay marriage were OK – and I was uncertain on the issue – then I saw no reason in principle why a union should not be consecrated between three men, as well as two men, or indeed three men and a dog."[105] In recent years Johnson has played down his previous support for the anti-gay law known as Section 28.[106] and has expressed more moderate views on the issue. In 2006 and 2008 he took part in the London Gay Pride celebrations.[107] Three weeks before the London mayoral election, 2012, he prevented London buses from carrying advertising for a Christian campaign which aimed to preach that homosexuality could be "cured." The campaign was to advertise the phrase, "Not gay! Ex-gay, post-gay and proud. Get over it!" Johnson told The Guardian that he regarded London as "one of the most tolerant cities in the world and intolerant of intolerance". He said, "It is clearly offensive to suggest that being gay is an illness that someone recovers from and I am not prepared to have that suggestion driven around London on our buses".[108]

Shortly after the 7 July bombings in 2005, Johnson made the following comments:

To any non-Muslim reader of the Koran, Islamophobia – fear of Islam – seems a natural reaction, and, indeed, exactly what that text is intended to provoke. Judged purely on its scripture – to say nothing of what is preached in the mosques – it is the most viciously sectarian of all religions in its heartlessness towards unbelievers. ...
The trouble with this disgusting arrogance and condescension [of Theo Van Gogh's killer] is that it is widely supported in Koranic texts, and we look in vain for the enlightened Islamic teachers and preachers who will begin the process of reform. What is going on in these mosques and madrasas? When is someone going to get 18th century on Islam's mediaeval arse?
... We – non-Muslims – cannot solve the problem; we cannot brainwash them (the suicide bombers) out of their fundamentalist beliefs. The Islamicists last week horribly and irrefutably asserted the supreme importance of that faith, overriding all worldly considerations. It will take a huge effort of courage and skill to win round the many thousands of British Muslims who are in a similar state of alienation, and to make them see that their faith must be compatible with British values and with loyalty to Britain. That means disposing of the first taboo, and accepting that the problem is Islam. Islam is the problem.[109]

Three years after the bombing, Johnson told The Guardian the following:

I urge people, particularly during Ramadan, to find out more about Islam, increase your understanding and learning, even fast for a day with your Muslim neighbour and break your fast at the local mosque. I would be very surprised if you didn't find that you share more in common than you thought.[110]

He has made appearances on television explaining his article on the 7/7 attacks, saying he now believes, after having researched the Qu'ran more in depth, that it is a "religion of peace".[111]

Johnson is known for his love of cycling and regularly cycles to work. He has been the victim of several bike thefts and has expressed his desire to plant "decoy bicycles throughout Islington and send Navy SEALs in through the windows of thieves".[112] He unveiled a bicycle sharing system modelled on Velib in London in July 2010, though the concept was due to his predecessor.[113]

Johnson has stated that he is in favour of legalising medical marijuana.[114] He has also stated that in the past he has "often smoked cannabis".[115]

Johnson is a lover of Latin.[116]

Controversies[edit]

Stuart Collier[edit]

Johnson was criticised in 1995, when a recording of a telephone conversation made in 1990 was made public, in which he is heard agreeing under pressure to supply to a former schoolmate, Darius Guppy, the private address and telephone number of the News of the World journalist Stuart Collier. There is no evidence that Johnson supplied the requested information, even though he promised under duress that he would. Guppy wished to have Collier beaten up for attempting to smear members of his family.[117][118] Collier was not attacked, but Johnson did not alert the police and the incident became public knowledge only when a transcript of the conversation was published in the Mail on Sunday.[119] Johnson retained his job at the Telegraph but was reprimanded by its editor Max Hastings.[1]

Alleged theft of cigar case[edit]

Johnson has been investigated by the police for the theft, in 2003, of a cigar case belonging to Tariq Aziz, an associate of Saddam Hussein, which Johnson had found in the rubble of Aziz's house in Baghdad. Aziz is currently in prison in Iraq, having been convicted of ordering the summary execution of 42 merchants. He faces other charges in relation to the brutal suppression of the Shia Muslim uprising after the first 1991 Gulf War. At the time, Johnson wrote an article in the Daily Telegraph, stating he had taken the cigar case and would return it to its owner upon request.[120] Despite this admission in 2003, Johnson received no indication from the police that he was being investigated for theft until 2008, leading supporters of Johnson to express suspicion that the investigation coincided with his candidacy for the position of London Mayor. "This is a monumental waste of time", said Johnson.[121] On 24 June 2008, Johnson was forced to hand the cigar case over to police while they carried out enquiries into whether the Iraq (UN Sanctions) Order 2003 had been breached.[122]

People of Liverpool[edit]

On 16 October 2004, The Spectator carried an unsigned editorial[123] comment criticising a perceived trend to mawkish sentimentality by the public. Using British hostage Kenneth Bigley as an example, the editorial claimed the inhabitants of Bigley's home city of Liverpool were wallowing in a "vicarious victimhood"; that many Liverpudlians had a "deeply unattractive psyche"; and that they refused to accept responsibility for "drunken fans at the back of the crowd who mindlessly tried to fight their way into the ground" during the Hillsborough disaster, a contention at odds with the findings of the Taylor Report. The editorial closed with: "In our maturity as a civilisation, we should accept that we can cut out the cancer of ignorant sentimentality without diminishing, as in this case, our utter disgust at a foul and barbaric act of murder."

Although Johnson had not written the piece (journalist Simon Heffer later said he "had a hand" in it), he accepted responsibility for its publication.[124] The Conservative leader at the time, Michael Howard (a supporter of Liverpool F.C.), condemned the editorial, saying "I think what was said in The Spectator was nonsense from beginning to end", and sent Johnson on a tour of contrition to the city.[125] There, in numerous interviews and public appearances, Johnson defended the editorial's thesis (that the deaths of figures such as Bigley and Diana, Princess of Wales, were over-sentimentalised); but he apologised for the article's wording and for using Liverpool and Bigley's death as examples, saying "I think the article was too trenchantly expressed but we were trying to make a point about sentimentality". Michael Howard resisted calls to dismiss Johnson over the Bigley affair, but dismissed him the next month over the Wyatt revelations.

Petronella Wyatt affair[edit]

In 2004, British newspapers reported that Johnson had had a four-year affair with Petronella Wyatt.[126] The affair, which had been well hinted at in UK newspaper gossip columns, included passionate London taxi cab rides around St John's Wood during which they would ask the cab driver to insert cassette tapes of Wyatt singing Puccini.[127] Although Johnson had promised to leave his wife,[128] after a break-up, they had rekindled their relationship during which Wyatt had become pregnant and then had an abortion. This resulted in her mother discovering the affair and reporting it to the press.[126] Johnson was sacked from his shadow cabinet post by Michael Howard, not because of the affair but because he had lied about it.[126]

Damian Green arrest[edit]

Johnson was informed in advance of the arrest of Conservative MP Damian Green and told acting Metropolitan Police Commissioner Paul Stephenson that he did not regard the arrest as 'common sense policing'.[129] A spokesman for Johnson says he told Stephenson he would need to see "convincing evidence that this action was necessary and proportionate," and that it would be better for police to spend their time preventing gun and knife crimes.[130] As chair of the Metropolitan Police Authority, Johnson's position means he is not permitted to be involved in operational matters. Additionally Johnson is prohibited by Section 3, Paragraph 2(d) of the London Assembly Code of Conduct from doing anything that compromises the impartiality of a police officer. Andy Hayman, former Metropolitan Police assistant commissioner, commented that Johnson "was informed of the Green arrest in his position as chairman of the police authority but chose to react in the role of prominent Tory politician" and called Johnson's actions "political interference in operational policing."[131]

A formal complaint against Johnson was filed on 6 December by Len Duvall, alleging that Johnson "is guilty of four 'clear and serious' code of conduct breaches by speaking to Green, an arrested suspect in an ongoing criminal investigation, and publicly prejudging the outcome of the police inquiry following a private briefing by senior officers" and that Johnson has brought the office of Mayor "into disrepute".[132] Johnson admitted to telephoning Green after he had been bailed, an action which Duvall, a former Metropolitan Police Authority chairman, described as "absolutely astonishing and inappropriate," while Stephenson said it would be "entirely inappropriate" to prejudge an inquiry. Johnson had stated that he "had a 'hunch'" that Green would not be charged.[133] The formal complaint gave investigators ten days to decide whether to submit Johnson to formal inquiry by the Standards Board for England, where a guilty verdict could have seen him suspended or removed as Mayor of London, or banned from public office for up to five years.[132]

On 7 January 2009, several sources reported that the Greater London Authority and the Metropolitan Police Authority had decided to pursue a formal investigation of Johnson in-house.[134][135] The GLA could have imposed a maximum penalty of three months' suspension from office if it had found Johnson guilty.[134] However, on 24 February 2009 the GLA announced that Johnson had been found not guilty on all counts.[136] However, despite clearing Johnson of any charges, investigator Jonathan Goolden said Johnson had been "extraordinary and unwise" in his actions and should be more careful in the future.[137]

On 16 April 2009, the Crown Prosecution Service announced that it was not going to bring a case against either Damian Green or Galley, the Home Office civil servant who passed data to Mr Green, as there was "insufficient evidence" for either to face charges. This followed the Commons Home Affairs Select Committee criticising Home Office civil servants for prompting the investigation by using "exaggerated" claims about the implications for national security that the leaks held.

"Chicken feed" remark[edit]

In a July 2009 interview with Stephen Sackur on the BBC programme HARDtalk, Johnson referred to the £250,000 per annum income he receives from his side job as a columnist for The Daily Telegraph as "chicken feed," suggesting that he wrote the columns "as a way of relaxation ... on a Sunday morning," and that he wrote "very fast" so the columns did not take time away from his duties as Mayor.[138] These comments were widely criticised, since the UK was at the time in economic recession and £250,000 is roughly 10 times the current average yearly wage for a worker in the UK.[139]

Responding to these comments, and in reaction to an upcoming restructuring exercise in which more than 100 jobs were expected to be eliminated at City Hall, the trade union UNISON, which represents 350 GLA staff, staged a protest featuring a "penned-up chicken man" being pelted with chicken feed by a Johnson lookalike in a pig mask.[140]

Veronica Wadley[edit]

In October 2009, it was alleged that Johnson had selected former Evening Standard editor Veronica Wadley as head of the Arts Council For London because of her support for his candidacy during his 2008 mayoral campaign.[141] Wadley was described by Liz Forgan, head of the Arts Council, as being "manifestly less qualified than three of her competitors", adding that she had "almost no arts credibility" and that she had been rejected in the first round of interviews by both Forgan and David Durie, being favoured only by Johnson's Cultural Advisor Munira Mirza. Johnson wrote to Culture Secretary Ben Bradshaw that he felt Wadley's "fundraising skills and views on music education made her the obvious candidate."[142]

Helen Macintyre[edit]

Johnson committed a "minor technical breach of the code of conduct" in failing "to formally disclose his relationship with unpaid City Hall adviser Helen Macintyre", the standards panel of the Greater London Authority found on 15 December 2010.[143]

The mayor's office insisted that Macintyre's appointment was part of a "thorough, transparent process",[144] and the standards panel deemed it an "oversight" not so serious as to require censure.[143] Johnson fathered a child with Macintyre in 2009.[145] It emerged on 21 May 2013 that Macintyre had lost an appeal against a July 2012 High Court ruling rejecting an application for a privacy injunction.[146] The Court of Appeal reaffirmed that it was in the "public interest" for the paternity of their daughter to be openly known.[145]

St Patrick's Day celebrations[edit]

In an interview for the New Statesman in February 2012 he criticised London's St Patrick's Day gala dinner celebrations. Linking them to Sinn Féin, he branded the event as 'Lefty crap'.[147] He subsequently apologised for the remarks.[148]

Remarks about women in Malaysian universities[edit]

Boris Johnson was present at the launch of the World Islamic Economic Forum in London in July 2013, where he answered questions alongside Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak and other public figures.[149][150][151] Responding to a question about women in the Islamic world, Razak said, "Before coming here, my officials have told me that the latest university intake in Malaysia, a Muslim country, 68% will be women entering our universities."[149][150][151] Johnson then interrupted and said, "They've got to find men to marry." The remark elicited laughter and groans, and was later criticised by women who attended the event and others who were offended.[149][150][151] Pippa Crerar, political correspondent for the London Evening Standard, was at the event and wrote that it was "a stupid comment" but "clearly a joke and was met with the groans it deserved".[149]

After controversy erupted, Johnson issued a statement: "Some people seem to have misconstrued something I said at a press conference 5 days ago, about relative male underachievement in university entrance. It is utterly ludicrous and infuriating to suggest that I think women go to University to find a husband. I was merely pointing out something that I've said several times before — that with a graduate cohort 68 per cent female you intensify the phenomenon sociologists identify as assortative mating."[150] A source at City Hall described the comment as "off the cuff and completely light-hearted".[152]

Charitable activity[edit]

Johnson is a supporter of many causes, particularly the teaching of Classics in inner city schools, and is a patron of The Iris Project. He has promised to donate £25,000 of his income from his Daily Telegraph column to such activities.[153]

Johnson has also supported Book Aid International amongst other charities.

In 2006, he took part in a charity football match between England and Germany, consisting of celebrities and former players. He came on as a substitute for England in the 85th minute and infamously rugby-tackled former German international Maurizio Gaudino, in an attempt to win the ball.[154]

Ancestry[edit]

Sources[157][158]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Gimson, Andrew (2006) [2007]. Boris: The Rise of Boris Johnson. Pocket Books [Simon & Schuster]. pp. 11–12, 26–27, 71, 118, 119, 254. ISBN 0-7432-7584-5. 
  2. ^ "London mayor: Boris Johnson wins second term by tight margin5 May 2012 Last updated at 01:35". BBC News. 5 May 2012. Retrieved 5 May 2012. 
  3. ^ de Peyer, Robin (26 August 2014). "Boris Johnson declares he will stand in Uxbridge and South Ruislip". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 26 August 2014. 
  4. ^ Llewellyn Smith, Julia (18 May 2008)."Boris Johnson, by his mother Charlotte Johnson Wahl". The Sunday Telegraph (London).
  5. ^ rnes, Sholto (27 March 2008). "Who is Boris Johnson?". New Statesman (London). Archived from the original on 3 April 2008. 
  6. ^ Clapham, Andrew (1993). "Human Rights in the Private Sphere". OUP. p. 186.
  7. ^ "Leo Johnson, partner, PwC Sustainability and Climate Change". PricewaterhouseCoopers. 15 January 2009. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  8. ^ Stone, Norman (23 April 2008)."My dream for Turkey, by Boris's great-grandfather". The Spectator (London).
  9. ^ "Interview of Boris Johnson in French". France Inter (Paris). March 2013. 
  10. ^ Woodward, Will (17 July 2007). "Phooey! One-man melting pot ready to take on King Newt". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 7 July 2010. 
  11. ^ Warner, Gerald (23 April 2010). "Revealed: how David Cameron and Boris Johnson are related (and Nick Clegg's Mata Hari connection)". The Telegraph blogs (London). 
  12. ^ "About Boris". Boris Johnson. Retrieved 8 May 2008. 
  13. ^ April 2004.53.0&s=space+speaker%3A10281 "Westminster Hall debates". Theyworkforyou.com. 20 April 2004. Retrieved 7 July 2010. [dead link]
  14. ^ Deedes, Henry (7 August 2006). "Pandora column: A youthful flirtation comes back to haunt Boris". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on 22 November 2008. 
  15. ^ "David Dimbleby Slams 'Disgraceful' Boris Johnson For Ruining Bullingdon Club". Huffington Post. 28 May 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2014. 
  16. ^ "UK riots: how do Boris Johnson's Bullingdon antics compare?". The Guardian. 10 August 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2014. 
  17. ^ "Lyn Barber Interviews Boris Johnson". The Guardian (London). 5 October 2003. 
  18. ^ Doward, Jamie (29 August 2004). "No dumb blond". The Observer (London). Retrieved 7 July 2010. 
  19. ^ "Boris celebrates Vaisakhi in Southall". BackBoris.com. 6 April 2008. Archived from the original on 13 April 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2008. 
  20. ^ Wheeler, Brian (4 May 2008). "The Boris Johnson story". BBC News. Retrieved 13 May 2008. 
  21. ^ Bates, Stephen (14 May 2008). "People". The Guardian (London). 
  22. ^ Doward, Jamie (29 August 2004). "Profile – Boris Johnson – No dumb blond". The Observer (London). Retrieved 11 December 2012. 
  23. ^ Wheeler, Brian (4 May 2008). "The Boris Johnson story". BBC News.
  24. ^ "Boris Johnson's media scrapes". BBC News. 17 July 2007.
  25. ^ a b Wintour, Patrick (24 March 2013). "Boris Johnson caught in bicycle crash of an interview with Eddie Mair". The Guardian (London).
  26. ^ "Seventy-two virgins". OLIS web OPAC. Retrieved 29 February 2009.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)[dead link]
  27. ^ Neill, Graeme (18 January 2008). "Boris stops British book". The Bookseller (London). Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. 
  28. ^ Brook, Stephen (15 May 2008). "Boris to return to Telegraph column". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 7 July 2010. 
  29. ^ "The Conservative Party has decided to sell the lease on its London HQ.", BBC News, 11 November 2003. Retrieved 15 April 2008.
  30. ^ "On your bike, Boris: Howard sacks Johnson over private life". London: The Independent. 14 November 2004. Archived from the original on 13 December 2004. Retrieved 12 September 2013. 
  31. ^ Benedict Brogan, "Boris Johnson interview," The Telegraph 29 April 2010
  32. ^ Bennett, Asa (17 September 2012). "Boris Johnson lacks the skills to be prime minister, says Tory chairman | News". LondonlovesBusiness.com. Retrieved 8 October 2012. 
  33. ^ Embley, Jochan; Wright, Oliver (6 August 2014). "Boris Johnson eyes return to Parliament, in spite of breaking ‘two jobs’ commitment". The Independent. Retrieved 12 August 2014. 
  34. ^ "Boris Johnson to seek 2015 Commons return". BBC News. 6 August 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2014. 
  35. ^ Roberts, Yvonne (3 April 2006)."To Boris or not to Boris". The Guardian (London).
  36. ^ Barber, Lynn (19 October 2008). "No more Mr Nice Guy". The Guardian (London).
  37. ^ Cadwalldr, Carole (23 October 2011). "Just Boris: The Irresistible Rise of a Political Celebrity by Sonia Purnell – review". The Observer (London).
  38. ^ Webster, Philip (3 April 2006). "Johnson 'will keep his job'". The Times (London). Retrieved 17 September 2006.  (subscription required)
  39. ^ Bunbury, Stephanie (8 April 2006). "Bonking Boris a toff-class act". The Age (Melbourne).
  40. ^ a b Ford, Liz (27 January 2006). "Damp greeting from students for Boris Johnson". The Guardian (London). 
  41. ^ a b c Fazakerley, Anna (24 February 2006),"Blond has more fun but fails to thwart anti top-up fee vote". Times Higher Education Supplement (London).
  42. ^ "Pint Poured Over Boris Johnson MP". YouTube. 
  43. ^ Woodward, Will (6 September 2006). "Boris Johnson goes Warhol to become poster boy for Tories". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 17 September 2006. 
  44. ^ Jones, George (16 July 2007). "Boris Johnson to run for mayor". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  45. ^ "Johnson is Tory mayor candidate". BBC News. 27 September 2007. Retrieved 2 January 2010. 
  46. ^ a b Glover, Julian (2 May 2008). "The Jeeves to Johnson's Bertie Wooster: the man who may have got him elected". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2 May 2008. 
  47. ^ a b Rayner, Gordon; Pierce, Andrew (2 May 2008). "Boris Johnson profile: Shambolic success story". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 8 October 2008. 
  48. ^ "Cameron backs 'brilliant' Johnson". BBC News. 31 March 2008. Retrieved 31 March 2008. 
  49. ^ Heffer, Simon (1 May 2008)."Why treat the London election as a joke?". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 1 May 2008.
  50. ^ [Worsrthorne, Peregrine (1 May 2008). "A serious Boris? You must be joking". The First Post (London). Archived from the original on 2 May 2008. Retrieved 1 May 2008. 
  51. ^ Prince, Rosa (30 April 2008). "Boris Johnson and Ken Livingstone target second choice votes". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 8 October 2008. 
  52. ^ "Labour MPs spurn Boris mayor bid". BBC News. 4 August 2007. Retrieved 8 October 2008. 
  53. ^ Jones, Sam (2 April 2008). "Give second vote to Johnson, BNP tells supporters". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  54. ^ "The Bizarre Fight to Be Mayor of London". Der Spiegel (Hamburg). 17 April 2008.
  55. ^ "London Mayor's Race Not Your Average Election". National Public Radio (Washington, DC). 21 April 2008.
  56. ^ Wheeler, Brian (4 May 2008). "The Boris Johnson story". BBC News. Retrieved 2 January 2010. 
  57. ^ "Boris and YouGov Triumphant". Daily Research News Online. Retrieved 8 October 2008. 
  58. ^ a b "Johnson wins London mayoral race". BBC News. 3 May 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2008. 
  59. ^ Grice, Andrew (3 May 2008). "Cripes! Boris takes London (and rounds off a rotten day for Gordon Brown)". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on 5 May 2008. Retrieved 8 October 2008. 
  60. ^ Watt, Nicholas (3 May 2008). "Johnson snatches Tories' biggest prize". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  61. ^ a b "Boris Johnson announces further senior appointments to his administration" (Press release). Greater London Authority. 6 May 2008. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 8 May 2008. 
  62. ^ Watts, Robert; Oliver, Jonathan (11 May 2008). "Boris Tory HQ team puts reins on Boris Johnson". The Times (London). Retrieved 11 May 2008.  (subscription required)
  63. ^ Taylor, Matthew (4 July 2008). "London mayor: Johnson forced to remove his deputy mayor after magistrate claim proves false". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 July 2008. 
  64. ^ "Tories in "disarray" over Lewis". BBC News. 5 July 2008. Retrieved 5 July 2008. 
  65. ^ "Knife quest is "Lewis legacy"". BBC News. 5 July 2008. Retrieved 5 July 2008. 
  66. ^ "Mayor Johnson 'misled' by deputy". BBC News. 5 July 2008. Retrieved 5 July 2008. 
  67. ^ Waugh, Paul (12 May 2008). "Boris plans to 'Oysterise' overground rail services by next May". Evening Standard. Retrieved 21 November 2013. 
  68. ^ Johnson, Boris. "Saying No To Ticket Office Closures". Getting Londoners Moving (Transport Manifesto for the 2008 Mayoral election) (Back Boris campaign). p. 38. Retrieved 21 November 2013. 
  69. ^ Murray, Dick (2 July 2008). "Mayor scraps Ken plan to axe 40 Tube ticket offices". Evening Standard. Retrieved 21 November 2013. 
  70. ^ "London Underground in 24-hour plans as ticket offices shut". BBC News. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 17 February 2015. 
  71. ^ "Mayor unveils plan to ban alcohol on the transport network" (Press release). Greater London Authority. 6 May 2008. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 7 May 2008. 
  72. ^ a b "Tube drinks party sparks mayhem". BBC News. 1 June 2008. Retrieved 5 July 2008. 
  73. ^ "Mayor of London announces new Forensic Audit Panel to investigate GLA and LDA" (Press release). Greater London Authority. 8 May 2008. Archived from the original on 18 May 2008. Retrieved 7 May 2008. 
  74. ^ "Labour accuse Mayor of 'Tory witch hunt'". MayorWatch. 9 May 2008. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 12 September 2013. 
  75. ^ The Media Guardian 100 – 87 Patience Wheatcroft. The Guardian (London). 17 July 2006.
  76. ^ "Report of the Mayor's Forensic Audit Panel". Greater London Authority. 2008. 
  77. ^ "Ping-Pong's Coming Home! " Gary William Murning Online". Garymurning.wordpress.com. 25 August 2008. Retrieved 7 July 2010. 
  78. ^ "The Mayor of London – 2012 Olympics". London 2012. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2012. 
  79. ^ "Boris Johnson on London 2012 Olympics tickets and transport". The Guardian (video). 30 July 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2012. 
  80. ^ "London 2012: Boris Johnson says capital is prepared". BBC News. 22 July 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2012. 
  81. ^ Bozier, Luke (9 September 2012). "Boris should fight for London to be open on Sundays". Conservative Home blogs. Retrieved 11 December 2012. 
  82. ^ Mulholland, Hélène (1 August 2008). "Barack Obama gets backing from Boris Johnson". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  83. ^ Prince, Rosa (1 August 2008). "Boris Johnson backs Barack Obama as US President". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  84. ^ Johnson, Boris (21 October 2008). "Barack Obama: Why I believe he should be the next President". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 21 October 2008. 
  85. ^ "Britain's top policeman resigns". BBC News. 2 October 2008. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  86. ^ O'neill, Sean; Fresco, Adam; Coates, Sam (3 October 2008). "Boris Johnson forces Sir Ian Blair to quit as police chief". The Times (London). Retrieved 1 April 2010.  (subscription required)
  87. ^ "London Assembly Mayor's Question Time – 17 June 2009" (PDF). 
  88. ^ "Expenses and Benefits Framework" (PDF). 
  89. ^ "Johnson saves woman from 'oiks'". BBC News. 3 November 2009. Retrieved 7 November 2009. 
  90. ^ "London Mayor Boris Johnson Saves Filmmaker from Mugging". Time (New York). 4 November 2009. Retrieved 7 November 2009. 
  91. ^ Mulholland, Hélène (16 November 2011). "Boris Johnson says UK Statistics Authority chair is 'Labour stooge'". The Guardian (London). 
  92. ^ Donovan, Tim (16 November 2011). "London mayor admits 'caveats' in youth crime statistics". BBC News. 
  93. ^ Williams, Rob (25 February 2013). "Video: 'Great supine protoplasmic invertebrate jellies!' – Boris Johnson's parting shot at London Assembly members after they vote NOT to grill him over budget cuts". The Independent (London). Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  94. ^ Edwards, Tom (7 March 2013). "'Crossrail for bikes' set for London". BBC News. Retrieved 14 April 2013. 
  95. ^ Edwards, Tom (6 March 2013). "How London bloggers changed cycling". BBC News. Retrieved 14 April 2013. 
  96. ^ Walker, Peter (7 March 2013). "Boris Johnson's bold thinking could change the future of London cycling". Guardian Bike blog (London: The Guardian). Retrieved 4 April 2013. 
  97. ^ "Boris: If They Pay For Bikes, I'll Call Myself Barclay's Johnson". LBC. 8 July 2009. Retrieved 1 October 2013. 
  98. ^ "WATCH: Boris’ Barclays Deed Poll Promise – Guy Fawkes' blog". Order-order.com. 3 September 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2013. 
  99. ^ "Every Tube ticket office to close". BBC News. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 21 November 2013. 
  100. ^ Beard, Matthew (21 November 2013). "950 London Underground staff to lose their jobs in Tube ticket office shake-up". Evening Standard. Retrieved 21 November 2013. 
  101. ^ "Boris Johnson's columns". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 11 December 2012. 
  102. ^ Hensher, Philip (7 April 2008)."Banning Boris-ing is a waste of time". The Independent (London). Retrieved 15 April 2008.
  103. ^ "The BoJo, Ken and Bri show". New Statesman (London). 6 September 2007. Archived from the original on 5 December 2007. Retrieved 7 July 2010. 
  104. ^ "Dennis the Menace at 60". BBC News. 17 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 
  105. ^ "Boris Johnson hits back at his critics". Pink News (London). 27 August 2007. 
  106. ^ "Boris Johnson courts gay vote". Pink News (London). 23 September 2007. Retrieved 13 July 2008. 
  107. ^ Mulholland, Helene (2 July 2010). "Boris Johnson to attend London gay pride celebrations". The Guardian (London). 
  108. ^ Mulholland, Helene; Booth, Robert; Strudwick, Patrick (12 April 2012). "Anti-gay adverts pulled from bus campaign by Boris Johnson". The Guardian (London). 
  109. ^ "Just don't call it war". The Spectator (London). 16 July 2005. Archived from the original on 6 May 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2008. 
  110. ^ Hill, Dave (8 September 2009). "Boris Johnson converts to Islam". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  111. ^ Paris, Natalie (20 April 2008). "Boris Johnson defends stance on Islam in mayoral debate". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  112. ^ Blunden, Mark (16 March 2007). "'Sharia law for bike thieves,' says MP Boris". Islington Tribune. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  113. ^ "London saddles up for new bike hire scheme". London: BBC News. 30 July 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2010. 
  114. ^ "Boris Johnson: Legalise cannabis for pain relief". The Daily Telegraph (London). 24 April 2008. Retrieved 8 October 2012. 
  115. ^ "Boris: I took cocaine and cannabis". Oxford Mail. 4 June 2007. Retrieved 8 October 2012. 
  116. ^ "London's schools: The lessons of Boris". The Economist (London). 10 November 2012. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2012. 
  117. ^ "Boris Johnson: You Ask The Questions". The Independent (London). 1 January 2007. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  118. ^ "Exhibit 3, pages 12–13 – affidavits of the man hired by Guppy". Nobodylikesagrass.com. 5 October 1960. Retrieved 7 July 2010. 
  119. ^ Scriven, Marcus (16 July 1995). "Words of Dishonour" The Mail on Sunday (London).
  120. ^ Johnson, Boris (1 May 2003). "Nice try, Tariq Aziz... but no cigar.". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 12 September 2013. 
  121. ^ "Police probe Boris Johnson over cigar 'theft'". The Daily Telegraph (London). 27 February 2007.
  122. ^ "Mayor's cigar case 'in custody'". BBC News. 24 June 2008. Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  123. ^ October 2004&id=5126 Spectator – leader[dead link] of 16 October 2004.
  124. ^ Johnson, Boris (23 October 2004). "What I should say sorry for". The Spectator (London). Retrieved 13 July 2007.
  125. ^ "Boris sorry for Scouse stereotype". BBC News. 19 October 2004. 
  126. ^ a b c Porter, Andrew; Hellen, Nicholas (14 November 2004). "Boris Johnson sacked for lying over affair". The Times (London). 
  127. ^ Lewis, Roger (15 October 2006). "The only dumb blond in Westminster village". The Daily Telegraph (London).
  128. ^ "Woodrow, Verushka, Pericles and Petronella: welcome to the world of the Wyatts". The Independent (London). 20 November 2004.
  129. ^ Simpson, Aislinn (28 November 2008). "Boris Johnson expresses 'trenchant concerns' over Damian Green arrest". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  130. ^ Sparrow, Andrew (28 November 2008). "Tories express fury with police over Damian Green arrest". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  131. ^ Hayman, Andy (12 January 2008). "Next time, police will think twice before telling Boris". The Times (London).  (subscription required)
  132. ^ a b Townsend, Mark (7 December 2008). "Boris Johnson at risk of investigation over Green raid". The Observer (London). Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  133. ^ Edwards, Richard (7 December 2008). "Damian Green affair: 'astonishing' Boris Johnson gaffe". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  134. ^ a b Mulholland, Hélène (7 January 2009). "Boris Johnson to face inquiry over Damian Green intervention". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  135. ^ Greenwood, Chris (7 January 2009). "Johnson to face Whitehall leaks probe". The Independent (London). Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  136. ^ Goolden, Jonathan (24 February 2009). "Report of an Investigation – Boris Johnson". Greater London Authority. [dead link]
  137. ^ "Mayor warned over 'unwise' action". BBC News. 24 February 2009. Retrieved 2 January 2010. 
  138. ^ "Mayor's £250,000 'chicken feed'". BBC News. 14 July 2009. Retrieved 2 January 2010. 
  139. ^ Mulholland, Hélène (14 July 2009). "Johnson condemned for describing £250,000 deal as 'chicken feed'". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  140. ^ Mulholland, Hélène (21 July 2009). "Union warns Boris Johnson of industrial action over job cuts". The Guardian (London). 
  141. ^ Mulholland, Hélène (9 October 2009). "Ken Livingstone claims Boris Johnson tried to 'pay off' former Evening Standard editor". The Guardian (London). 
  142. ^ Coates, Sam (8 October 2009). "Boris Johnson 'broke rules' by proposing ally for top London arts job". The Times (London).  (subscription required)
  143. ^ a b Mulholland, Helene (15 December 2010). "No censure for Boris Johnson over relationship with unpaid City Hall adviser". The Guardian (London). 
  144. ^ Mulholland, Hélène (20 July 2010). "Boris Johnson pressed for full details of the appointment of his alleged lover". The Guardian (London). 
  145. ^ a b "Public has right to know about Boris Johnson's secret lovechild, court rules". The Daily Telegraph (London). 21 May 2013. 
  146. ^ Halliday, Josh (21 May 2013). "Public has right to know Boris Johnson fathered child during affair, court rules". The Guardian (London).
  147. ^ "Boris Johnson calls London St Patrick's day event lefty Sinn Féin crap". Belfast Telegraph. 11 February 2012. 
  148. ^ "Johnson apologises to London Irish for St.Patrick's Day slur". The Irish Times (Dublin). 13 March 2012. Archived from the original on 13 March 2012. Retrieved 13 March 2012. 
  149. ^ a b c d Topping, Alexandra (8 July 2013). "Boris Johnson criticised for suggesting women go to university to find husband". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 16 July 2013. 
  150. ^ a b c d Wright, Oliver (8 July 2013). "Boris Johnson gaffe: Why do women go to university? To find men to marry...". The Independent (London). Retrieved 16 July 2013. 
  151. ^ a b c Bienkov, Adam (8 July 2013). ""They've got to find men to marry": Boris Johnson on why women attend university". Snipe. Retrieved 16 July 2013. 
  152. ^ Dominiczak, Peter (9 July 2013). "Boris Johnson: Ludicrous to suggest I think women only go to university to find a husband". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 16 July 2013. 
  153. ^ Brook, Stephen (15 May 2008). "Boris to return to Telegraph column". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 1 April 2010. 
  154. ^ Fenton, Ben (5 April 2006). "Great tackle, Boris – but it's football, not rugby". Daily Telegraph (London). 
  155. ^ "Sir James Fawcett". www.geni.com. 17 January 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  156. ^ "Fawcett, J. E. S. (James Edmund Sandford) 1913–1991: WorldCat" identities". Worldcat.org. 16 November 1970. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  157. ^ Apart from 6, 12 and 13, taken from the articles on persons in the Ancestral Chart and from the article on Prince Paul of Württemberg
  158. ^ "Boris Johnson, Mayor of London". Heraldic Media Limited. 12 May 2010. Retrieved 28 November 2013. 

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

News articles
Media offices
Preceded by
Frank Johnson
Editor of The Spectator
1999–2005
Succeeded by
Matthew d'Ancona
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Michael Heseltine
Member of Parliament for Henley
20012008
Succeeded by
John Howell
Political offices
Preceded by
Ken Livingstone
Mayor of London
2008–present
Incumbent