Gnedenko was a leading member of the Russian school of probability theory and statistics. He also worked on applications of statistics to reliability and quality control in manufacturing. He wrote a history of mathematics in Russia (published 1946) and with O. B. Sheynin the section on the history of probability theory in the history of mathematics by Andrei Kolmogorov and Adolph P. Yushkevich (published 1992). In 1958 he was a plenary speaker at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Edinburgh with a talk entitled "Limit theorems of probability theory".