Born in the U.S.A.
|Born in the U.S.A.|
|Studio album by Bruce Springsteen|
|Released||June 4, 1984|
|Recorded||January 1982 – March 1984; The Power Station and The Hit Factory in New York City|
|Producer||Jon Landau, Chuck Plotkin, Bruce Springsteen, Steven Van Zandt|
|Bruce Springsteen chronology|
|Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band chronology|
|Singles from Born in the U.S.A.|
Born in the U.S.A. is the seventh studio album by American rock singer-songwriter Bruce Springsteen, released on June 4, 1984. A critical and commercial triumph, it found Springsteen marking a departure in his sound. While its predecessor, the dark and acoustic Nebraska, featured songs of pessimism and isolation, Born in the U.S.A.'s lyrics expressed signs of hope in the daily fight of the ordinary American in following the American Dream, a new feeling complemented by synthesized arrangements and a pop-flavored, radio-oriented sound that helped Springsteen to extend his popularity and appeal to mainstream audiences. The album was supported by an enormous commercial campaign that helped create several hit singles, as well as remixes and music videos.
Born in the U.S.A. was the best-selling album of 1985 in the United States (and also Springsteen's most successful album ever), selling 15 million copies in the U.S alone, and 30 million worldwide. The album produced a record-tying string of seven Top 10 singles (tied with Michael Jackson's Thriller and Janet Jackson's Rhythm Nation 1814) and also a worldwide concert tour (the two-year Born in the U.S.A. Tour) that was a success. The album was lauded by most critics and is often considered one of Springsteen's finest albums (Rolling Stone magazine rated it the 86th-greatest album of all time, his second on the list) along with his 1975 breakthrough, Born to Run. The scathing condemnation of the title track is often misinterpreted as a patriotic anthem as a result of the repeating chorus. Its cover (a close-up of Springsteen's rear in front of a U.S. flag, photographed by Annie Leibovitz) became an iconic image of the era.
- 1 Production
- 2 Music and lyrics
- 3 Promotion and blockbuster success
- 4 Image and social issues
- 5 Critical reception
- 6 Legacy and influence
- 7 Cover and enduring popularity
- 8 30th anniversary
- 9 Awards
- 10 Track listing
- 11 Unreleased outtakes
- 12 Personnel
- 13 Charts
- 14 Certifications
- 15 See also
- 16 References
- 17 External links
In 1981, Springsteen was asked to write music for a film by Paul Schrader called Born in the U.S.A. (Schrader's movie would eventually be released in 1987, entitled Light of Day, featuring Michael J. Fox and Joan Jett). Shortly after, when Springsteen was working on a song titled "Vietnam," he glanced at the script and sang the title. The song, entitled as the work-in-progress movie, was already finished during the sessions of Springsteen's introspective album Nebraska, and Springsteen originally wanted to include it on the album. However, it was removed as it did not coincide with the dark feel of the rest of the songs. The same happened with other songs already cut around January or February 1982 – the energetic rocker "Cover Me" and the intimate "I'm on Fire". Between April and May, Springsteen composed and recorded a number of songs specifically intended for an album besides Nebraska at The Power Station in New York – "Born in the U.S.A.", "Darlington County", "Working on the Highway", "Downbound Train", "I'm Goin' Down" and "Glory Days". By mid-1982, most of the album was already recorded over three months before the commercial release of Nebraska. In May 1983, Springsteen cut another song, "My Hometown" at The Hit Factory and around the end of the year he taped the two final tracks originally considered for the album – "No Surrender" and "Bobby Jean".
A last moment addition was "Dancing in the Dark", a song specifically commissioned by Springsteen's producer and manager Jon Landau, who was satisfied with the material recorded but wanted a blockbuster first single, one that was fresh and directly relevant to Springsteen's current state of mind. Landau and Springsteen got into an argument, but later on Springsteen wrote "Dancing in the Dark" with some trepidation. His irked mood from the day's argument combined with the frustrations at trying to complete the album quickly poured out into the lyrics. As he wrote on his 1998 book Songs, "It went as far in the direction of pop music as I wanted to go – and probably a little farther." However, Springsteen noted that "My heroes, from Hank Williams to Frank Sinatra to Bob Dylan, were popular musicians. They had hits. There was value in trying to connect with a large audience."
One of the songs that was about to be left off the album was "No Surrender". Springsteen claimed that this was because "you don't hold out and triumph all the time in life. ... You compromise, you suffer defeat; you slip into life's gray areas." E Street Band guitarist Steven Van Zandt convinced Springsteen otherwise: "He argued that the portrait of friendship and the song's expression of the inspirational power of rock music was an important part of the picture."
Born in the U.S.A. became the first compact disc manufactured in the United States for commercial release when CBS and Sony opened its CD manufacturing plant in Terre Haute, Indiana in September 1984. Columbia Records' CDs previously had been imported from Japan.
Music and lyrics
In stark contrast to the album that preceded it, the dark, intimate, almost-fully-acoustic Nebraska, Born in the U.S.A. was a radio-oriented pop rock album, whose success is credited also to the E-Street band, "one of the tightest lineups rock and roll had ever seen". Making commercial music was not strange to Springsteen – he already experienced Top 5 success with the 1980 pop-flavored single "Hungry Heart" and was also responsible for "Blinded by the Light", a song that was covered by Manfred Mann's Earth Band becoming a #1 hit in the United States in 1977. However, the Born in the U.S.A. project represented his first full attempt to dominate the airwaves. Most of the songs from the album surprised both critics and the public, as it showed the E Street Band using synthesizer for the first time.
Rolling Stone defined the album's spirit in its 1990 issue that called Springsteen "Voice of the Decade": "Like Nebraska, Born in the U.S.A. was about people who come to realize that life turns out harder, more hurtful, more closefisted than they might have expected. But in contrast to Nebraska 's killers and losers, Born in the USA's characters hold back the night as best they can, whether it's by singing, laughing, dancing, yearning, reminiscing or entering into desperate love affairs. There was something celebratory about how these people face their hardships. It's as if Springsteen were saying that life is made to endure and that we all make peace with private suffering and shared sorrow as best we can." The magazine also pointed that "Springsteen and [producer Jon] Landau designed the album with contemporary pop styles in mind — which is to say, it was designed with as much meticulous attention to its captivating and lively surfaces as to its deeper and darker meanings."
Despite the dark spirit of Nebraska material, Springsteen noted a certain resemblance between the two records: "If you look at the material, particularly on the first side, it's actually written very much like Nebraska – the characters and the stories, the style of writing – except it's just in the rock-band setting."
Promotion and blockbuster success
"Dancing in the Dark", the first single, was released on May 4, 1984. The song quickly climbed the charts, and peaked at number two on the Billboard Hot 100 and reached number one on the Cashbox singles charts for two weeks on June 30. "Dancing in the Dark" also provided Springsteen a Top 10 hit in several countries and the most successful single of his career to that point. The album was released on June 4 and, after a strong debut at number 9 on Billboard 200, it quickly reached the top spot on July 7, spending four weeks at the top. Then, on August 4, it slipped down to number two, surpassed by Prince's breakthrough album Purple Rain, which spent an impressive 24 consecutive weeks at number one. During that 24-week period, Born in the U.S.A. was stuck at number two or (only in the case of three of those weeks) number three. (This caused a rare phenomenon – Purple Rain and Born in the U.S.A. remained at number one and number two respectively during 18 consecutive weeks, marking the longest period with a static Top 2 in the history of the Billboard 200.) (Born in the U.S.A. replaced Purple Rain on the top on January 19, 1985, remaining at #1 for three further weeks.) With Dancing in the Dark, the flip side of the single was "Pink Cadillac". Pink Cadillac became very popular on its own but was not included in the album. It became so popular that the single was included in album releases.
In late July 1984, the next single, "Cover Me", was released, and peaked at number seven by October. Then, the title track was released immediately and was another Top 10 hit, reaching number 9 in January 1985. Shortly, the follow-up, "I'm on Fire", released in February, was also a big hit, peaking at number 6 in May. The next month, "Glory Days" found a single release, reaching number 5 in August supported also with a music video. The sixth and seventh singles, "I'm Goin' Down" and "My Hometown", released in September and November 1985 almost equaled the success of their predecessors and, even with no music videos and despite the lower airplay, they managed to reach number 9 and number 6 respectively. Though it was not one of the seven Top Ten hits of the album, "No Surrender" nevertheless charted on the Mainstream Rock Charts, peaking at # 40.
With this, Columbia released a total of seven singles for the album in the United States, a particularly notable feat for a rock album, especially if coming from Springsteen, who was considered at the time essentially as an "albums artist". Before Born in the U.S.A., and despite a career of over a decade, only the 1980 single from The River, "Hungry Heart" was a Top 5 for Springsteen. The album's strength in terms of hit singles is particularly significant if considering that, of all twelve Top 10 hits that Springsteen achieved to date in the U.S., seven were extracted from this album. (The radical change that the album represented surrounded some controversy at the time, with Cliff Bernstein, as manager of Def Leppard and Dokken, considered that "a sixth single ["I'm Goin' Down"] is a little bit of overkill.") Thanks to these singles, Springsteen was an almost constant presence on the Billboard Hot 100 between May 1984 and March 1986. All seven received extensive promotion, enjoyed respectable sales and gained considerable airplay, and four of them were supported with music videos. During the 1985 Christmas season Springsteen equaled the record set by Michael Jackson's Thriller the year before, having had seven Top 10 singles in the Billboard Hot 100 from a single album (only one other album would subsequently duplicate the feat, Janet Jackson's Rhythm Nation 1814, in early 1991). Also, as on Billboard, all seven Born in the U.S.A. singles reached the Top 10 on the Cashbox singles chart. They reached #1 ("Dancing in the Dark"), #7 ("My Hometown"), #8 ("I'm on Fire"), #9 ("Born in the U.S.A.", "Glory Days" and "I'm Goin' Down") and #10 ("Cover Me").
The album spent 84 weeks on the Top 10, becoming both the album with the most consecutive weeks on the Billboard Top 10 and the third-most album with the most weeks on the Top 10 overall (equaling Peter, Paul and Mary's 1962 eponymous album), only behind Jackie Gleason's Music for Lovers Only (153 weeks) and the Glenn Miller album by Glenn Miller and his Orchestra (130 weeks). Born in the U.S.A. spent 139 non-consecutive weeks on the Billboard 200. Despite being released in June 1984 it went on be the best-selling album of 1985 in the United States.
In the U.S., on July 8, 1984, just one month after its release, the album received a Platinum certification by the RIAA. Further certifications were awarded throughout the following year, and on November 1, 1985 (when the final single wasn't even released and the album was still on the Top 10) it was certified Diamond (recognizing ten million copies sold in the U.S.). It eventually reached a 15× Platinum certification on April 19, 1995. In Australia, it was the fourth most successful album on the Australian Albums Chart. In Norway, Born in the U.S.A. charted for 68 weeks and was the eighth greatest chart success of all time in the country since 1967.
Born in the U.S.A. was also notable for its production of music videos. In the wake of the success of Michael Jackson's Thriller, supported with creative, polished and high-budget music videos, Springsteen in 1984 first recorded promotional videos for four singles from Born in the U.S.A.. These videos were decisive for introducing Springsteen's music to a new, younger, and wider audience, as they received heavy rotation and support by the recently launched MTV.
Springsteen's reaction to the success of Born in the U.S.A.
Springsteen expressed his thoughts on his riches during the 1984 Rolling Stone interview: "Yeah, there's a change [in me]. [Being a rich man] doesn't make living easier, but it does make certain aspects of your life easier. You don't have to worry about rent, you can buy things for your folks and help out your friends, and you can have a good time, you know? There were moments where it was very confusing. (...) I don't really think [money] does change you. It's an inanimate thing, a tool, a convenience. If you've got to have a problem, it's a good problem to have. (...) Money was kind of part of the dream when I started. I don't think...I never felt like I ever played a note for the money. I think if I did, people would know, and they'd throw you out of the joint. And you'd deserve to go. But at the same time, it was a part of the dream.":3
As of 1984, Springsteen had been a well-known star for almost a decade. However, according to Larry Rodgers, "it was not until he hit the gym to get buffed up and showed off his rear end in Annie Leibovitz's famous cover photo for Born in the U.S.A. that he became an American pop icon", touching off a wave of "Bossmania", as author Chris Smith called it.
For the album, Springsteen reintroduced himself as a muscular and sexually charged rocker after his adoption of constant wearing of tight blue jeans, white T-shirts and bandannas, and also intensive physical training that included years of running, weightlifting, and bodybuilding. According to Bryan K. Garman, in his book A Race of Singers – Whitman's Working-Class Hero From Guthrie to Springsteen, this new image helped Springsteen to popularize his persona on a new scale, but also brought him a decisive attachment to political and sociocultural issues, in the times when Ronald Reagan was reviving a patriotic pride by reaffirming the values of prosperity, expansion, and world domination of the United States "within a decidedly masculine framework." As Reagan's combination of masculinity and nationalism shaped a popular culture that "remasculinized" the country's image, Americans found themselves reading and watching about the Vietnam War, trying to come to terms with the lost war and the soldiers who fought it. At the time, the huge popularity of Sylvester Stallone's "Rambo" films demonstrated both the public's fascination with the Vietnam veteran and the symbiotic relationship that existed between the Reagan presidency and much of the popular culture of its era. According to the author, Springsteen found himself enmeshed in the ideologies and symbols that Rambo and Reagan represented. In August 1985, the Chicago Tribune, coining a slogan that would soon appear on novelty T-shirts and bumper stickers throughout the country, declared him the Rambo of rock and roll, and a national hero who, like Stallone's character, "only wants America to love him as much as he loves it." According to this editorial, Springsteen reprised "the defiant, good ol' boy, blue-collar skepticism of Merle Haggard."
At the time, it was a common thought that both Rambo and Springsteen shared the same politics. As Garman puts it, "Stallone and Springsteen addressed questions of national identity, confronted the legacy of Vietnam, and, in some ways, physically resembled each other: they both had dark shoulder-length hair, wore bandannas as part of their costumes, and flaunted their muscular physiques. To be sure, the heroic and sexualized image that Springsteen cultivated was an important component of his popularity and in large part accounted for his appropriation by the Right." He also mentions that Springsteen began also to be characterized by a kind of stage performance that "(on one level) liberates his fans by presenting the possibility of sexual freedom. On another, it reaffirms the power of masculinity." Garman concluded his analysis with the sentence: "Like Reagan and Rambo, the apparently working-class Springsteen was for many American a white hard-bodied hero whose masculinity confirmed the values of patriarchy and patriotism, the work ethic and rugged individualism, and who clearly demarcated the boundaries between men and women, black and white, heterosexual and homosexual."
Much of this hype was produced by the social reactions to the title track, which certainly secured Springsteen's new image as a musical hero, while turning his fame into something complex and troubling. The song was mainly the tale of an American whose birthrights have been paid off with indelible memories of violence and ruin. These thematics, added to Max Weinberg's hard drum beat and Springsteen's furious, passioned vocal performance, caused many to hear the proclamation "I was born in the U.S.A." as a fierce, nationalistic assertion. Certainly, the song was misinterpreted by many as a patriotic anthem. American conservative columnist George Will, after attending a show, wrote in September 1984 that Springsteen was an exemplar of classic American values. He wrote: "I have not got a clue about Springsteen's politics, if any, but flags get waved at his concerts while he sings songs about hard times. He is no whiner, and the recitation of closed factories and other problems always seems punctuated by a grand, cheerful affirmation: 'Born in the U.S.A.!'"
The 1984 presidential campaign was in full stride at the time, and Will had connections to President Reagan's re-election organization. Will thought that Springsteen might endorse Reagan, and got the notion pushed up to high-level Reagan advisor Michael Deaver's office. Those staffers made inquiries to Springsteen's management which were politely rebuffed. Nevertheless, on September 19, 1984, at a campaign stop in Hammonton, New Jersey, Reagan added the following to his usual stump speech:
- "America's future rests in a thousand dreams inside your hearts; it rests in the message of hope in songs so many young Americans admire: New Jersey's own Bruce Springsteen. And helping you make those dreams come true is what this job of mine is all about."
The campaign press immediately expressed skepticism that Reagan knew anything about Springsteen, and asked what his favorite Springsteen song was; "Born to Run" was the tardy response from staffers. Johnny Carson then joked on The Tonight Show, "If you believe that, I've got a couple of tickets to the Mondale/Ferraro inaugural ball I'd like to sell you."
Years later Rolling Stone analyzed the situation stating that "clearly, to anybody paying attention, the hard-bitten vision of America that Springsteen sang of in 'Born in the U.S.A.' was a far cry from the much-touted 'new patriotism' of Reagan and many of his fellow conservatives. And yet there was also something damnably brilliant in the way the president sought to attach his purpose to Springsteen's views. It was the art of political syllogism, taken to its most arrogant extreme. Reagan saw himself as a definitional emblem of America; Bruce Springsteen was a singer who, apparently, extolled America in his work; therefore, Springsteen must be exalting Reagan — which would imply that if one valued the music of Springsteen, then one should value (and support) Reagan as well. Reagan was manipulating Springsteen's fame as an affirmation of his own ends."
During a September 21 concert in Pittsburgh, Springsteen responded negatively by introducing his song "Johnny 99", a song about an unemployed auto worker who turns to murder, "The President was mentioning my name the other day, and I kinda got to wondering what his favorite album must've been. I don't think it was the Nebraska album. I don't think he's been listening to this one." A few days after that, presidential challenger Walter Mondale said, "Bruce Springsteen may have been born to run but he wasn't born yesterday," and then claimed to have been endorsed by Springsteen. Springsteen manager Jon Landau denied any such endorsement, and the Mondale campaign issued a correction.
Other songs of the album also found political issues. In 2004, Senator John Kerry (D–Massachusetts) used "No Surrender" as his campaign theme song during his 2004 presidential campaign. Springsteen performed the song at several Kerry rallies during the campaign.
|Los Angeles Times|||
|The Rolling Stone Album Guide|||
Born in the U.S.A. was well received by music critics. In a contemporary review for Rolling Stone, Dave Marsh called it Springsteen's most accessible listen since Born to Run (1975) and said that he knows how to incorporate "technopop elements without succumbing to the genre's banalities." The magazine's Debby Miller wrote that Springsteen has set songs that were as well thought-out as Nebraska to more sophisticated production and spirited music, and that the four story-driven songs that end each side of the album give it an "extraordinary depth" because of his world-beating lyrics. Robert Hilburn of the Los Angeles Times felt that, with the album's "richer" musical settings, Springsteen can articulate his message to a wider audience. John Swenson of Saturday Review credited him for showing a more disciplined writing style than on his previous albums and for "championing traditional rock values at a time when few newer bands show interest in such a direction." In his review for The Village Voice, Robert Christgau said that the album's upbeat worldview is more honest than the one-dimensional politics of Nebraska and that its vibrant music "reminds me like nothing in years that what teenagers loved about rock and roll wasn't that it was catchy or even rhythmic but that it just plain sounded good."
Born in the U.S.A. was voted the best album of the year in The Village Voice 's annual Pazz & Jop critics poll for 1984. Christgau, the poll's creator, also ranked it number one on his list, and wrote in an accompanying article for the Pazz & Jop that Springsteen improved upon his previous work by eschewing dejected themes of nostalgia and losers in favor of tougher lyrics and a sense of humor.
In a 1990 review, Christgau wrote that, although it may have seemed more conservative than his previous work, Born in the U.S.A. showed him evolving on what was his "most rhythmically propulsive, vocally incisive, lyrically balanced, and commercially undeniable album." Greg Kot, writing in the Chicago Tribune, later called it "an 11-million-selling record with a conscience." AllMusic's William Ruhlmann interpreted the album as an apotheosis for Springsteen's reoccurring characters from his past albums and said that Born in the U.S.A. "marked the first time that Springsteen's characters really seemed to relish the fight and to have something to fight for." In 2003, Rolling Stone ranked Born in the U.S.A. number 85 on their list of the 500 greatest albums of all time. In 2012, Slant Magazine named it the 35th best album of the 1980s.
Legacy and influence
With Born in the U.S.A., Springsteen helped popularize American heartland rock in the mainstream, which allowed for greater success for recording artists such as John Mellencamp, Tom Petty, and Bob Seger. After Mellencamp released his 1985 album Scarecrow, critics mentioned him alongside Springsteen and also referred to his music as heartland rock.
Springsteen has expressed some mixed feelings about the album, believing that Nebraska contains some of his strongest writing, while Born in the U.S.A. did not necessarily follow suit. The title track, "more or less stood by itself", he declared. "The rest of the album contains a group of songs about which I've always had some ambivalence." Even so, and despite calling it the "grab-bag nature" of the album, he acknowledged its powerful effect on his career, claiming: "Born in the U.S.A. changed my life and gave me my largest audience. It forced me to question the way I presented my music and made me think harder about what I was doing."
Cover and enduring popularity
The title track inspired the celebrated Annie Leibovitz photo of Springsteen's backside against the backdrop of an American flag. The album cover became a cult image in Western popular culture. Springsteen commented on the origin of the concept: "We had the flag on the cover because the first song was called "Born in the U.S.A.", and the theme of the record kind of follows from the themes I've been writing about for at least the last six or seven years. But the flag is a powerful image, and when you set that stuff loose, you don't know what's gonna be done with it." Some people thought that the cover depicted Springsteen urinating on the flag. He denied it: "That was unintentional. We took a lot of different types of pictures, and in the end, the picture of my ass looked better than the picture of my face, that's what went on the cover. I didn't have any secret message. I don't do that very much."
Springsteen himself noted in his 1998 book Songs: "For years after the release of the album, at Halloween, I had little kids in red bandannas knocking on at my door... singing, I was born in the U.S.A. They were not particularly well-versed in the Had a brother at Khe Sahn lyric."  The opening number of the 62nd Primetime Emmy Awards featured host Jimmy Fallon singing "Born to Run" and wearing a white T-shirt and blue jeans with a red hat in the back pocket, imitating Springsteen's pose in front of an American flag.
Many of the album songs also became concert staples for Springsteen' live shows. All of them were first performed during the "Born in the U.S.A. Tour". The album was performed in its entirety for the first time on October 3 and again on October 9, 2009 at Giants Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey, with the second performance marking the final concert at that stadium before it was torn down. The album was also performed at Friends Arena in Stockholm on the May 11, 2013 in the middle of the set, after having performed Born To Run and Darkness on the Edge of Town on the other shows in Stockholm on May 3 and May 4 respectively., and on September 21, 2013, at Rock in Rio, in Rio de Janeiro, midway through the set.
Springsteen's manager, Jon Landau, said that there were no plans for the band to celebrate the album's anniversary with a deluxe reissue box set in the manner of previous Springsteen albums. "At least not yet," he added.
A full album live performance DVD titled Born in the U.S.A. Live: London 2013 was released exclusively through Amazon.com on January 14, 2014 along with a purchase of Springsteen's album, High Hopes.
The album received many awards, including four American Music Awards. At the Grammy Awards, it received a total of four nominations (including Album of the Year, losing against Lionel Richie's Can't Slow Down).
|1984||American Music Awards||Favorite Pop/Rock Single (for "Dancing in the Dark") (won)|
|1984||American Music Awards||Favorite Pop/Rock Male Artist (nominated)|
|1984||American Music Awards||Favorite Pop/Rock Male Artist Video (nominated)|
|1985||Grammy Awards||Best Rock Vocal Performance – Male (for "Dancing in the Dark") (won)|
|1985||Grammy Awards||Record of the Year (for "Dancing in the Dark") (nominated)|
|1985||Grammy Awards||Album of the Year (nominated)|
|1985||American Music Awards||Favorite Pop/Rock Album (won)|
|1985||American Music Awards||Favorite Pop/Rock Male Artist (won)|
|1985||American Music Awards||Favorite Pop/Rock Male Artist Video (won)|
|1985||MTV Music Video Awards||Best Stage Performance Video (for "Dancing in the Dark") (won)|
|1985||MTV Music Video Awards||Best Overall Performance (for "Dancing in the Dark") (nominated)|
|1985||MTV Music Video Awards||Best Male Video (for "Glory Days") (nominated)|
|1985||Juno Awards||International Album of the Year (won)|
|1986||Grammy Awards||Record of the Year (for "Born in the U.S.A.") (nominated)|
|1986||Brit Awards||Best International Solo Artist (won)|
|1986||MTV Music Video Awards||Best Overall Performance (for "Glory Days") (nominated)|
All songs written by Bruce Springsteen.
|1.||"Born in the U.S.A."||4:39|
|4.||"Working on the Highway"||3:11|
|6.||"I'm on Fire"||2:37|
|3.||"I'm Goin' Down"||3:29|
|5.||"Dancing in the Dark"||4:00|
According to Max Weinberg, the band recorded over 80 songs during the Born in the U.S.A. sessions. 32 songs have officially been released, including those that made the album's final cut and those that were released as b sides, such as "Pink Cadillac", "Shut Out the Light", "Johnny Bye-Bye", "Stand On It", "Janey Don't You Lose Heart", which were also included on the Tracks along with other album outtakes "Lion's Den", "A Good Man is Hard to Find (Pittsburgh)", "My Love Will Not Let You Down", "Wages of Sin", "This Hard Land", "Frankie", "Cynthia", "Car Wash", "TV Movie", "Brothers Under the Bridges", "Man At the Top" and "Rockaway the Days". "Murder Incorporated" was eventually released on 1995's Greatest Hits while "County Fair" and "None But the Brave" were released on The Essential Bruce Springsteen. "Protection", a song Springsteen wrote during the album sessions, was given to Donna Summer, who turned the song into a hit. "Savin' Up" was give to Clarence Clemons for his solo album while "Out of Work", "Club Soul City", "All I Need", "Hold On (To What You Got)" and "Love's On the Line" were recorded with Gary U.S. Bonds for an album in which Springsteen produced and was featured on along with members of the E Street Band. It was also during these sessions that "Light of Day" was written and recorded. The song was eventually given to Joan Jett to record and release in the motion picture of the same name and although Springsteen's studio version has never been released, he did perform it many times with its first official live recording release coming on his 1992 MTV Unplugged album. A few of the unreleased songs have even been performed live. "On the Prowl" was performed once by Springsteen solo in 1982, while "Follow That Dream" and "Sugarland" were performed a few times on the Born in the U.S.A. Tour.
- The Klansman
- Seven Tears
- Fugitive's Dream
- One Love
- Betty Jean
- Unsatisfied Heart
- Richfield Whistle
- Little Girl Like You
- Delivery Man
- Follow That Dream
- Don't Back Down
- Drop On Down and Cover Me
- Your Love is All Around
- Stop the War
- Baby I'm So Cold
- Bells of San Salvador
- Robert Ford
- Fade to Black
- On the Prowl
- William Davis
- Gun in Every Home
- Common Ground (Stay Hungry)
- Savin' Up
- Out of Work
- Love's On the Line
- Club Soul City
- All I Need
- Hold On (To What You Got)
- Workin' On It
- True Love is Hard to Come By
- James Lincoln Dear
- I Don't Care
- The Money We Didn't Make
- Johnny Go Down
- Body and Soul
- Gone, Gone, Gone
- King's Highway
- Light of Day
- Invitation to Your Party
- Bad Boy
- Glory of Love
- Shut Down
- 100 Miles From Jackson
- Roll Away the Stone
- Swoop Man
- Under the Big Sky
- Refrigerator Blues
- Ida Rose (No One Knows)
|Australia (ARIA)||13× Platinum||910,000^|
|Canada (Music Canada)||Diamond||1,000,000^|
|Finland (Musiikkituottajat)||2× Platinum||108,913|
|Germany (BVMI)||2× Platinum||1,000,000^|
|Japan (Oricon Charts)||212,700|
|New Zealand (RMNZ)||16× Platinum||240,000^|
|United Kingdom (BPI)||3× Platinum||1,120,000|
|United States (RIAA)||15× Platinum||15,000,000^|
*sales figures based on certification alone
- List of best-selling albums
- List of best-selling albums in Australia
- List of best-selling albums in Italy
- List of best-selling albums in New Zealand
- List of best-selling albums in the United States
- Rodgers, Larry (June 4, 2009). "Bruce Springsteen, Born in the USA, 25 Years Old Today". The Arizona Republic.
- Smith, Chris (2009). 101 Albums That Changed Popular Music. Oxford UP. pp. 172–74. ISBN 9780195373714. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- Kurt Loder (December 6, 1984). "The Rolling Stone Interview: Bruce Springsteen". Retrieved December 30, 2009.
- Marsh, Glory Days, p. 363.
- "American album certifications – Bruce Springsteen – Born in the U.S.A.". Recording Industry Association of America. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH
- Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970-1992. St Ives, N.S.W.: Australian Chart Book. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
- "BEST OF ALL TIME - ALBUMS". VG-lista. Hung Medien. Retrieved June 22, 2012.
- Wiersema, Robert J. (2011). Walk Like a Man: Coming of Age with the Music of Bruce Springsteen. Greystone. pp. 21–. ISBN 9781553658467. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- Garman, Bryan K. (August 9, 1985). A race of singers: Whitman's working ... – Google Libros. Books.google.com.ar. ISBN 978-0-8078-4866-1. Retrieved November 30, 2009.
- [dead link]
- "george will on bruce - rec.music.artists.springsteen | Google Groups". Groups.google.com. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
- TALKING 'BOUT THE WEEKEND, SCRUBBING OFF THE DIRT, on backstreets.com
- Ruhlmann, William. "Born in the U.S.A. - Bruce Springsteen". AllMusic. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- Kot, Greg (August 23, 1992). "The Recorded History of Springsteen". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- Christgau, Robert (1990). Christgau's Record Guide: The '80s. Pantheon Books. p. 382. ISBN 067973015X.
- Atkinson, Terry et al. (December 16, 1984). "Guiding the Unitiated Through the Top 40". Los Angeles Times. p. T68. Retrieved July 8, 2013. (subscription required)
- Marsh, Dave (July 1984). "Record Rack". Rolling Stone (New York): 23.
- Sheffield, Rob et al. (2004). Brackett, Nathan; Hoard, Christian, eds. The Rolling Stone Album Guide (4th ed.). pp. 771–2. ISBN 0743201698.
- Swenson, John (November–December 1984). "Championing Traditional Rock Values". Saturday Review 10 (1–2): 70.
- Med57 (January 19, 2005). "Bruce Springsteen - Born in the USA (album review)". Sputnikmusic. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- Miller, Debby (July 19, 1984). "Born in the U.S.A". Rolling Stone (New York). Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- Hilburn, Robert (July 1, 1984). "Pop Music Top Midyear LPs: Prince, Springsteen". Los Angeles Times. Calendar section, p. T62. Retrieved July 8, 2013. (subscription required)
- Christgau, Robert (June 26, 1984). "Consumer Guide". The Village Voice (New York). Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- Christgau, Robert (February 18, 1985). "Pazz & Jop 1984: The Rise of the Corporate Single". The Village Voice (New York). Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- Christgau, Robert (February 18, 1985). "Pazz & Jop 1984: Dean's List". The Village Voice (New York). Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- "500 Greatest Albums of All Time". Rolling Stone (New York): 116. December 11, 2003.
- "Best Albums of the 1980s". Slant Magazine. March 5, 2012. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
- Perone, James E. (2012). The Album: A Guide to Pop Music's Most Provacative, Influential, and Important Creations. ABC-CLIO. p. 239. ISBN 0313379068.
- Redmond, Mike (January 23, 1992). "Mellencamp is real force in American music". Indianapolis Star. Free Time section, p. F.4. Retrieved July 8, 2013. (subscription required)
- "Jimmy Fallon and the Emmys were born to have fun - Los Angeles Times". Articles.latimes.com. 2010-08-30. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
- By Andy Greene (2013-12-17). "Bruce Springsteen on New Album 'High Hopes': Exclusive Interview | Music News". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
- "Springsteen Offers Live Born In The U.S.A. DVD With High Hopes Pre-Order". American Songwriter. 2013-12-13. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
- "austriancharts.at Bruce Springsteen – Born in the U.S.A." (ASP). Hung Medien (in German). Retrieved October 31, 2011.
- Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 2012-04-04
- "dutchcharts.nl Bruce Springsteen – Born in the U.S.A." (ASP). Hung Medien. MegaCharts. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
- "InfoDisc : Tous les Albums classés par Artiste > Choisir Un Artiste Dans la Liste" (in French). infodisc.fr. Retrieved April 4, 2012.Note: user must select 'Bruce SPRINGSTEEN' from drop-down
- "Hit Parade Italia - Gli album più venduti del 1985" (in Italian). hitparadeitalia.it. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
- Oricon Album Chart Book: Complete Edition 1970-2005. Roppongi, Tokyo: Oricon Entertainment. 2006. ISBN 4-87131-077-9.
- "charts.org.nz Bruce Springsteen – Born in the U.S.A." (ASP). Hung Medien. Recording Industry Association of New Zealand. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
- "norwegiancharts.com Bruce Springsteen – Born in the U.S.A." (ASP). Hung Medien. VG-lista. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
- Salaverri, Fernando (September 2005). Sólo éxitos: año a año, 1959–2002 (1st ed.). Spain: Fundación Autor-SGAE. ISBN 84-8048-639-2.
- "swedishcharts.com Bruce Springsteen – Born in the U.S.A." (ASP) (in Swedish). Retrieved April 4, 2012.
- "Bruce Springsteen – Born in the U.S.A. - hitparade.ch" (ASP). Hung Medien (in German). Swiss Music Charts. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- "Chart Stats: Bruce Springsteen – The River" (PHP). UK Albums Chart. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
- "allmusic ((( Born in the U.S.A. > Charts & Awards > Billboard Albums )))". allmusic.com. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
- "Album Search: Bruce Springsteen – Born in the U.S.A." (in German). Media Control. Retrieved October 31, 2011.
- "Top 100 Albums of 1984". RPM. January 5, 1985. Retrieved April 6, 2012.
- "Dutch charts jaaroverzichten 1984" (ASP) (in Dutch). Retrieved April 2, 2014.
- "Complete UK Year-End Album Charts". Retrieved April 4, 2012.
- "Top Pop Albums of 1984". billboard.biz. December 31, 1981. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
- "Austriancharts.at - Jahreshitparade 1985" (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- "RPM's Top 100 Albums of 1985". RPM. December 28, 1985. Retrieved April 6, 2012.
- "Dutch charts jaaroverzichten 1985" (ASP) (in Dutch). Retrieved April 2, 2014.
- "Les Albums (CD) de 1985 par InfoDisc" (PHP) (in French). infodisc.fr. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
- "Hitparade.ch - Schweizer Jahreshitparade 1985" (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
- 1980s Albums Chart Archive "Top Albums of 1984". everyhit.com. The Official Charts Company. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
- "Billboard.BIZ - Year-end Charts - Billboard 200 - 1985". billboard.biz. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
- "RPM Top 100 Albums of 1986". RPM. Retrieved October 3, 2011.
- "Billboard.BIZ - Year-end Charts - Billboard 200 - 1986". billboard.biz. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
- "ARIA Charts – Accreditations – 2011 Albums". Australian Recording Industry Association. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
- "Canadian album certifications – Bruce Springsteen – Born in the USA". Music Canada. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
- The first web page presents the sales figures, the second presents the certification limits:
- "French album certifications – Bruce Springsteen – Born in the USA" (in French). InfoDisc. Select BRUCE SPRINGSTEEN and click OK
- "Les Albums Platine". infodisc.fr (in French). SNEP. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
- "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank (Bruce Springsteen; 'Born in the USA')" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
- Scapolo, Dean (2007). The Complete New Zealand Music Charts 1966-2006. Recording Industry Association of New Zealand. ISBN 978-1-877443-00-8.
- "Solo Exitos 1959-2002 Ano A Ano: Certificados 1979-1990". Iberautor Promociones Culturales. ISBN 8480486392.
- "British album certifications – Bruce Springsteen – Born in the USA". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved April 6, 2012. Enter Born in the USA in the field Keywords. Select Title in the field Search by. Select album in the field By Format. Select Platinum in the field By Award. Click Search