Borna of Croatia
||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (November 2011)|
|Duke of Croatia|
Duke Borna of Croatia - monument in Otočac
|Predecessor||Višeslav of Croatia|
|Successor||Vladislav of Croatia|
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (July 2012)|
Borna is documented in the Royal Frankish Annals.
In 819 Duke Ljudevit Posavski of Pannonian Croatia raised a rebellion against the Franks, while Borna remained loyal to the Frankish Emperor Louis the Pious and struck with his forces at his former traditional ally, bribed by the Emperor's offers of expansion of power. Borna moved with Ljudevit's father-in-law, Dragomuž, from the southeast. The famous battle of Kupa occurred at the river of Kupa. In the heat of Battle the Guduscans - an indigenous people of his realm - abandoned Borna and crossed to Ljudevit's side. Borna would have been killed at the battlefield, if not for his elite bodyguards, while Dragomuž was killed on spot.
Ljudevit used the momentum of Borna's weakness and invaded Littoral Croatia in December of the same year. Borna's forces suffered heavy losses at the Battle of Kupa, so Borna decided that his forces should fight relying on attrition and exhausting of Ljudevit's troops. Harsh winter came to the hills of Borna's realm, further disabling Ljudevit's pillaging. Ljudevit was eventually forced to retreat, while much of their food reserves were left behind and confiscated by Borna. Borna reported his successes to the Frankish Emperor, stating that Ljudevit lost over 3,000 soldiers and 300 horses in his campaign.
Borna met with the Frankish Emperor in Aachen in January of 820, where they forged an alliance. The Emperor of the Franks prepared a massive invasion of Ljudevit's lands and those of his allies. Although the total invasion of Ljudevit's realm occurred, Borna died in the heat of battle in 821 after Ljudevit and his supporters retreated to the most fortified of their fortresses, hills and most unreachable swamps ad forests. He was succeeded by his nephew, Vladislav.
Ljudevit had no knowledge of Borna's death and at the beginning of 823, he went to Littoral Croatia in search of his uncle seeking help after he was dethroned and exiled. Borna's uncle, Ljudemisl, received him instead, who had Ljudevit tortured and killed. After a temporary reign by Ljudemisl as a viceroy, the throne of Littoral Croatia was passed on to Vladislav, Borna's nephew.
In the De Administrando Imperio (written in the 950s), a seven-year war between the Croats and their then-overlords the Franks ended with a victory for the Croats and the killing of the Frank leader, Kotzilis. After that, the Croats are described as independent and autonomous, and they requested baptism from the bishop of Rome, at the time of Porinus. Croatia consisted of 11 counties (županije): Hlebiana, Tzenzena, Emota, Pleba, Pesenta, Parathalassia, Brebere, Nona, Tnena, Sidraga, Nina.
- Karl Krumbacher (1906). Byzantinische Zeitschrift: Bibliographische Notizen und kleinere Mitteilungen, Volume 15. B.G. Teubner. p. 560. "5) Marquart, Osteuropäische u. ostasiatische Streifzöge (1903) p. XVIII, is right in identifying Porinos with Borna (Ann. r. Franc, s. a. 819). But he does not convince me that Porga is also the same, or that there was no actual foundation for the significance of the reign of Heraclius in Croatian history."
- Constantine Porphyregonitus (1967), p. 145
- Constantine Porphyregonitus (1967). Moravcsik, Gyula, ed. De Administrando Imperio. R.J.H. Jenkins transl. Washington D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies.
- Trpimir Macan: History of Croatian people, Zagreb 1999
- Nada Klaić: History of the Croats in the Middle Ages, Zagreb 1990
|Duke of Littoral Croatia