The Borno Emirate or Borno Sultanate is a traditional Nigerian state formed at the start of the 20th century. It is headed by descendants of the rulers of the Bornu Empire, founded before 1000 CE. The rulers have the title Shehu of Borno (var. Shehu of Bornu, Sultan of Borno/u). The traditional Emirate of Borno maintains a ceremonial rule of the Kanuri people, based in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria, but acknowledged by the 4 million Kanuri in neighboring countries. The current ruling line, the al-Kanemi dynasty, dates to the accession of Muhammad al-Amin al-Kanemi in the early 19th century, displacing the Sayfawa dynasty which had ruled from around 1300 CE.
The old Bornu Empire, weakened by the Fulani jihad, collapsed in 1893 when the Shuwa Arab Rabih Zubayr ibn Fadl Allah seized power and transferred the capital to Dikwa. After the French, then expanding in West Africa, defeated and killed Rabih they installed Shehu Sanda Kura, a member of the old Bornu dynasty, as the first Shehu of Borno in Dikwa in 1900. In 1901 they replaced him by his brother Umar Abubakar Garbai, ancestor of the current Emirs of Borno. Based on a treaty between the French, Germans and British, the old Bornu was split up and Dikwa became part of the German colony of Cameroon. The British invited Umar Abubakar Garbai to become ruler of the British portion, and he moved in 1902 first to Monguno and later to Maiduguri. Later Dikwa was transferred to the British, resulting in two Shehus, the Shehu of Borno based at Maidgurui and the Shehu of Dikwa based at Dikwa.
|1901||1922||Umar Abubakar Garbai ibn Ibrahim|
|1922||1937||Umar II ibn Ibrahim Bukarmi (b. c.1842 – d. 1937)|
|1937||January 1968||Umar III ibn Muhammad al-Amin Kiyari|
|March 1968||September 1974||Umar Ibn Abubakar Garbai (d. 1974)|
|September 1974||February 2009||Alhaji Mustapha Ibn Umar Kyari Amin El-Kanemi (b. 1924 d. 21 February 2009)|
|February 2009||Alhaji Umar Garbai Abba Kyari (b. 13 May 1957)|
- al-Kanemi dynasty: Sultanate of Borno. Rulers.org, accessed 2009-04-02
- Naija Pundit (6 March 2009). "The intrigues, power play behind the emergence of new Shehu of Borno". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 2010-09-08.
- "BORNO STATE: Historical Development". Online Nigeria. Retrieved 2010-09-06.
- Isa Umar Gusau and Sharafa Dauda (11 July 2010). "How Germany, Britain and France once shared, ruled Borno – Shehu of Dikwa". Retrieved 2010-09-06.
- "Traditional States of Nigeria". WorldStatesmen.org. Retrieved 2010-09-08.
- "Mustapha Amin El-Kanemi (1924–2009)". ThisDay. 5 March 2009. Retrieved 2010-09-08.