Borno State

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Borno State
Nickname(s): Home of Peace
Location of Borno State in Nigeria
Location of Borno State in Nigeria
Coordinates: 11°30′N 13°00′E / 11.500°N 13.000°E / 11.500; 13.000Coordinates: 11°30′N 13°00′E / 11.500°N 13.000°E / 11.500; 13.000
Country  Nigeria
Date created 3 February 1976
Capital Maiduguri
 • Governor[1] Kashim Shettima (All Progressive congress (APC))
 • Total 70,898 km2 (27,374 sq mi)
Area rank 2nd of 36
Population (1991 census)
 • Total 2,596,589
 • Estimate (2005) 4,588,668
 • Rank 12th of 36
 • Density 37/km2 (95/sq mi)
 • Year 2007
 • Total $5.18 billion[2]
 • Per capita $1,214[2]
Time zone WAT (UTC+01)
ISO 3166 code NG-BO

Borno State is a state in north-eastern Nigeria. Its capital is Maiduguri. The state was formed in 1976 from the split of the North-Eastern State. Until 1991 it contained what is now Yobe State.


The state is dominated by the Kanuri and Babur while few Shuwa Arab[citation needed] ethnic groups are found. Shuwa Arabs are mainly the descendants of Arabized Fulani people[3][4] and is an example of the endurance of traditional political institutions in some areas of Africa. There, the emirs of the former Kanem-Bornu Empire have played a part in the politics of this area for nearly 1,000 years. The current dynasty gained control of the Borno Emirate in the early 19th century and was supported by the British, who prevented a military defeat for the group and established a new capital for the dynasty at Maiduguri or Yerwa (as referred to by the natives) in 1905, which remains the capital to this day. After Nigerian independence in 1960, Borno remained fairly autonomous until the expansion of the number of states in Nigeria to 12 in 1967. Local government reform in 1976 further reduced the power of the emirs of the former dynasty, and by the time of Nigeria's return to civilian rule in 1979, the emirs' jurisdiction has been restricted solely to cultural and traditional affairs. Today, the emirs still exist, and serve as advisers to the local government.

Mala Kachallah was elected governor of Borno State in 1999 under the flagship of the then APP(All Peoples Party) later ANPP.

Ali Modu Sheriff was elected governor of Borno State in Nigeria in April 2003. He is a member of the All Nigeria People's Party (ANPP). Ali Sheriff was the first governor in Borno state to win the seat two consecutive times.[5]

On 14 May 2013, President Goodluck Jonathan declared a state of emergency in Northeast Nigeria,[6] including Borno State along with the neighboring states of Adamawa and Yobe.[7] This happened after fighting between Boko Haram and the state armed forces killed as many as 200 people in the town of Baga. A spokesman for the Nigerian Armed Forces declared that the offensive would continue "as long as it takes to achieve our objective of getting rid of insurgents from every part of Nigeria."[8] The Nigerian Army has been accused of gross human rights violations in carrying out these operations, with witnesses accusing them of shooting people for wearing traditional Muslim robes or the vertical scars typical of Kanuri people.[9]


Borno State is divided into 27 Local Government Areas grouped into three Senatorial Districts (shown with 2006 population figures):[10]

Borno Central Senatorial District 1,666,541 Borno South Senatorial District 1,245,962 Borno North Senatorial District 1,238,390
Maiduguri 521,492 Askira/Uba 138,091 Abadam 100,180
Ngala 237,071 Bayo 78,978 Gubio 152,778
Kala/Balge 60,797 Biu 176,072 Guzamala 95,648
Mafa 103,518 Chibok 66,105 Kaga 90,015
Konduga 156,564 Damboa 231,573 Kukawa 203,864
Bama 269,986 Gwoza 276,312 Magumeri 140,231
Jere 211,204 Hawul 120,314 Marte 129,370
Dikwa 105,909 Kwaya Kusar 56,500 Mobbar 116,654
Shani 102,317 Monguno 109,851
Nganzai 99,799

In addition, there are seven Emirate Councils (Borno, Dikwa, Biu, Askira, Gwoza, Shani and Uba Emirates),[11] which advise the local governments on cultural and traditional matters.[12]


  1. ^ See List of Governors of Borno State for a list of prior governors
  2. ^ a b "C-GIDD (Canback Global Income Distribution Database)". Canback Dangel. Retrieved 2008-08-20. 
  3. ^ This theory by Ulrich Braukämper is summarized in Owens (2003)
  4. ^ . Scheinfeldt, Soi & Tischkoff 2010. p. 96.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ "Governor Ali Modu Sheriff of Borno State". Nigeria Governors Forum. Retrieved 2009-12-13. 
  6. ^ "Nigeria: State of Emergency Declared". New York Times. 14 May 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013. 
  7. ^ "Army crackdown on Nigeria's Islamist militants". BBC News. 17 May 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013. 
  8. ^ "Nigeria army's offensive to continue 'as long as it takes'". BBC News. 18 May 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013. 
  9. ^ Nossiter, Adam (5 June 2013). "In Nigeria, ‘Killing People Without Asking Who They Are’". New York Times. Retrieved 6 June 2013. 
  10. ^ 2006 Population Census, Federal Republic of Nigeria, National Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 2009-03-25.
  11. ^ Borno State overview, Borno State Government
  12. ^ Borno State information, Federal Republic of Nigeria, National Bureau of Statistics
  • Aborisade, Oladimeji; Robert J. Mundt (2002). Politics in Nigeria. New York: Longman. 

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