Borodino (village), Mozhaysky District, Moscow Oblast

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For other places with the same name, see Borodino.

Coordinates: 55°32′N 35°49′E / 55.533°N 35.817°E / 55.533; 35.817

Main monument of the Borodino battle.
Kutuzov Obelisk in Borodino
Flag of Borodinskoye Rural Settlement, of which the village of Borodino is the administrative center
Borodino Snolensk Church

Borodino (Russian: Бородино́) is a rural locality (a village) in Mozhaysky District of Moscow Oblast, Russia, located 13 kilometers (8.1 mi) west of Mozhaysk.

The village is famous as the location of the Battle of Borodino, which occurred in what is now known as the "Borodino Battlefield" (Бородинское поле). The State Borodino War and History Museum and Reserve is situated within the Borodino Battlefield. The reserved area is 109.7 square kilometers (42.4 sq mi); the area of the protected zone is 645 square kilometers (249 sq mi).

History[edit]

Archaeological evidence suggests the settlement of these places during the second half of the 1st millennium by Finnish, and then Slavic tribes. The well-preserved earthworks fort is of the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. Located near the village of Gorki represents the first time the military-historical monument of the Borodino field. However, the first written mention of the village of Borodino belong to the 17th century.

The land on which is situated the village of Borodino were attached to the Moscow principality at the beginning of the 14th century and were at porubezhnye the Lithuanian territory through which the old Smolensk road. The peasants on the land engaged in arable farming - cultivated winter rye, spring barley, oats, wheat-ledyankah, flax, hemp and buckwheat. They were assessed as "fair" and "rectly". Women, except for field work, were engaged in spinning flax and wool, weaving and knitting, "for his own use". However, their possessions often suffered "from all the vagrants and the rebels and the Poles". Many of the village after the invasion, even at the end of the 18th century were considered wastelands.

According to some reports hamlet of Borodino was first mentioned in Mozhayskie scribe books in 1601. Before the Time of Troubles the area where the village is located Borodino was listed as a "graveyard for Exaltation Tsarevo sovereign's land on the river Wayne with the church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross and the Chapel of St. Nicholas" at the hamlet of Borodino [9] [5] in this graveyard "in the church and candles and images books and all the church building was of receipts worldly people ".

Prior to the construction of the temple at Borodino own people all over the district were parishioners of the church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, who was on the other side of the river Kolocha at the confluence of the streams and Stonets Prudki (Ognik) [3]. This church with a chapel (the lower church) in honor of St. Nicholas, Archbishop of Myra was destroyed in the Time of Troubles, probably in 1609. After that, the locals were parishioners in the church of the Assumption in the village Semenov also having a lower chapel of St. Nicholas. [3] The news of this church terminated in the middle of the 17th century.

Since the beginning of the 17th century, the village was known as the first possession of the Russian Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov dynasty, which after 1613 was presented to them as the "Czar of Tsarevo salary" "yastrebniku" (position in the "tsar's hunting") Mozhayskoe policeman nobleman. Theodore Konoplev Konopleva son Basil, who owned the neighboring hamlet - Shevardino. He belonged to the old servitors, whose members are mentioned in the documents of the end of the 16th century.

In 1626 and 1627, the area is referred to in the letter Mozhayskie scribe books and measures Nikifora Neplueff clerk and Alexei Berestova [10] as "the place of the church, fields overgrown forest" [9], and in fact Borodino, as Selco Kolotsky mill Mozhaiskogo County. Then half of the village of Borodino - "The yard of his place votchennikovo yes four places peasant serfs" was recorded for Bogdan Kanaplyou Vasilyevich, 1595-1598 in which he was the elder labial and had a yard to Mozhajsk and the other half - the 'four Peasants and bobylskih place "for his cousin (according to other sources - a nephew), Dmitry Mikhailovich Kanaplyou. The village gave them Fedor cannabis in exchange for the contribution given by his brother Bogdan at postrizhenii Fedor in Inoki FEDOSEEV in Pafnutyevo-Borovsky monastery.

In 1646, after Bogdan Vasilevich Konopleva "polseltsa Borodin" was behind the Darling (Onuphrii) Kanaplyou Mikhailovich, his brother Dmitry Mikhailovich, and in 1666 half of the village with a manor yard owned by his son Dmitry Kovalevsky, then grandson - Bogdan D..

In 1666, [10] Dmitry M. Konoplyev gave his half of the village as a dowry Dmitrievne daughter Euphemia, who married the future courtiers Timothy Petrovich Savelova (Savelova-Verey [10]), brother of the future Patriarch of Moscow Joachim (Ivan Petrovich Savelova) [9] [11 ] [8] [4] [10].

Five years later in 1671 to Peter Timofeevichu enters the second half of Borodino, which Bogdan Konoplyev gave a pledge of duty and failed to buy. In scribe books in 1678 the village was registered for fully Timothy Savelov Petrovich and was a manor house and four human yard, home to 23 people.

Being the brother of Patriarch Joachim Peter T. Savelov held increasingly senior positions at the court: in 1676 he equerry, 1678 - secretary to the Duma nobleman, 1689 - courtier. In addition, during the patriarchate's brother was the patriarch Boyar was a soldier in the Trubchevsk and Suzdal. [10] According to some sources was also Mozhdysk commander and aide to Field Marshal Count Boris Sheremetev, a member of the trial of the Tsarevich Alexei. At the same time, Peter T. expanding its holdings in the county Mozhaiskom: bought for 200 rubles estate Lawrence G. Usov - half hamlet Semenov, and in 1696 transferred to it and part of Semenovski belonging to the seed and Jacob Anufrievich Kanaplyou.

In 1697 (1698?) Peter T. Savelov began to build a church in Borodino. March 15 1699 Timothy P. died and was buried in the monastery Mozhaiskom Luzhetskaya.

In 1701, "On February 18, the day was blessed by antiminsom literacy Mozhaiskogo county hamlet of Borodino in the newly built church of the Nativity", soon after which the temple with the Chapel of St. Sergius of Radonezh was consecrated.

During the 1941 Battle of Moscow, the field was the place of a severe clash between the Soviet and German forces.

References[edit]