Johnson et al. 1984 emend. Baranton et al. 1992
Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia, which has a diderm (double-membrane) envelope. B. burgdorferi is predominant in North America, but also exists in Europe, and is the agent of Lyme disease. Borrelia burgdorferi is gram negative only by default because safranin is the last dye used, but in reality spirochetes are not classified as either gram positive or negative.
Lyme disease is a zoonotic, vector-borne disease transmitted by the Ixodes tick (also the vector for Babesia); the causative agent is named after the researcher Willy Burgdorfer, who first isolated the bacterium in 1982. B. burgdorferi is one of the few pathogenic bacteria that can survive without iron, having replaced all of its iron-sulfur cluster enzymes with enzymes that use manganese, thus avoiding the problem many pathogenic bacteria face in acquiring iron. 
B. burgdorferi (B31 strain) was the third microbial genome ever sequenced, following the sequencing of both Haemophilus influenzae and Mycoplasma genitalium in 1995, and contains 910,725 base pairs and 853 genes. The sequencing method used was whole genome shotgun. The sequencing project, completed and published in Nature in 1997, was conducted at The Institute for Genomic Research.
Lyme disease clinical features include the characteristic bull's eye rash and erythema chronicum migrans (a rash which spreads peripherally and spares the central part), as well as myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, arrythmia, arthritis, arthralgia, meningitis, neuropathies and facial nerve palsy.
It is common in the northeastern, midwest and western United States.
See also 
- Samuels DS; Radolf, JD (editors) (2010). "Chapter 6, Structure, Function and Biogenesis of the Borrelia Cell Envelope". Borrelia: Molecular Biology, Host Interaction and Pathogenesis. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-58-5.
- Burgdorfer W, Barbour AG, Hayes SF, Benach JL, Grunwaldt E, Davis JP (June 1982). "Lyme disease-a tick-borne spirochetosis?". Science 216 (4552): 1317–9. Bibcode:1982Sci...216.1317B. doi:10.1126/science.7043737. PMID 7043737.
- Galdwin, Mark; Trattler, Bill (2009). Spirochetes: Clinical Microbiology Made Ridiculously Simple. MedMaster, Inc. ISBN 978-0-940780-81-1.
- Guidoboni M, Ferreri AJ, Ponzoni M, Doglioni C, Dolcetti R (January 2006). "Infectious agents in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type lymphomas: pathogenic role and therapeutic perspectives". Clinical Lymphoma & Myeloma 6 (4): 289–300. doi:10.3816/CLM.2006.n.003. PMID 16507206.
- Fraser CM, Casjens S, Huang WM, et al. (December 1997). "Genomic sequence of a Lyme disease spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi". Nature 390 (6660): 580–6. Bibcode:1997Natur.390..580F. doi:10.1038/37551. PMID 9403685.
|Wikispecies has information related to: Borrelia burgdorferi|
- NCBI Borrelia Taxonomy Browser
- Borrelia Microbe Wiki Page
- Borrelia burgdoferi B31 Genome Page
- Borrelia burgdoferi seen on Dark Field Microscopy