|Stylistic origins||Samba, jazz|
|Cultural origins||Late 1950s, Rio de Janeiro's South Zone, Brazil|
|Typical instruments||Classical/acoustic guitar, piano, electronic organ, acoustic bass, drums|
|Bossa Nova (dance), sambass|
Bossa nova is a genre of Brazilian music, which developed and was popularized in the 1950s and 1960s and is today one of the best-known Brazilian music genres abroad. The phrase bossa nova means literally "new trend" (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈbɔsɐ ˈnɔvɐ] ( )). A lyrical fusion of samba and jazz, bossa nova acquired a large following in the 1960s initially among young musicians and college students. Since its inception, it has remained a vital part of the standard jazz repertoire.
In Brazil, the word "bossa" is old-fashioned slang for something that is done with particular charm, natural flair or innate ability. As early as 1932, Noel Rosa used the word in a samba:
"O samba, a prontidão e outras bossas são nossas coisas, são coisas nossas" ("The samba, the readiness and other bossas are our things, are things from us").
The exact origin of the term "bossa nova" still remains uncertain. Within the artistic beach culture of the late 1950s in Rio de Janeiro, the term "bossa" was used to refer to any new "trend" or "fashionable wave". In his book Bossa Nova, Brazilian author Ruy Castro asserts that "bossa" was already in use in the 1950s by musicians as a word to characterize someone's knack for playing or singing idiosyncratically. Castro claims that the term "bossa nova" might have first been used in public for a concert given in 1958 by the Grupo Universitário Hebraico do Brasil (University Hebrew Group of Brazil). This group consisted of Sylvinha Telles, Carlinhos Lyra, Nara Leão, Luizinho Eça, Roberto Menescal, et al. In 1959, Nara Leão also participated in more than one embryonic display of bossa nova. This included the 1st Festival de Samba Session, conducted by the PUC's (Pontifícia Universidade Católica) student union. (This session was then chaired by Carlos Diegues, a law student that Leão ultimately married.) While these early musicians were likely using the term "bossa nova" as a generic reference to this novel musical style, the term took hold as the definition of their own specific artistic creation to this day.
Bossa nova is most commonly performed on the nylon-string classical guitar, played with the fingers rather than with a pick. Its purest form could be considered unaccompanied guitar with vocals, as exemplified by João Gilberto. Even in larger, jazz-like arrangements for groups, there is almost always a guitar that plays the underlying rhythm. Gilberto basically took one of the several rhythmic layers from a samba ensemble, specifically the tamborim, and applied it to the picking hand. According to Brazilian musician Paulo Bitencourt, João Gilberto, known for his eccentricity and obsessed by the idea of finding a new way of playing the guitar, often locked himself in the bathroom, where he played one and the same chord for many hours in a row.
Though not as prominent as the guitar, the piano is another important instrument of bossa nova; Jobim wrote for the piano and performed on it for most of his own recordings. The piano has also served as a stylistic bridge between bossa nova and jazz, enabling a great deal of cross-pollination between the two. In addition to the piano, the electronic organ is also prominently featured on many classic bossa nova tracks, such as "(So Nice) Summer Samba" by Walter Wanderley.
Drums and other percussion are generally not considered essential bossa nova instruments. Nonetheless, there is a distinctive bossa nova drumming style like that of Helcio Milito and Milton Banana, characterized by continuous eighths on the high-hat (mimicking the samba Pandeiro) and tapping of the rim or "rim clicks" in a clave pattern. The bass drum usually plays on "1-&3-&1".
Lush orchestral accompaniment is often associated with bossa nova's North American image as "lounge" music. It is present in many of Jobim's own recordings, and in those of Astrud Gilberto. Dusty Springfield would both feature and epitomize this element on her Philips recording of "The Look of Love", a song written by Burt Bacharach and Hal David. (That version is not the Phil Ramone version Springfield first recorded.) The unique aural texture of bossa strings, when used, is an important secondary characteristic of the genre. Bossa nova is at heart a folk genre, and not all bossa nova records have strings.
Certain other instrumentations and vocals are also part of the structure of bossa nova:
Bossa nova and samba
Bossa nova has at its core a rhythm based on samba. Samba combines the rhythmic patterns and feel originating in former African slave communities. Samba's emphasis on the second beat carries through to bossa nova (to the degree that it is often notated in 2/4 time). However, unlike samba, bossa nova doesn't have dance steps to accompany it. When played on the guitar, in a simple one-bar pattern, the thumb plays the bass notes on 1 and 2, while the fingers pluck the chords in unison on the two eighth notes of beat one, followed by the second sixteenth note of beat two. Two-measure patterns usually contain a syncopation into the second measure. Overall, the rhythm has a "swaying" feel rather than the "swinging" feel of jazz. As bossa nova composer Carlos Lyra describes it in his song "Influência do Jazz", the samba rhythm moves "side to side" while jazz moves "front to back". Bossa nova was also influenced by the blues, but because the most famous bossa novas lack the 12-bar structure characteristic of classic blues, as well as the statement, repetition and rhyming resolution of lyrics typical of the genre, bossa nova's affinity with the blues often passes unnoticed.
Aside from the guitar style, João Gilberto's other innovation was the projection of the singing voice. Prior to bossa nova, Brazilian singers employed brassy, almost operatic styles. Now, the characteristic nasal vocal production of bossa nova is a peculiar trait of the caboclo folk tradition of north-eastern Brazil. Gilberto managed to dramatically reduce that to a subtle near-whisper.
Themes and lyrics
The lyrical themes found in bossa nova include women, love, longing, homesickness, nature, and the best of youth. There are two thematic types of bossa nova: the early bossa nova (beginning in the late 1950s), and the bossa nova after the coup d'état of 1964. The musical lyrics of the late 1950s depicted the easy life of the middle to upper-class Brazilians, though the majority of the population was in the working class. However, in conjunction with political developments of the early 1960s (especially the 1964 coup d'état), bossa nova style became more "angry", with lyrics becoming more thematically charged, referring explicitly to people's struggles and liberty.
Notable bossa nova artists
- Laurindo Almeida
- Leny Andrade
- Badi Assad
- Luiz Bonfá
- João Bosco
- Chico Buarque
- Charlie Byrd
- Oscar Castro-Neves
- Gal Costa
- João Donato
- Eliane Elias
- Quarteto em Cy
- Clare Fischer
- Stan Getz
- Gilberto Gil (early years)
- Bebel Gilberto
- João Gilberto
- Astrud Gilberto
- Antonio Carlos Jobim
- Edu Lobo
- Nara Leão
- Carlos Lyra
- Maysa Matarazzo
- Sérgio Mendes
- Newton Mendonça
- Roberto Menescal
- Vinicius de Moraes
- Paula Morelenbaum
- Sitti Navarro
- Lisa Ono
- Paulinho Nogueira
- Hermeto Pascoal
- Rosa Passos
- Baden Powell de Aquino
- Elis Regina
- Wanda Sá
- Bola Sete
- Elza Soares
- Sylvia Telles
- Toquinho (Antônio Pecci Filho)
- Marcos Valle
- Ale Vanzella
- Caetano Veloso
- Zimbo Trio
- Blatter, Alfred (2007). Revisiting music theory: a guide to the practice, p.28. ISBN 0-415-97440-2.
- "The aesthetic of bossa nova" ("A estética da bossa nova") by Mariana Garcia, Com Ciência, 10 July 2006 (in Portuguese)
- Castro, Ruy (transl. by Lysa Salsbury). Bossa Nova: The Story of the Brazilian Music That Seduced the World. 2000. 1st English language edition. A Capella Books, an imprint of Chicago Review Press, Inc. ISBN 1-55652-409-9 First published in Brasil by Companhia das Letras (1990)
- "Nara Leão"
- "What is Bossa Nova?" by Paulo Bitencourt
- "Step one, pour yourself a drink", Mark Collin, The Guardian, 27 June 208
- "Blues and Samba: Another Side of Bossa Nova History" article by Bryan McCann, from the Luso-Brazilian Review, cited in the Project MUSE (in Portuguese)
- "Cabaclos refers to the mixed-race population (Indians or Africans 'imported' to the region during the slave era, and Europeans) who generally live along the Amazon's riverbanks." From "Two Cases on Participatory Municipal Planning on natural-resource management in the Brazilian Amazon", by GRET - Groupe de Recherche et d'Échanges Technologiques, France (in English)
- Oxford Music Online article (subscription only)
- "What is Bossa Nova?". Essortment.com.
- Castro, Ruy (transl. by Lysa Salsbury). Bossa Nova: The Story of the Brazilian Music That Seduced the World. 2000. 1st English language edition. A Capella Books, an imprint of Chicago Review Press, Inc. ISBN 1-55652-409-9 First published in Brasil by Companhia das Letras. 1990.
- De Stefano, Gildo, Il popolo del samba, La vicenda e i protagonisti della storia della musica popolare brasiliana, Preface by Chico Buarque de Hollanda, Introduction by Gianni Minà, RAI-ERI, Rome 2005, ISBN 8839713484
- McGowan, Chris and Pessanha, Ricardo. The Brazilian Sound: Samba, Bossa Nova and the Popular Music of Brazil. 1998. 2nd edition. Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639-545-3
- Perrone, Charles A. Masters of Contemporary Brazilian Song: MPB 1965–1985. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1989.
- Mei, Giancarlo. Canto Latino: Origine, Evoluzione e Protagonisti della Musica Popolare del Brasile. 2004. Stampa Alternativa-Nuovi Equilibri. Preface by Sergio Bardotti; afterword by Milton Nascimento. (in Italian)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bossa nova.|
- "History of the Bossa Nova" by Brazilian musician Paulo Bitencourt
- "It's 20 years ago bossa nova was released to the world at Carnegie Hall in New York" by Rénato Sergio, Manchete magazine, 1982 (in Portuguese)