1978–79 Boston College basketball point shaving scandal
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The 1978–79 Boston College basketball point shaving scandal involved a scheme in which underworld figures recruited and bribed some Boston College basketball players to ensure the team would not win by the required margin (not cover the point spread), allowing the gamblers in the know to place wagers against that team and win.
The Boston College point shaving scheme was conceived by Rocco Perla and his brother Anthony (Tony) in Pittsburgh during the summer of 1978. The Perla brothers were small-time gamblers who saw the 1978–79 Boston College basketball season as a perfect opportunity to earn a lot of money. They wanted to recruit Rick Kuhn to join the scheme. Kuhn, a high school friend of Rocco Perla, was entering his senior year at Boston College and was expected to be a key member of the 1978–79 Eagles basketball team.
The Perla brothers proposed a simple scheme. They along with Kuhn would select certain basketball games where the projected point spread separating Boston College from its opponent was expected to be significant. Kuhn would be responsible for ensuring, by his play on the court, that Boston College fell short of the point spread. Thus, for example, if participating bookmakers determined Boston College to be an eight point favorite in a particular game, Kuhn would be paid a bonus, usually $2,500, if Boston College won by less than eight points. In addition, they were given the opportunity to bet the money they were paid and double their winnings. Kuhn agreed to participate, and brought in his teammates Jim Sweeney and Joe Streater.
Rocco and Tony Perla then mobilized a betting syndicate to maximize their potential gain from this operation. They contacted a local friend, Paul Mazzei, who was known to have influence within major New York gambling circles. Mazzei in turn contacted Henry Hill, a Lucchese crime family associate from New York who had befriended Mazzei while both men were serving sentences in a federal prison. Mazzei and the Perlas were particularly hopeful that Hill would enlist the support of his associate, James Burke ("Jimmy the Gent"), to finance the payments to the players and to set up a network of bookmakers who were in on the scheme. These bookies could handle large bets and lay them off and spread the bets among a number of unsuspecting bookmakers around the country so as not to arouse suspicion. They would also ensure protection for the enterprise in the event that the unsuspecting bookmakers, all of whom had thugs at their disposal to collect unpaid debts, discovered they were being swindled. Hill and Burke were brought into the scheme, after receiving approval from Lucchese crime family capo Paul Vario.
Burke, through Hill, would front the money to pay the players, forwarding the money to Pittsburgh to Paul Mazzei as the go-between, who would forward it to the Perla brothers who would pass it to the players directly. The same channels would be used for the passing of the point spread from Burke and Hill to the players.
Burke had Hill fly to Boston on 16 November 1978, to meet with Mazzei, Tony Perla, Kuhn, and any other member of the Boston College team interested in participating in their scheme. Said Hill, "I asked the players which of the upcoming games they felt we could shave. Sweeney took out one of those little schedule cards, circled the games he thought we could fool around with, and gave the card to me. They kept saying that they liked the idea of just shaving points and not blowing the games." After discussing their strategy with Kuhn and Sweeney, it was agreed that the upcoming Providence game would be an appropriate test for their scheme. Hill paid Kuhn, Sweeney, and Streater $2,000 each in good-faith money and furnished them one ounce of cocaine to seal the conspiracy.
The Providence game was played on 6 December 1978, and Boston College was favored to win by six to seven points. Kuhn was thus expected to keep the score below the six- to seven-point margin. The test run for the scheme proved unsuccessful, however, when Boston College established an early lead and ultimately won the game by nineteen points.
Enraged by their gambling loss, the conspiring Perla Brothers, Mazzei, Burke, and Hill decided to recruit additional Boston College players to enhance their control over the outcome of the games. They approached Ernie Cobb, the leading scorer on the team, and Joseph Beaulieu, who shared the center position with Kuhn. Cobb agreed to cooperate, while Beaulieu rejected this offer. Burke instructed Hill to warn the players to keep to their end of the deal because "you can't play basketball with broken hands."
The 16 December Harvard game was chosen as the second test for the scheme. Boston College was favored by 12 to 13 points but won the game by only a three-point margin, 86–83. The syndicate was very happy with this result and Kuhn, Sweeney, Streater, and Cobb were paid $2,500 each for their efforts.
The scheme continued to work successfully in the 23 December UCLA game, where the Bruins, a 15- to 18-point favorite, won the game by 22 points, 103–81.
Suspecting that some bookmakers might be getting wise to the scheme, the conspirators temporarily revised their strategy after the UCLA game. To allay any suspicions of foul play, they decided to bet on Boston College to win by more than the point spread ("cover the spread") in a game that they were confident Boston College would win handily. The conspirators chose the January 17 Connecticut (UConn) game to implement this plan. Their strategy was effective; BC, a five-point favorite, covered the spread with a 90–80 win over UConn.
In early February, Boston College was scheduled to play two New York teams, Fordham and St. John's. The conspirators decided that these games presented especially good opportunities because New York bookmakers generally accepted large bets for New York teams. They reintroduced the original strategy and it proved successful for the February 3 Fordham game when BC, a 10-point favorite, won by seven points, 71–64.
The 6 February St. John's game was a "push"—the syndicate neither won nor lost when St. John's prevailed 85–76 by the exact number of points they had laid (9).[i]
Confident from their recent success, the conspirators viewed the 10 February Holy Cross game as an opportunity to reap the full benefits of their scheme. They were aware that bookmakers generally accepted large bets on this game because Boston College and Holy Cross were traditional rivals and also because the game was being nationally televised. Holy Cross was favored to win and, consistent with the scheme, the conspirators bet on Holy Cross to win by a margin greater than the point spread, 7.[ii] Holy Cross ultimately won by only two points, 98–96; however, Ernie Cobb scored eight points in the final minutes to bring BC close, and everyone involved lost a substantial amount of money. Hill stated that, at the time, he and Burke were watching the game on television at Burke's home in Howard Beach, Queens, and when it was over Burke, having lost $50,000 of his own money on the game, put his foot through his big expensive television set in a rage. Said Hill, "He wanted me to fly up to Boston. Ultimately, nothing happened. Jimmy said he was finished. He didn't want to be bothered with these kids anymore." The scheme thus ended on an unsuccessful note.
The Boston College basketball team ended its 1978–79 season with a 22–9 record. The players involved in the point-shaving scheme had made $2,500 each, and sometimes more, per game. Hill cleared over $100,000 and bettors higher up the line were said to have made up to $250,000.
The Boston College basketball point-shaving conspiracy was uncovered in 1980 when Hill was arrested and indicted by New York state authorities on drug trafficking charges and subsequently was implicated in the Lufthansa heist. Hill turned informant in exchange for avoiding prison time and to escape possible execution by Burke and the Lucchese family. While being questioned on these crimes, Hill revealed that he had recently participated in a point-shaving scheme involving the Boston College basketball team and various underworld figures. Hill offered to relate the full story of the swindle if federal officials would guarantee him full immunity and would agree to intercede on his behalf to convince state officials to drop the drug charges pending in state court.
The grand jury indicted Burke, Mazzei, Kuhn, Cobb, Rocco Perla, and Tony Perla on the basis of testimony given by Hill. Hill was indicted as a co-conspirator but was not named as a defendant. At the trial in 1981, the government's case consisted primarily of the testimony of Hill and three other witnesses, James Sweeney and Joseph Streater, both Boston College players, and Barbara Reed, a 23-year-old nurse who lived with Kuhn during the 1978–79 Boston College season. The government also introduced two confessions, one made by Kuhn and the other by Tony Perla. Finally, the government presented telephone records showing evidence of extensive communications between the conspirators during the 1978–79 season and records provided by Western Union and various hotels which further corroborated government testimony.
After a four-week trial, each conspirator was convicted on charges of Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act conspiracy, conspiracy to commit sports bribery, and interstate travel with the intent to commit bribery. Burke was sentenced to twenty years' imprisonment. Kuhn was sentenced to ten years' imprisonment, later reduced to 28 months. Mazzei and Tony Perla were sentenced to ten years' imprisonment. Rocco Perla was sentenced to four years' imprisonment. Cobb was acquitted. Sweeney and Streater were not charged.
|December 6, 1978||Providence||Opp +(6–7)||BC 19||83–64||Lose|
|December 16, 1978||Harvard||Opp +(12–13)||BC 3||86–83||Win|
|December 23, 1978||UCLA||Opp −(15–18)||Opp 22||103–81||Win|
|January 10, 1979||Rhode Island||Opp −15[vi]||Opp 13||91–78||Lose|
|January 17, 1979||UConn||BC −5||BC 10||90–80||Win|
|January 20, 1979||Holy Cross||BC −2[vii]||BC 2||89–87||Push|
|February 3, 1979||Fordham||Opp +10||BC 7||71–64||Win|
|February 6, 1979||St. John's||Opp −9[i]||Opp 9||85–76||Push|
|February 10, 1979||Holy Cross||Opp −7[ii]||Opp 2||98–96||Lose|
- The syndicate was able to lay 9 points when the game was first available to be bet, and therefore pushed. Bookmakers, on seeing the heavy action, moved the line as high as 12 to discourage bets on the favorite (St. John's) and attract more bets on the underdog. Those later bettors on St. John's lost money because they laid more than the eventual 9 point margin of victory.
- In this case, while the line may have opened, or at one time gone to, 2, because of the heavy betting on Holy Cross, the syndicate had to lay as many as 7 points, and therefore lost their bet.
- Bets in this column are given in the format "Team [+|−][Points|(Points–Points)]". Team is the team bet on – either Opp (opponent) or BC; + or − means they were either an underdog or favorite, respectively; Points is either a single number or a range of numbers when bets had to be made at different spreads as the line moved due to action.
- Winner is given as either Opp or BC and the margin of victory
- Result is the outcome of the syndicate's bets.
- While the line may have been as low as 13 at some point, the syndicate had to lay 15, and therefore lost their bet when Rhode Island won by only 13.
- In this case, while the spread was as high as 5, the syndicate was able to lay just 2 points, and therefore pushed when Holy Cross won by 2.
- U.S. v. Mazzei, 700 F.2d 85 (C.A.2 (N.Y.), 1983)
- U.S. v. Burke, 700 F.2d 70 (C.A.2 (N.Y.), 1983)
- Sports Illustrated (SI) "How I Put The Fix In" (February 16, 1981) article written by Henry Hill, in collaboration with Douglas Looney. This article purported to be Hill's first-hand account of the point shaving scheme. Hill claimed he paid Kuhn and Sweeney to shave points in nine games between Dec. 16, 1978 and March 1, 1979. Hill won six games, but didn't begin to win wagers until Boston College's star Ernie Cobb joined the scheme for the last five games. Hill claimed he made between $75,000 to $100,000 in eleven weeks. He estimated his partners made $250,000. Hill said the players involved made about $10,000 each.
- Fixed: How Goodfellas Bought Boston College Basketball by David Porter, Taylor Trade Publishing (February 25, 2000) ISBN 978-0-87833-192-5. Utilizing extensive background research as well as interviews with the principal characters, Fixed provides the first in-depth reconstruction of the point-shaving scandal involving the 1978–1979 Boston College basketball team, from the genesis of the plot in the summer of 1978, through the uncovering of the scheme during an unrelated investigation in 1980, to the trial that captivated the sports world in the fall of 1981 and its aftermath.