|Owner(s)||William Monroe Trotter, George Forbes|
|Publisher||William Monroe Trotter|
|Editor||William Monroe Trotter|
|Ceased publication||ca. 1950|
The Guardian was founded in November 1901 and published in the same building that had once housed William Lloyd Garrison's Liberator. In March 1901, Trotter helped organize the Boston Literary and Historical Association, a forum for militant race opinion.
The paper enjoyed broad appeal with readers outside of Massachusetts, featuring news of interest to people of color from across the nation, as well as social notes, church news, sports, and fiction. Within its editorial opinion columns, Trotter often assailed the conservative accommodationist ideology of Booker T. Washington, founder of the Tuskegee Institute.
The Guardian reached the peak of its circulation and prestige about the year 1910, roughly coinciding with the establishment of the National Association of Colored People, of which Trotter was a co-founder along with W. E. B. DuBois, et al. Trotter and Du Bois had previously joined with others in the formation of the Niagara Movement, immediate predecessor to the NAACP.
Within the pages of the Guardian, Trotter criticized the slow progress in Negro social advancement in the face of institutional racism, discriminatory practices, and de jure segregation. When Thomas Dixon's play The Clansman (1905) was performed in Boston, the Guardian mounted a campaign that forced it from the stage. This stage production, based on Dixon's novel of the same name, was adapted in 1915 into the film Birth of A Nation by D. W. Griffith.
With high circulation and substantial advertising revenue, the Guardian enjoyed financial success in addition to crusading for civil rights. However, when William Monroe Trotter died in 1934 of an apparent accident at his home, the Guardian had already seen its best years. The newspaper eventually ceased publication in the 1950s.
W. E. B. Du Bois attests to the influence and effectiveness of the Boston Guardian. In reference to W. M. Trotter's opposition to B. T. Washington, he wrote:
This opposition began to become vocal in 1901 when two men, Monroe Trotter, Harvard 1895, and George Forbes, Amherst 1895, began the publication of the Boston Guardian. The Guardian was bitter, satirical, and personal; but it was earnest, and it published facts. It attracted wide attention among colored people; it circulated among them all over the country; it was quoted and discussed. I did not wholly agree with the Guardian, and indeed only a few Negroes did, but nearly all read it and were influenced by it.
- Rudwick, Elliott M. (Winter 1962). "Race Leadership Struggle: Background of the Boston Riot of 1903". The Journal of Negro Education 31 (1): 16–24. Retrieved August 26, 2012.
- Excerpt from Dusk of Dawn: An Essay Toward an Autobiography of a Race Concept, New York, 1940, pp. 72–73. ISBN 0-87855-917-5
- DeVaughn, Booker T., The Boston Literary and Historical Association: An Early 20th Century Example of Adult Education as Conducted by a Black Voluntary Association, 1986.
- Fox, Stephen R. (1970). The Guardian of Boston: William Monroe Trotter. New York: Atheneum.