Boston Marathon bombings
|Boston Marathon bombings|
Area of the first blast a few minutes after explosion
|Location||Bombings: 671–673 and 755 Boylston Street, Boston, Massachusetts
Shooting: Corner of Vassar Street and Main Street in Cambridge
Firefight and manhunt: Watertown, Massachusetts
|Date||Bombings: April 15, 20132:49 pm EDT
Shooting: April 18, 2013, 10:48 pm EDT Firefight and manhunt: April 19, 2013, 12:30 am – 8:42 pm EDT
|Motive||Extremist Islamic beliefs, including reactions to U.S. foreign policy towards Muslim countries|
On April 15, 2013, two pressure cooker bombs exploded during the Boston Marathon at 2:49 pm EDT, killing 3 people and injuring an estimated 264 others. The bombs exploded about 13 seconds and 210 yards (190 m) apart, near the finish line on Boylston Street.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) took over the investigation, and on April 18, released photographs and surveillance video of two suspects. The suspects were identified later that day as Chechen brothers Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev. Shortly after the FBI released the images, the suspects allegedly killed an MIT police officer, carjacked an SUV, and initiated an exchange of gunfire with the police in Watertown, Massachusetts. During the firefight, an MBTA police officer was injured but survived with severe blood loss. Tamerlan Tsarnaev was shot by police and then run over by his brother Dzhokhar and died. Dzhokhar was injured but escaped.
An unprecedented manhunt ensued on April 19, with thousands of law enforcement officers searching a 20-block area of Watertown. During the manhunt, authorities asked residents of Watertown and surrounding areas, including Boston, to stay indoors. The public transportation system and most businesses and public institutions were shut down, creating a deserted urban environment of historic size and duration. Around 7 pm, shortly after the "shelter-in-place" advisory was rescinded, a Watertown resident discovered Dzhokhar Tsarnaev hiding in a boat in his back yard. He was arrested and taken to a hospital shortly thereafter.
During an initial interrogation in the hospital, it is alleged that Dzhokhar said Tamerlan was the mastermind. He said the brothers were motivated by extremist Islamist beliefs and the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, and that they were self-radicalized and unconnected to any outside terrorist groups. He said they had learned to build explosive devices from an online magazine of the al-Qaeda affiliate in Yemen. He said that he and his brother had decided after the Boston bombings to travel to New York City to bomb Times Square. Dzhokhar was charged on April 22, while still in the hospital, with use of a weapon of mass destruction and malicious destruction of property resulting in death. He has pleaded not guilty to 30 charges.
- 1 Bombings
- 2 Casualties and initial response
- 3 Investigation
- 4 Events of April 18–19
- 5 Legal proceedings
- 6 Motives and backgrounds
- 7 Other arrests and detentions
- 8 Victims
- 9 Reactions
- 10 Conflicting reports
- 11 See also
- 12 Footnotes
- 13 External links
On Patriots' Day, April 15, 2013, the annual Boston Marathon began without any indications of an imminent attack. Officials swept the area for bombs twice before the explosions; the second sweep occurred one hour before the bombs went off. People were able to come and go freely, and carry bags and items in and out of the area.
At 2:49 pm EDT (18:49 UTC), about two hours after the winner crossed the finish line, but with more than 5,700 runners yet to finish, two bombs detonated on Boylston Street near Copley Square about 210 yards (190 m) apart, just before the finish line. The first exploded outside Marathon Sports at 671–673 Boylston Street at 2:49:43 pm EDT. At the time of the first explosion, the race clock at the finish line showed 04:09:43, reflecting the elapsed time since the Wave 3 start at 10:40 am EDT. The second bomb exploded at 2:49:57 pm EDT, about 13 seconds later and one block farther west at 755 Boylston Street.
Casualties and initial response
Rescue workers and medical personnel, on hand to assist runners and bystanders, rushed available aid to wounded victims in the bombings' immediate aftermath. The explosions killed 3 spectators and injured 264 others, who were treated in 27 local hospitals. At least 14 people required amputations, with some suffering traumatic amputations as a direct result of the blasts.
The marathon was halted abruptly. Police, following emergency plans, diverted the remaining runners away from the finish line to Boston Common and Kenmore Square. The nearby Lenox Hotel and other buildings were evacuated. Police closed down a 15-block area around the blast site; this was reduced to a 12-block crime scene on April 16. Massachusetts Army National Guard soldiers already at the scene joined local authorities in rendering aid. Boston police commissioner Ed Davis recommended that people stay off the streets.
Many people dropped backpacks and other bags as they fled, requiring each to be treated as a potential bomb. A number of news reports stated that more bombs had been found nearby and the Boston Police Bomb Squad said they would perform a controlled explosion on the 600 block of Boylston Street, but in the end no other bombs were found. Some media outlets also reported a potential bombing at the John F Kennedy Presidential Library in the Dorchester section of the city, but this turned out to be an unrelated electrical fire. The Navy sent one of its bomb-disposal units to Boston to help local authorities.
As a precaution, the Federal Aviation Administration restricted airspace over Boston, and issued a temporary ground stop for Boston's Logan International Airport. Some Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority service was halted. Several cities in Massachusetts and other states put their police forces on alert. U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder directed that the "full resources" of the U.S. Department of Justice be brought to bear on investigating the explosions.
The Massachusetts Emergency Management Agency suggested people trying to contact those in the vicinity use text messaging, instead of voice calls, because of crowded cellphone lines. Cellphone service in Boston was congested but remained in operation, despite some local media reports stating that cell service was shut down to prevent cell phones from being used as detonators.
The American Red Cross helped concerned friends and family receive information about runners and casualties. The Boston Police Department also set up a helpline for people concerned about relatives or acquaintances to contact and a line for people to provide information. Google Person Finder activated their disaster service under Boston Marathon Explosions to log known information about missing persons as a publicly viewable file.
Because of the closure of several hotels near the blast zone, some out-of-town visitors were left with nowhere to stay; many Boston-area residents opened their homes to them.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation led the investigation, assisted by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Counterterrorism Center, and the Drug Enforcement Administration, and naming two official suspects.
United States government officials stated that there had been no intelligence reports that indicated such a bombing would take place. Representative Peter King, member of the House Intelligence Committee said: "I received two top secret briefings last week on the current threat levels in the United States, and there was no evidence of this at all."
Following the identification of the suspects, their father claimed that the FBI had been watching his family and questioned his sons in Cambridge, Massachusetts, five times in relation to possible explosions on the streets of Boston.
At the site of the explosion, investigators found shrapnel that included bits of metal, nails, and bearing balls, as well as black nylon pieces from a backpack. The lid of a pressure cooker was found on a nearby rooftop. Investigators also found the remains of an electronic circuit board and wiring. All evidence was sent to the FBI Laboratory for analysis. Both of the improvised explosive devices were pressure cooker bombs, manufactured by the bombers. Authorities reportedly confirmed that the brothers used bomb making instructions found in Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula's Inspire. After the suspects were identified, The Boston Globe reported that Tamerlan purchased fireworks from a fireworks store in New Hampshire.
On April 24, the FBI and the Department of Homeland Security released a joint intelligence bulletin which the Los Angeles Times reports to include the "preliminary analysis of recovered evidence, [for] each device". The report says investigators believe that the two homemade bombs used were triggered by long-range remote controls used for toy cars; and that investigators have finished a preliminary reconstruction of the bombs that were used during the April 15 attacks.
Events of April 18–19
Identification of suspects: Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev
In a news conference held at 5:20 pm on April 18, the FBI released photographs and surveillance videos showing two suspects—each carrying backpacks and walking nonchalantly but purposefully in single file formation—and sought the public's help in identifying them. The FBI released the photos, in part, to limit the damage by those wrongly targeted by incorrect news reports and social media speculations. Authorities later said that releasing the suspect's photos "was a turning point in the investigation, no doubt about it."
Jeff Bauman, a victim who lost both legs, was adjacent to the location of one of the bombs; upon recovering consciousness, he asked for pen and paper and wrote a note to the FBI, "bag, saw the guy, looked right at me". Bauman was later able to provide detailed descriptions to the authorities of a suspect who was seen placing a backpack beside him at the bombing scene two and a half minutes before it exploded, enabling the photo to be identified and circulated quickly.
The suspects, initially identified by the FBI as unnamed suspects 1 and 2 (or "black hat" and "white hat", respectively) from photographic and video evidence, had "acted differently" after the explosions; they had stayed to watch the aftermath and walked away "casually", rather than fleeing. Asked for assistance in identifying the suspects, the public provided a deluge of photographs and home movie records to police, which were scrutinized by both authorities and online public social networks.
Despite video footage taken at the scene, the suspects were not identified by authorities before killing a police officer and hijacking a civilian. The source of identification was RMV records on the Honda vehicle, which was used in a subsequent kidnapping and then abandoned. The suspects were then identified as two brothers whose family had immigrated to the United States as refugees around 2002: 26-year-old Tamerlan Tsarnaev (Russian: Тамерлан Царнаев / /), born on October 21, 1986, and killed on April 19, 2013, and 19-year-old Dzhokhar Tsarnaev (Russian: Джохар Царнаев / /), born on July 22, 1993.[a]
MIT shooting and carjacking
A few hours after the photos were released, the suspects allegedly shot Sean A. Collier of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Police Department multiple times, killing him for his gun which they could not get out because of the holster's retention system. Collier, aged 27, was seated in his police car near the Stata Center (Building 32), on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology campus. He was taken to Massachusetts General Hospital in nearby downtown Boston, where he was pronounced dead. Some law enforcement officials have described the killing as an assassination.
The duo then allegedly carjacked a Mercedes-Benz M-Class SUV in the Allston-Brighton neighborhood of Boston, Tamerlan taking the owner hostage and telling him that he was responsible for the Boston bombings and for killing a police officer. Dzhokhar followed them in the green Honda, later joining them in the Mercedes-Benz. Later interrogation allegedly revealed that the brothers "decided spontaneously" to go to New York and planned to bomb Times Square.
The suspects forced the hostage to use his ATM cards to obtain $800 in cash until the daily cash withdrawal limit was reached. They transferred objects to the Mercedes-Benz and one brother followed it in their Honda Civic, for which an all-points bulletin was issued. The car's owner, Danny, a Chinese national, escaped while the suspects stopped at a gas station; he ran across the street to another gas station, asking the clerk to call 911. His cellphone remained in the vehicle, allowing the police to track it.
Firefight with police
Shortly after midnight on April 19, a Watertown police officer identified the brothers in a Honda Civic and the stolen SUV, and a "ferocious" gunfight followed on the 100 block of Laurel St, between the brothers and police arriving at the scene. An estimated 200–300 rounds of ammunition were fired and at least one further bomb and several "crude grenades" were thrown.
According to Watertown Police Chief Edward Deveau, the brothers had an "arsenal of guns." Also according to Deveau, the older brother, Tamerlan, ran out of ammunition and was tackled and apprehended by police, while the younger brother Dzhokhar drove the stolen SUV toward police and over Tamerlan, dragging him a short distance down the street. Dzhokhar Tsarnaev sped off, but about a half-mile away at the corner of Spruce and Lincoln streets he abandoned the car and escaped on foot.
According to two anonymous officials, only one Ruger 9mm pistol was recovered from the scene and one of them said it had a defaced serial number. The Boston Globe reported that within a 10-minute span, "police officers fired what may be an unprecedented number of rounds in a single police incident in recent state history ... [spraying] the neighborhood ... [leaving] at least a dozen nearby houses pockmarked with dozens of bullet holes". Tamerlan Tsarnaev was captured and transported to Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, where he was pronounced dead on April 19 at 1:35 a.m. The emergency room doctors said that he did not appear to have been run over.
According to the death certificate, Tsarnaev's cause of death was "gunshot wounds of torso and extremities, blunt trauma to head and torso," and "shot by police then run over and dragged by motor vehicle." The death was ruled a homicide.
During the firefight, 33-year-old MBTA Police Officer Richard H. Donahue Jr. was also critically wounded by what may have been friendly fire. He was taken to Mount Auburn Hospital, where he was in critical but stable condition. Fifteen other police officers sustained minor injuries during the firefight.
Manhunt and capture of Dzhokhar Tsarnaev
The FBI released additional photos of the two during the Watertown incident. Early on April 19, Watertown residents received reverse 911 calls asking them to stay indoors. On the morning of April 19, Governor Patrick asked residents of Watertown and adjacent cities and towns (Allston-Brighton, Boston, Belmont, Brookline, Cambridge, Newton, and Waltham) to "shelter in place". Somerville residents also received a reverse-911 call with orders to shelter in place.
A 20-block area of Watertown was cordoned off and residents were told not to leave their homes or answer the door as officers in tactical gear scoured the area. Helicopters circled the area and SWAT teams in armored vehicles moved through in formation, with officers going door-to-door. On the scene were the FBI, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, the Department of Homeland Security, the National Guard, the Boston and Watertown Police departments and the Massachusetts State Police. The show of force was the first major field test of the interagency task forces created in the wake of the September 11 attacks.
The entire public transit network, as well as most Boston taxi service,[b] was suspended, as was Amtrak service to and from Boston. Logan International Airport remained open under heightened security. Universities, schools, many businesses, and other facilities were closed as thousands of law enforcement personnel participated in an unprecedented door-to-door manhunt in Watertown, as well as following up other leads, including at the house the brothers shared in Cambridge. Seven improvised explosive devices were recovered by bomb squads.
The father of the suspected Boston Marathon bombers, speaking from his home in Makhachkala, Dagestan, encouraged his son to: "Give up. Give up. You have a bright future ahead of you. Come home to Russia." He continued, "If they killed him, then all hell would break loose." On television, Dzhokhar's uncle from Montgomery Village, Maryland, pleaded with him to turn himself in.
The manhunt ended on the evening of April 19, two hours after the shelter-in-place order had been lifted. Outside the search area, a Watertown resident stepped outside and noticed that the cover on his boat in his back yard was loose. He looked into the boat and saw a body lying in a pool of blood, and he promptly notified police. Authorities surrounded the boat and verified movement through a forward looking infrared thermal imaging device in a State Police helicopter. When the suspect started poking at the tarp of the boat, police began a large volume of gunfire at the boat, stopping only after the Superintendent on the scene called for a cease fire. Celebrations followed law enforcement's capture of Tsarnaev.
According to Boston Police Commissioner Ed Davis, and Watertown Police Chief Deveau, Tsarnaev was shooting from inside the boat at police, "exchanging fire for an hour." After he was captured, Tsarnaev was found not to have any weapons. He was taken into custody at 8:42 pm and transported to Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, where he was listed in critical condition with multiple gunshot wounds to the head, neck, legs and hand. Initial reports that the neck wound was from a self-inflicted gunshot from a possible suicide attempt were later contradicted by the revelation that he was unarmed at the time of capture and a description of the neck wound by SWAT team members that the neck wound was a slicing injury, possibly caused by shrapnel from an explosion.
United States Senators Kelly Ayotte, Saxby Chambliss, Lindsey Graham, and John McCain, and Representative Peter T. King, suggested that Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, a U.S. citizen, should be tried as an unlawful enemy combatant rather than as a criminal, potentially preventing him from obtaining legal counsel. Other sources, including Alan Dershowitz, a prominent American legal scholar and lawyer, said that doing so would be illegal and would jeopardize the prosecution. The government decided to try Dzhokhar in the federal criminal court system and not as an enemy combatant.
Dzhokhar was questioned for 16 hours by investigators but stopped communicating with them on the night of April 22 after Judge Marianne Bowler read him a Miranda warning. Dzhokhar had not previously been given a Miranda warning, as federal law enforcement officials invoked the warning's public safety exception. This raised doubts whether the suspect's statements during this investigation would be admissible as evidence and led to a debate surrounding Miranda rights.
Charges and detention
On April 22, formal criminal charges were brought against Dzhokhar Tsarnaev in the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts during a bedside hearing while he was hospitalized. He was charged with use of a weapon of mass destruction, and with malicious destruction of property resulting in death. The charges carry potential sentences of life imprisonment or the death penalty. Tsarnaev was judged to be awake, mentally competent, and lucid, and he responded to most questions by nodding. When the judge asked him whether he was able to afford an attorney, he responded "no"; he is represented by the Federal Public Defender's office. On April 26, Dzhohkar Tsarnaev was moved from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center to the Federal Medical Center at Fort Devens, about 40 miles (64 km) from Boston. FMC Devens is a federal prison medical facility at a former Army base where he is being held in solitary confinement at a segregated housing unit with 23-hour-per-day lockdown.
On July 10, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev pleaded not guilty to 30 charges in his first public court appearance, including a murder charge for MIT police officer Sean Collier. He was back in court for a status hearing on September 23, and his lawyers requested more time to prepare their defense. On October 2, Tsarnaev's attorneys asked the court to lift the special administrative measures (SAMs) imposed by Attorney General Holder in August, saying the measures have left Tsarnaev unduly isolated from communication with his family and lawyers, and that no evidence suggests he poses a future threat.
A trial in federal court is scheduled for November 3, 2014.
Motives and backgrounds
According to FBI interrogators, Dzhokhar and his brother were motivated by extremist Islamic beliefs, and "were not connected to any known terrorist groups"; instead learning to build explosive weapons from an online magazine published by al-Qaeda affiliates in Yemen. It is further alleged that "[Dzhokhar and] his brother considered suicide attacks and striking on the Fourth of July; but ultimately decided to use pressure cooker bombs (capable of remote detonation) and other IEDs." Fox News reported that the brothers "chose the prestigious race as a 'target of opportunity' ... [after] the building of the bombs came together more quickly than expected".
Dzhokhar said he and his brother wanted to defend Islam from the U.S., which conducted the Iraq War and War in Afghanistan, in the view of the brothers, against Muslims. Later a CBS report revealed that a note scrawled by Dzhokhar with a marker on the interior wall of the boat where he was hiding said the bombings were "retribution for U.S. military action in Afghanistan and Iraq", and called the Boston victims 'collateral damage', "in the same way innocent victims have been collateral damage in U.S. wars around the world." According to The New York Times the portion of the boat's interior with the note would likely be cut from the hull with permission from the owner and presented in court as evidence.
Despite the seemingly outwardly religious motivation of the Tsarnaev brothers, some political science and public policy scholars suggest that Islam may have played only a secondary role in the attacks. Sympathy towards the political aspirations in the Caucasus region and Tamerlan's inability to become fully integrated into American society appear to be the primary motives in their opinion. According to The Los Angeles Times, a law enforcement official said Dzhokhar "did not seem as bothered about America's role in the Muslim world" as his brother Tamerlan had been. Dzhokhar identified Tamerlan as the "driving force" behind the bombings, and said that his brother had only recently recruited him to help.
Tamerlan Tsarnaev was born in 1986 in the Kalmyk Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, North Caucasus. Dzhokhar was born in 1993 in Kyrgyzstan, although some reports say his family claims he was born in Dagestan. The family spent time in Tokmok, Kyrgyzstan, and in Makhachkala, Dagestan. They are half Chechen through their father, Anzor, and half Avar through their mother, Zubeidat. Although they never lived in Chechnya the brothers self-identified as Chechen.
The Tsarnaev family emigrated in 2002 to the United States, where they applied for refugee status, settling in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Tamerlan Tsarnaev attended Bunker Hill Community College but dropped out to become a boxer. His goal was a place on the U.S. Olympic boxing team saying that "unless his native Chechnya becomes independent" he would "rather compete for the United States than for Russia". He was married on July 15, 2010 in the Masjid Al Quran Mosque in Dorchester, to a U.S. citizen, Katherine Russell, who was pregnant with their daughter. He stated that he "didn't understand" Americans and had not a single American friend. He had a history of violence, including an arrest in July 2009 for assaulting his then girlfriend.
The brothers are Muslim, with Tamerlan's aunt stating that he had recently become a devout Muslim. Tamerlan, in the three years before his death, became more devout and religious, and a YouTube channel in his name linked to Salafist and Islamist videos. The FBI was informed by the Russian Federal Security Service (FSB) in 2011 that he was a "follower of radical Islam." In response, the FBI interviewed Tamerlan and his family, and searched databases, but did not find any evidence of "terrorism activity, domestic or foreign." During the 2012 trip to Dagestan, Tamerlan was reportedly a frequent visitor at a mosque on Kotrova Street in Makhachkala, believed by the FSB to be linked with radical Islam. Some experts believe "they were motivated by their faith, apparently an anti-American, radical version of Islam" acquired in the U.S., while others believe the turn to radicalism happened in Dagestan.
At the time of the bombing, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev was a student at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, with a major in marine biology. Dzhokhar became a naturalized U.S. citizen on September 11, 2012. Tamerlan's boxing coach reported to NBC that the young brother was greatly affected by his brother and admired him.
Tamerlan Tsarnaev was previously connected, but at the time not a suspect, to the triple homicide in Waltham, Massachusetts on the evening of September 11, 2011. Brendan Mess, Erik Weissman, and Raphael Teken were murdered in Mess' apartment. All had their throats slit from ear to ear, with such great force that they were nearly decapitated. The local district attorney said that it appeared that the killer and the victims knew each other, and that the murders were not random. Tamerlan Tsarnaev had previously described murder victim Brendan Mess as his "best friend." After the bombings and subsequent revelations of Tsarnaev's personal life, the Waltham murders case was reexamined in April 2013 with Tsarnaev as a new suspect. Both ABC and The New York Times have reported that there is strong evidence that implicate Tsarnaev for this triple homicide.
Some analysts claim the Tsarnaev brothers' mother, Zubeidat Tsarnaeva, is a radical extremist and supporter of jihad, who influenced her sons' behavior. This prompted the Russian government to warn the U.S. government about the family's behavior, on two occasions. Both Tamerlan and his mother were placed on a terrorism watch list about 18 months before the bombing took place.
According to a Wall Street Journal report citing statements by anonymous US officials, Russia withheld information from U.S. intelligence after its initial warning, after which it denied U.S. requests for more information.
Other arrests and detentions
On April 15, several people who were near the scene of the blast and the surrounding area were taken into custody and questioned about the bombings, including a Saudi man whom police stopped as he was walking away from the explosion, and detained when some of his responses to questions "made them uncomfortable". Law enforcement searched his residence in a Boston suburb. CNN later reported that he was found to have no connection to the attack; an unnamed U.S. official said, "he was just at the wrong place at the wrong time."
On the night of April 18, two men riding in a taxi in the vicinity of the shootout were arrested and released shortly thereafter when police determined they were not involved in the Marathon attacks. Another man was arrested several blocks from the site of the shootout and was forced to strip naked by police who feared he might have concealed explosives. He was released that evening after a brief investigation determined that he was an innocent bystander.
On May 22, the FBI were interviewing Ibragim Todashev, a Chechen from Boston, in Orlando. During the interrogation he was shot and killed by an FBI officer who claimed that Todashev attacked him. The New York Times quoted an unnamed law enforcement official as saying that Todashev had confessed to the 2011 Waltham murders and implicated Tsarnaev as well. However, the father of Ibragim Todashev claims that his son is innocent and that federal investigators are biased against Chechens and made up their case against him.
Dias Kadyrbayev, Azamat Tazhayakov and Robel Phillipos
During the night of April 18–19, police arrested two Kazakhstan natives living in the U.S., Dias Kadyrbayev and Azamat Tazhayakov (19 and 20 years old, respectively) and an unnamed girlfriend of one of the men, at the off-campus housing complex at which Tsarnaev had sometimes stayed in New Bedford, Massachusetts. All three were soon released. The men were Dzhokhar Tsarnaev's roommates.
On April 20, Kadyrbayev and Tazhayakov were re-arrested in New Bedford, and held on immigration-related violations. On May 1, they appeared before a federal immigration judge and were charged with overstaying their student visas. That same day, Kadyrbayev and Tazhayakov were charged criminally with:
wilfully conspir(ing) with each other to commit an offense against the United States… by knowingly destroying, concealing and covering up objects belonging to Dzokhar… namely, a backpack containing fireworks and a laptop computer, with the intent to impede, obstruct, and influence the criminal investigation of the Marathon bombings.
If convicted, Kadyrbayev and Tazhayakov could be sentenced to up to five years' imprisonment and assessed $250,000 fines. Tazhayakov denied any wrongdoing at the time of arrest.
Robel Phillipos, a 19-year-old naturalized U.S. citizen, born in Ethiopia and living in Cambridge, was arrested and faces charges of knowingly making false statements to police. He graduated from high school in 2011 with the younger Tsarnaev brother. If convicted, Phillipos faces a maximum of eight years' imprisonment and a $250,000 fine. He was released on $100,000 bail, and placed under house confinement with an ankle bracelet.
Phillipos, Kadyrbayev, Tazhayakov, and Tsarnaev entered the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth in the fall of 2011 and knew each other well. After seeing photos of the as-yet unidentified Tsarnaev on television, the three men are alleged to have traveled to Tsarnaev's dorm room where they retrieved a backpack and laptop belonging to Tsarnaev. The backpack was discarded, but Police recovered the backpack and contents in a nearby New Bedford landfill on April 26. During interviews, the men initially denied visiting the dorm room but later admitted their actions.
On August 8, 2013, Dias Kadyrbayev and Azamat Tazhayakov were indicted by a federal grand jury on charges of conspiracy to obstruct justice. This was after allegedly helping Dzhokhar Tsarnaev dispose of a laptop, fireworks, and a backpack after the bombings. If convicted, each would face up to 25 years in prison, and they also could be deported.
Three spectators were killed in the bombings: Krystle Marie Campbell, 29, a restaurant manager from Medford, Massachusetts; Lu Lingzi (Chinese: 吕令子), 23, a Chinese national and Boston University graduate student from Shenyang, Liaoning; and Martin William Richard, an eight-year-old boy from the Dorchester neighborhood of Boston, who was killed by the second bomb.
On April 18 at about 10:48 pm, Sean A. Collier, 27, an MIT police officer (formerly with the Somerville Auxiliary Police Department from 2006 to 2009) of Wilmington, Massachusetts, living in Somerville, Massachusetts, was ambushed in his police car and died from multiple gunshot wounds allegedly from the bombing suspects.
According to the Boston Public Health Commission, 264 people were treated at 27 local hospitals. As of April 26, 29 victims remained in hospitals, with 1 in critical condition. Many victims had lower leg injuries and shrapnel wounds, which indicated the devices were low to the ground. At least sixteen people lost limbs, at the scene or by amputation in a hospital, and three lost more than one limb.
Doctors described removing "ball-bearing type" metallic beads a little larger than BBs, and small carpenter-type nails about 1 to 2.5 centimeters (0.4 to 1 in) long. Similar objects were found at the scene. The New York Times cited doctors as saying because the bombs were low to the ground, they mainly injured legs and feet instead of fatally injuring abdomens, chests, and heads. Some victims had perforated eardrums.
During a firefight with the suspects just after midnight on April 19, 33-year-old MBTA police officer Richard H. Donohue Jr. was critically wounded. He lost almost all of his blood, and his heart stopped for 45 minutes, during which time he was kept alive by cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The Boston Globe reported that Donohue may have been accidentally shot by a fellow officer.
Marc Fucarile, who lost his right leg and received severe burns and shrapnel wounds, was the last victim released from hospital care, on July 24, 2013.
Aid to victims
The One Fund Boston, established by Massachusetts Governor Deval Patrick and Boston mayor Thomas Menino and administered by attorney Kenneth Feinberg, expects to make distributions to bombing victims by June 30. "In my 20 years as mayor, I've never seen the business community come together so quickly," said Mayor Menino. A week after the bombings, crowdfunding websites, such as GoFundMe, GiveForward, FundRazr, YouCaring and Fundly, received more than 23,000 pledges promising more than $2 million for the victims, their families, and others affected by the bombings. On May 30, 2013 the Boston Strong concert at the TD Garden in Boston benefitted the One Fund. The concert featured Aerosmith, James Taylor, Boston, J. Geils Band, Dropkick Murphys, New Kids on the Block, Bell Biv DeVoe, Boyz II Men, Jimmy Buffett, Carole King, Extreme, and Jason Aldean.
The Israel Trauma Coalition for Response and Preparedness sent six psychologists and specialists from Israel to help Boston emergency responder, government administrators, and community stakeholders develop post-terrorist attack recovery strategies.
Following a $212,000 donation from Health Bridge Management on September 12, 2013, the One Fund Boston had received more than $69.8 million in donations.
As a safety precaution, the NHL postponed a Boston Bruins home game against the Ottawa Senators at TD Garden scheduled for April 15, to April 28 instead. The Boston Symphony Orchestra canceled its April 15 performance. On April 16, the MBTA public transit system, which was partly shut down, was under heavy National Guard and police presence and it was shut down a second time April 19 during the manhunt. The NBA's Boston Celtics game scheduled for April 16 against the Indiana Pacers was canceled since both teams' playoff seedings were already set. The Boston Red Sox game at Fenway, the Bruins game, and the Big Apple Circus performance scheduled for April 19, were postponed to support efforts of law enforcement officers. The NCAA announced on April 19 that the 2013 NCAA Men's Division III Volleyball Championship, scheduled for April 26–28 at the MIT campus in Cambridge, would be moved to Nazareth College in the Rochester, New York area. Boston University established a scholarship in honor of Lü Lingzi, a student who died in the bombing. On April 26, the Celtics honored the bombing victims and first responders before their playoff game against the Knicks at home in the TD Garden. The Bruins' home playoff games held tributes to the Marathon bombing victims and first responders before the opening face-off. After the Chicago Blackhawks defeated the Bruins in the 2013 Stanley Cup Finals, the Blackhawks took out a full-page ad in the Boston Globe thanking the city of Boston for respect and sportsmanship during the Cup Finals and praising their recovery from the bombings. On September 12, the New England Patriots honored 25 first responders with special jerseys in a ceremony before their opening home game against the New York Jets at Gillette Stadium in Foxborough. After the Red Sox won the 2013 World Series, the team used their celebratory parade on November 2, 2013 to honor the victims of the bombings at a dedication on the marathon finish line, a move considered to help the city "reclaim" its spirit that was lost after the bombing.
A couple, Christian Williams and Caroline Reinsch, who both had sustained injuries in the bombing, and who had learned they were expecting while in hospital, had a daughter on December 18, 2013.
President Barack Obama addressed the nation after the attack. He said that, although the perpetrator(s) were still unknown, the government would "get to the bottom of this" and that those responsible "will feel the full weight of justice". The President addressed the American people the next day, and later said, "Any time bombs are used to target innocent civilians, it is an act of terror." President Obama ordered flags to half-staff until April 20 on all federal buildings as "a mark of respect for the victims of the senseless acts of violence perpetrated on April 15, 2013, in Boston, Massachusetts." On April 18, President Obama addressed an interfaith service at the Cathedral of the Holy Cross in Boston to honor the victims of the attacks.
A Boston Remembrance Run held in Portland, Oregon, on April 17, drew over 1,000 runners in a silent show of support. The Oklahoma City Memorial Marathon organizers asked runners, volunteers, and spectators to wear red socks. Marathon organizer Andrea Miles said, "As Oklahomans and folks participating in the OKC Memorial Marathon, we have such a deep connection to not only the marathon but the events from the Murrah bombing that have led to this memorial," Miles said. "So now we're not just running to remember the 168 people who were lost in 1995 but also to honor Boston and stand in solidarity with them."
On June 7, 2013, a cross-country relay, One Run for Boston, left Venice Beach, California, for Boston. Organized by three Britons — Danny Bent, Kate Treleaven and James Hay — to support the Boston One Fund, the relay included more than 2,000 runners in 319 stages of 5 to 12 miles for a total of more than 3,000 miles in 14 states. The GPS baton carried to track the relay's progress crossed the Boston Marathon Finish Line around 1 am on July 1, 2013.
The bombings were denounced and condolences were offered by many international leaders as well as leading figures from international sport. Security measures were increased worldwide in the wake of the attack.
In China, users posted condolence messages on Weibo in response to the death of Lü Lingzi. Chris Buckley of The New York Times said "Ms. Lu's death gave a melancholy face to the attraction that America and its colleges exert over many young Chinese." Laurie Burkitt of The Wall Street Journal said "Ms. Lu's death resonates with many in China" due to the one-child policy.
Organizers of the London Marathon, which was held six days after the Boston bombings, reviewed security arrangements for their event, despite there not being any threat against it. Hundreds of extra police officers were drafted in to provide a greater presence on the streets, but despite the security concerns a record 700,000 spectators lined the streets. Runners in London observed a 30-second silence in respect for the victims of Boston shortly before the race began, and many runners wore black ribbons on their vests. Organisers also pledged to donate US$3 to a fund for Boston Marathon victims for every person who finished the race.
Organizers of the 2013 Vancouver Sun Run, which was held on April 21, 2013, donated $10 from every late entry for the race to help victims of the bombings at the Boston Marathon. Jamie Pitblado, vice-president of promotions for The Vancouver Sun and The Province, said the money would go to One Fund Boston, an official charity that's collecting donations for the victims and their families. Sun Run organizers raised anywhere from $25,000 to $40,000. There were over 48,000 participants, many dressed in blue and yellow (Boston colors) with others wearing Boston Red Sox caps.
Petr Gandalovic, ambassador of the Czech Republic, released a statement after noticing much confusion on Facebook and Twitter (and from a former CIA agent, live on CNN) between his nation and the Chechen Republic. "The Czech Republic and Chechnya are two very different entities – the Czech Republic is a Central European country; Chechnya is a part of the Russian Federation."
Security was also stepped up in Singapore in response to online threats made on attacking several locations in the city-state and the Singapore Marathon in December. Two suspects were investigated and one was eventually arrested for making false bomb threats.
The Russian government said special attention will be paid to security at upcoming international sports events in Russia, including the 2014 Winter Olympics. According to the Russian embassy in the U.S., President Vladimir Putin condemned the "barbaric crime" and "stressed that the Russian Federation will be ready, if necessary, to assist in the U.S. authorities' investigation." He urged closer cooperation of security services with Western partners.
On April 19, 2013, the press-secretary of the head of the Chechen Republic, Ramzan Kadyrov, issued a statement that, inter alia, read: "The Boston bombing suspects have nothing to do with Chechnya". On the same day, Kadyrov was reported by The Guardian to have written on Instagram:
Any attempt to make a link between Chechnya and the Tsarnaevs, if they are guilty, is in vain. They grew up in the U.S., their views and beliefs were formed there. The roots of evil must be searched for in America. The whole world must battle with terrorism. We know this better than anyone. We wish recover [sic] to all the victims and share Americans' feeling of sorrow.
Akhmed Zakayev, head of the secular wing of the Chechen separatist movement, now in exile in London, condemned the bombings as "terrorist" and expressed condolences to the families of the victims. Zakayev denied that the bombers were in any way representative of the Chechen people, saying that "the Chechen people never had and can not have any hostile feelings toward the United States and its citizens."
The Mujahideen of the Caucasus Emirate Province of Dagestan, the Caucasian Islamist organization in both Chechnya and Dagestan, denied any link to the bombing or the Tsarnaev brothers and stated that it was at war with Russia, not the United States. It also said that it had sworn off violence against civilians since 2012.
Criticism of lockdown
The day-long lockdown was criticized as being an overreaction by some. Michael Cohen of The Observer said that Americans have little experience with daily terrorism compared to some countries and "are more primed to ... assume the absolute worst". He wrote that it was not the first time dangerous murderers have been on the loose in a large American city, naming Christopher Dorner in February 2013 and the Beltway sniper attacks in October 2002, yet in none of the previous cases had a lockdown been used. Moreover, critics, including Thomas R. Eddlem of The New American, Sean Collins of Spiked, and former Presidential candidate Ron Paul, said that martial law does not work, noting that the suspect was not found until the curfew was lifted. Paul characterized the lockdown as "a violation of civil liberties."
Haaretz's Chemi Salev wrote that "in terms of cost-benefit analysis, from the evil terrorist's point of view, the Boston Street bombings and their aftermath can only be viewed as a resounding triumph", since the "relatively amateurish" terrorists managed to intimidate a vast number of people and got a maximum amount of publicity. In The New York Times, Ross Douthat commented about Salev's thoughts that the massive manhunt operation just might deter other amateur terrorists but not hard-core terrorists such as Mohammed Atta. Douthat argued that out-of-the-ordinary measures can only be used when terrorism itself is out-of-the-ordinary: if attacks started to occur more often, people would not be as willing to comply with shelter in place commands, yet once a terrorist has been hunted with such an operation, it is hard to justify why such measures should not be taken the next time.
On the afternoon of the bombings, The New York Post reported that a suspect, a Saudi Arabian male, was under guard and being questioned at a Boston hospital. That evening, Boston Police Commissioner Ed Davis said that there had not been an arrest. The Post did not retract its story about the suspect, leading to widespread reports by CBS News, CNN, and other media that a Middle Eastern suspect was in custody. The day after the bombing, a majority of outlets were reporting that the Saudi was a witness, not a suspect.
The New York Post on its April 18 front page showed two men, and said they were being sought by the authorities. The two were not the ones being sought as suspects. They were a 17-year-old boy and his track coach. The boy, from Revere, Massachusetts, turned himself over to the police immediately and was cleared after a 20-minute interview in which they advised him to deactivate his Facebook account. New York Post editor Col Allan stated, "We stand by our story. The image was emailed to law enforcement agencies yesterday afternoon seeking information about these men, as our story reported. We did not identify them as suspects." The two were implied to be possible suspects via crowdsourcing on the websites Reddit and 4chan.
Several other people were mistakenly identified as suspects. Among those wrongly identified as suspects on Reddit were a 17-year-old athletics star and Sunil Tripathi, a Brown University student missing since March. Tripathi was found dead on April 23 in the Providence River.
On April 17, the FBI released the following statement:
Contrary to widespread reporting, no arrest has been made in connection with the Boston Marathon attack. Over the past day and a half, there have been a number of press reports based on information from unofficial sources that has been inaccurate. Since these stories often have unintended consequences, we ask the media, particularly at this early stage of the investigation, to exercise caution and attempt to verify information through appropriate official channels before reporting.
The decision to release the photos of the Tsarnaev brothers was made in part to limit damage done to those misidentified on the Internet and by the media, and to address concerns over maintaining control of the manhunt.
BBC News reported that the initial announcements from the authorities had been praised for using language "with care and deliberation" to avoid victimization of religious minorities, but that "a xenophobic undercurrent in the American response to the tragedy" was shown by some comments on social networking websites.
- 2010 Times Square car bombing attempt, attempted bombing in New York City using a pressure cooker bomb and other bombs
- Centennial Olympic Park bombing, bomb attack targeting the Atlanta 1996 Summer Olympics
- Crime in Massachusetts
- "He loved us, and we loved him". MIT.
- Straw, Joseph; Ford, Bev; McShane, Lawrence (April 17, 2013). "Police narrow in on two suspects in Boston Marathon bombings". The Daily News. Retrieved May 15, 2013.
- Kotz, Deborah (April 24, 2013). "Injury toll from Marathon bombs reduced to 264". The Boston Globe. Retrieved April 29, 2013. "Boston public health officials said Tuesday that they have revised downward their estimate of the number of people injured in the Marathon attacks, to 264."
- Carter, Chelsea J.; Botelho, Gregory (April 20, 2013). "'Captured!!!' Boston police announce Marathon bombing suspect in custody". CNN.
• a:"Richard H. Donohue Jr., 33,... was shot and wounded in the incident... Another 15 police officers were treated for minor injuries sustained during the explosions and shootout".
- "United States vs. Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, Case 1:13-mj-02106-MBB" (PDF). United States Department of Justice. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- Wilson, Scott (April 23, 2013). "Boston bombing suspect cites U.S. wars as motivation, officials say". The Washington Post. et al. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- "Boston Suspects Are Seen as Self-Taught and Fueled by Web". The New York Times. April 23, 2013.
- "What we know about the Boston bombing and its aftermath". CNN. April 19, 2013. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- Estes, Adam Clark; Abad-Santos, Alexander; Sullivan, Matt (April 15, 2013). "Explosions at Boston Marathon Kill 3 — Now, a 'Potential Terrorist Investigation'". The Atlantic Wire. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Fromer, Frederic J. (April 15, 2013). "Justice Department Directing Full Resources To Investigate Boston Marathon Bombings". Huffington Post. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- des Lauriers, Richard (April 18, 2013). Remarks of Special Agent in Charge at Press Conference on Bombing Investigation (press release). Boston: FBI. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- Tanfani, Joseph; Kelly, Devin; Muskal, Michael (April 19, 2013). "Boston bombing [Update]: Door-to-door manhunt locks down city". Los Angeles Times (Boston). Retrieved April 29, 2013. "As family members called on him to surrender, a 19-year-old college student remained on the run Friday as thousands of police armed with rifles and driving armored vehicles combed the nearly deserted streets of a region on virtual lockdown"
- "Boston Lockdown 'Extraordinary' But Prudent, Experts Say". April 22, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- "An empty metropolis: Bostonians share photos of deserted streets". April 19, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2013.
- Seelye, Katharine Q.; Cooper, Michael; Rashbaum, William K. (April 19, 2013). "Boston bomb suspect is captured after standoff". The New York Times.
- Seelye, Katherine Q. (April 23, 2013). "Bombing Suspect Cites Islamic Extremist Beliefs as Motive". The New York Times. et al. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- "Dzhokhar Tsarnaev charged with using 'weapon of mass destruction'". The Washington Post. April 22, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- Levs, Joshua; Plott, Monte (April 16, 2013). "Terrorism strikes Boston Marathon as bombs kill 3, wound scores". CNN. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- "Police: Bomb Sweep One Hour Before Attack". The New York Times. April 16, 2013. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- McClam, Erin (April 15, 2013). "Explosions rock finish of Boston Marathon; 2 killed and at least 23 hurt, police say". NBC News. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- Malone, Scott; Pressman, Aaron. "Triumph turns to terror as blasts hit Boston Marathon". The Guardian. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Abel, David; Silva, Steve; Finucane, Martin (April 15, 2013). "Explosions rock Boston Marathon finish line; dozens injured". Boston Globe (online ed.). Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- "Investigators recover circuit board believed used to detonate Boston Marathon blasts". Boston Globe (online ed.). April 16, 2013. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "At least 3 dead, 141 injured in Boston Marathon blasts". USA Today. April 16, 2013. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
- "Updates in the Aftermath of the Boston Marathon Bombing: Their Stories: The People at the Finish Line". The New York Times. April 22, 2013. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- "Boston Marathon Blasts Kill 3 and Maim Dozens". The New York Times. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- Benjamin, Amalie (April 15, 2013). "Events force BAA to alter course at Marathon". Boston Globe. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Florio, Michael (April 15, 2013). "Joe Andruzzi handles Boston Marathon attack the way Joe Andruzzi would". Sports (NBC). Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- Greene, William (April 16, 2013). "Former Patriots offensive lineman Joe Andruzzi carried an injured woman away from the scene". Boston Globe. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- McLaughlin, Tim (April 16, 2013). "A shaken Boston mostly gets back to work; 12-block crime scene". Reuters. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "Police will have controlled explosion on 600 block on Boylston Street, a block beyond the finish line". Boston. Twitter. April 15, 2013. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- "Mass. gov: No unexploded bombs at Boston Marathon". Boston Globe. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- "Two and only two devices were found". Fox. April 16, 2013.
- Levitz, Jennifer; Helliker, Kevin; Germano, Sara (April 16, 2013). "Two Explosions at Boston Marathon Finish Line". The Wall Street Journal (online ed.). Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- Hines, Ken (April 15, 2013). "US Official: 2 Additional Explosive Devices Found Near Boston Marathon". 6 on your side (ABC). Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- Williams, Peter (April 15, 2013). "How many explosive devices, and where?". News Special Report (Washington, DC: NBC). Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- Baldor, Lolita C. (April 15, 2013). "Navy bomb unit sent to Boston". Associated Press. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- "3/2050 NOTAM Details". Federal Aviation Administration. April 15, 2013. Retrieved April 15, 2013.[dead link]
- Dickey, Christopher (April 15, 2013). "Many Cities on Alert After Boston Bombing". The Daily Beast. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- Sullivan, Eileen (April 15, 2013). "Cellphone use heavy, but still operating in Boston". Associated Press. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- "Live Updates: Explosions at Boston Marathon". The Washington Times (live stream from scene). April 15, 2013. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- "American Red Cross Statement on Boston Marathon Explosions". American Red Cross. April 15, 2013. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- "Boston Marathon Explosions: Third Blast". Sky News. April 15, 2013. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- "Boston Marathon Explosions". Person Finder. Google. April 15, 2013. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- Explosions near finish of Boston marathon. CNN. April 16, 2013.
- Hosenball, Mark; Herbst-Bayliss, Svea (April 16, 2013). "Investigators scour video, photos for Boston Marathon bomb clues". GlobalPost. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- "FBI Posts Images of Pair Suspected in Boston Attack". The New York Times. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "Live updates: Obama calls Boston bombings a 'heinous, cowardly' act of terror". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- "Boston bomber arrested: Tamerlan Tsarnaev was questioned by FBI in 2011". The Telegraph. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- McLaughlin, Tim; Herbst-Bayliss, Svea (April 17, 2013). "Boston bomb suspect spotted on video, no arrest made". Reuters. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "FBI seeks images in Boston Marathon bomb probe; new details emerge on explosives". News (CBS). Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Ellement, John; Ballou, Brian (April 17, 2013). "Boston Medical Center reports five-year-old boy in critical condition, 23 victims treated from Boston Marathon bombings". Boston Globe. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Lister, Tim; Cruickshank, Paul (April 17, 2013). "Boston Marathon bombs similar to 'lone wolf' devices, experts say". CNN. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "Feds Race to Trace Boston Marathon Pressure Cooker Bomb". ABC. April 17, 2013. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- Isikoff, Michael (April 23, 2013). "Search of Tsarnaevs' phones, computers finds no indication of accomplice, source says". NBC News. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- Vinograd, Cassandra; Dodds, Paisley (April 16, 2013). "AP Glance: Pressure Cooker Bombs". Associated Press. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- "Boston Bombers Not Inspired by Inspire". April 26, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2013.
- "Inspire Magazine: A Staple Of Domestic Terror". Anti-Defamation League.
- Serrano, Richard A.; Mason, Melanie; Dilanian, Ken (April 23, 2013). "Boston bombing suspect describes plot". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- Dezenski, Lauren (April 23, 2013). "Older Marathon bombing suspect purchased fireworks at N.H. store, official says". Boston Globe. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- Heinis, John (April 19, 2013). "Sister of Boston Bombers Draw FBI to Buchanan Place in West New York". Hudson County TV.
- Bennett, Brian (April 24, 2013). "Boston bombs triggered by remote controls from toy cars, FBI says". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- Valencia, Milton J. (April 21, 2013). "Boston Police Commissioner Edward Davis says releasing photos was 'turning point' in Boston Marathon bomb probe". Boston Globe (Boston). Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "Updates on Investigation into Multiple Explosions in Boston — Video and Photos Released in Bombings Case". The FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation. US: Department of Justice. April 18, 2013. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
- Smith, Matthew; Patterson, Thomas (April 19, 2013). "FBI: Help us ID Boston bomb suspects". CNN. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- Montgomery, David; Horwitz, Sari; Fisher, Marc (April 20, 2013). "Police, citizens and technology factor into Boston bombing probe". The Washington Post.
- Loder, Asjylyn; Deprez, Esmé E. (April 19, 2013). "Boston Bomb Victim in Photo Helped Identify Suspects". Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "Bomb victim whose legs were blown off reportedly helped FBI id suspect". Fox. April 19, 2013.
- "FBI Releases Images of Two Suspects in Boston Attack". The New York Times. April 18, 2013. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
- "'We got him!': Boston bombing suspect captured alive" (blog post). NBC. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "Green Honda could prove crucial if Tsarnaev charged in MIT officer's killing - Investigations". Investigations.nbcnews.com. August 29, 2010. Retrieved July 24, 2013.
- Helmuth, Laura. "Pronounce Boston bomb names: Listen to recording of names of Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, Tamerlan Tsarnaev". Slate.com. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
- Abad-Santos, Alexander (April 19, 2013). "Who Is Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, the Man at the Center of the Boston Manhunt?". The Atlantic. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- Bidgood, Jess (April 24, 2013). "On a Field at M.I.T., 10,000 Remember an Officer Who Was Killed". The New York Times. Retrieved May 15, 2013.
- "Police believe Tsarnaev brothers killed officer for his gun". CBS News. April 23, 2013.
- Murphy, Shelley; Valencia, Milton J.; Lowery, Wesley; Johnson, Akilah; Moskowitz, Eric; Wangsness, Lisa; Ellement, John R. (April 19, 2013). "Search for marathon bombing suspect locks down Watertown, surrounding communities". Boston Globe. Retrieved April 19, 2013. Originally titled "Chaos in Cambridge, Watertown after fatal shooting".
- "Police: MIT police officer fatally shot, gunman sought". WHDH.com. Sunbeam Television. April 19, 2013. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- Gorman, Siobhan; Barrett, Devlin (April 25, 2013). "Judge Made Miranda-Rights Call in Boston Bombing Case". The Wall Street Journal (Dow Jones). Retrieved April 25, 2013.
- "Suburb becomes war zone in days after bombings". Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- Finn, Peter; Leonnig, Carol D.; Englund, Will (April 19, 2013). "Tamerlan Tsarnaev and Dzhokhar Tsarnaev were refugees from brutal Chechen conflict". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- "Details Emerge of Alleged Carjacking by Bomber Suspects". Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- Harris, Dan (April 23, 2013). "Alleged Bombers' Carjack Victim Barely Escaped Grab as He Bolted". ABC News. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
- "From fear to cheers: The final hours that paralyzed Boston". Retrieved April 29, 2013.
- "Police chief: Boston manhunt began with intense firefight in dark street". CNN. April 20, 2013.
- Arsenault, Mark; Murphy, Sean P (April 21, 2013). "Marathon bombing suspects threw 'crude grenades' at officers". The Boston Globe Metro. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- Estes, Adam Clark (Apr 2013). "An Officer's Been Killed and There's a Shooter on the Loose in Boston". The Atlantic Wire. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- Leger, Donna (April 22, 2013). "Police chief details chase, capture of bombing suspects". USA Today. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- "The First Photos of The Boston Bombing Suspects' Shootout With Police". Dead spin. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- "Boston Bombing Suspect Shootout Pictures". Get on hand. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- "Boston bomb suspect: Commissioner Ed Davis says Dzhokhar Tsarnaev killed his brother". Daily Mail. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- "102 hours in pursuit of Marathon suspects". Boston Globe.
- "Boston Marathon bomb suspect still at large". BBC. April 20, 2013. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- "Boston Bombing Suspects, Tzarnaev Brothers, Had One Gun During Shootout With Police: Officials". Huffington Post. April 24, 2013. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- Date, Jack; Matthew Mosk (April 24, 2013). "Single Gun Recovered From Accused Bombers". ABC The Blotter (ABC News). Retrieved May 16, 2013.
- Miller, Chris (May 7, 2013). "Witnesses suggest friendly fire felled MBTA officer". Boston Globe. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
- Graham, Jordan (April 19, 2013). "ER doctor: Bombing suspect died at hospital". Boston Herald. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- Bidgood, Jess (May 4, 2013). "Autopsy Says Boston Bombing Suspect Died of Gunshot Wounds and Blunt Trauma". The New York Times. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
- "MBTA Police Officer Shot While Chasing Bombing Suspects". WBZ (CBS Radio). April 19, 2013. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "Bullet that nearly killed MBTA police officer in Watertown gunfight appears to have been friendly fire". Boston. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
- Lazar, Kay; Powers, Martine (April 19, 2013). "MBTA officer wounded in shoot-out with bombing suspect". Boston Globe. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- Naughton, Philippe (April 19, 2013). "Live: Boston bomb suspect killed by police, one hunted". The Times. UK. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "Officials in Watertown field calls from worried residents – Watertown – Your Town". Boston Globe. April 2013.
- "Suburban police played a key role in bombing investigation". Boston Globe. April 25, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2013. "By 6 pm Friday, Governor Deval Patrick suspended the "shelter-in-place" order for Watertown, Belmont, Boston, Brookline, Cambridge, Newton, and Waltham after the manhunt came up empty."
- "Important Public Safety Alert 4/19/13". Retrieved April 29, 2013.
- Rawlings, Nate (April 19, 2013). "Was Boston Actually on Lockdown?". Retrieved April 29, 2013.
- "City of Somerville Safety Advisory". Somerville News. April 19, 2013.
- Gunfire heard in search for Boston Marathon bomb suspect. Reuters. April 19, 2013. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- Boston Marathon Manhunt: Search for bombing suspect is law enforcement's first major test of post-9/11 training. CBS News. April 19, 2013. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "Boston police". Twitter. April 19, 2013. "Taxi service in the City of Boston has been restored."
- Mutzabaugh, Ben (April 19, 2013). "Boston flights operating, airlines waive change fees". USA Today. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "Boston bombing suspect captured alive", by NBC News
- "Boston Bomb Suspect's Dad Tells Him to Surrender, Warns 'Hell Will Break Loose' if Son Dies". ABC News. April 19, 2013. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "Boston Marathon bombers: suspect Dzhozkar Tsarnaev's uncle Ruslan Tsarni pleads 'turn yourself in'". The Telegraph (UK). Associated Press. April 19, 2013. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "Second Boston Marathon bombing suspect in custody". WCBV. April 20, 2013. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- "Boston police explain how bombing suspect was caught". UK: BBC News. April 20, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2013.
- Anderson, Derek J. (April 19, 2013). "Watertown family finds alleged marathon bomber in boat". Boston Globe. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- Thomas, Linda (April 21, 2013). "Northwest technology helped find Boston bombing suspect". MyNorthwest.com. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- By Evan Allen (April 23, 2013). "Boston police superintendent recounts officers' long search, tense final confrontation". Boston Globe. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
- Boston latest news: Americans take to the streets in celebration after police capture Dzhokhar Tsarnaev | Mail Online. Dailymail.co.uk (April 20, 2013). Retrieved on July 4, 2013.
- Horwitz, Sari; Peter Finn (April 24, 2013). "Officials: Boston suspect had no firearm when barrage of bullets hit hiding place". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- "Bombing suspect surrounded in Watertown". The Lowell Sun. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- "Shots Fired in Watertown (Update: Police Have Suspect In Custody)". Mediaite. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- "Boston suspect Dzhokhar Tsarnaev remains in critical condition". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- "Dzhokhar Tsarnaev Criminal Complaint Offers New Details in Boston Marathon Bombing". Huffington Post. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
- "Inside Boston manhunt's end game – Anderson Cooper 360". CNN. April 22, 2013. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
- Halper, Daniel (April 20, 2013). "Lawmakers: Treat Suspect as 'Enemy Combatant'". The Weekly Standard. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- Chambliss, Saxby. "US Senator for Georgia' statement on the Boston terror arrest". News Center (Press Releases). United States Senate. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- Mungin, Lateef (April 20, 2013). "What's next for the Boston Marathon bombing suspect?". CNN.
- Glueck, Katherine (April 20, 2013). "Lindsey Graham: 'Enemy combatant'". Politico.
- Tapper, Jack; Smith, Matthew (April 23, 2013). "Boston bomb suspect: My brother was the mastermind". CNN. Retrieved April 29, 2013.
- "Boston Marathon bombing suspect Dzhokhar Tsarnaev silent after read Miranda rights". CBS. Associated Press. April 25, 2013.
- "Feds Make Miranda Rights Exception for Marathon Bombing Suspect Dzhokhar Tsarnaev". ABC News. April 19, 2013.
- "The Right to Remain Silent: Dzokhar Tsarnaev, the Public Safety Exception, and Miranda in a post-911 World". Marathon Law. April 22, 2013.
- Cohen, Andrew (April 20, 2013). "Tsarnaev Without Tears: The Legal Way Forward". The Atlantic.
- Bazelon, Emily (April 19, 2013). "Why Should I Care That No One's Reading Dzhokhar Tsarnaev His Miranda Rights?". Slate.
- 18 USC 2332a(a) – Use of weapons of mass destruction. Cornell.
- "Boston bombing suspect charged, questioned". Los Angeles Times. April 22, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- Boston bombings suspect Dzhokhar Tsarnaev taken from hospital to prison, CBS News. Retrieved April 26, 2013
- "Boston bomb suspect in small cell with steel door". CBS News. April 27, 2013. Retrieved May 17, 2013.
- "Dzhokhar Tsarnaev in Solitary at Devens' Segregated Housing Unit – TalkLeft: The Politics Of Crime". TalkLeft. April 28, 2013. Retrieved May 17, 2013.
- Ford, Beverly. "Boston Bombing Suspect Spends 23 Hours a Day Alone in Jail Cell". RIA Novosti.
- "Boston Marathon bombing suspect pleads not guilty", by The Associated Press, via CBC.ca
- "Court papers say Dzhokhar Tsarnaev had fractured skull, hand after manhunt" by Laurel J. Sweet, The Boston Herald.
- Stanglin, Doug (September 23, 2013). "Tsarnaev lawyers ask for more time". USA Today.
- Valencia, Milton J. (October 2, 2013). "Tsarnaev lawyers want prison restrictions eased". The Boston Globe.
- Murphy, Shelley (February 12, 2014). "Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, alleged Boston Marathon bomber, slated to face trial in November". boston.com.
- "Boston Plotters Said to Initially Target July 4 for Attack". The New York Times. May 2, 2013.
- May 2, 2013. Boston Marathon was 'target of opportunity,' bombs built in attacker's home, sources say, Fox News Channel. Retrieved May 19, 2013
- Douglas, Scott, May 3, 2013. Marathon was 'Target of Opportunity,' Bombing Suspect Says, RunnersWorld.com. Retrieved May 19, 2013
- Michael Isikoff (April 22, 2013). "FBI agents question members of mosque that Tsarnaevs attended". NBC. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
- "Boston bombings suspect Dzhokhar Tsarnaev left note in boat he hid in, sources say". CBS. May 16, 2013.
- "Note by Boston Bombing Suspect Sheds Light on Motive, Officials Say". The New York Times.
- Wangsness, Lisa; Brian Ballou (April 20, 2013). newspaper= The Boston Glove "Islam might have had secondary role in Boston attacks". Retrieved April 26, 2013.
- Siddique, Haroon and agencies (April 25, 2013). "Boston bombing suspect was put on terrorist database 18 months ago". The Guardian. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
- "Boston Marathon Bombings: Turn to Religion Split Bomb Suspects Tamerlan and Dzhokhar Tsarnaev's Home". The Wall Street journal. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- Elder, Miriam; Williams, Matthew 'Matt' (April 19, 2013). "Chechnya connections build picture of Tamerlan and Dzhokhar Tsarnaev". The Guardian (London). Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- Sullivan, Eileen (April 19, 2013). "Manhunt in Boston after bombing suspect is killed". My way. Associated Press. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "Boston Marathon bombings: Suspects' mother Zubeidat says she found faith, not terrorism".
- Goode, Erica (April 19, 2013). "Brothers Seen as Good Students and Avid Athletes". The New York Times. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- Kaleem, Jaweed (April 19, 2013). "Boston Bombing Suspects' Muslim Identity Provides Few Clues To Motivation For Bombing". Huffington Post. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- Noronha, Charmaine (April 19, 2013). "Aunt says US suspect recently became devout Muslim". Huffington Post. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- Carter, Chelsea J; Botelho, Gregory (April 20, 2013). "'Captured!!!' Boston police announce Marathon bombing suspect in custody". CNN.
- Perez, Evan; Smith, Jennifer; Shallwani, Pervaiz (April 19, 2013). "Boston Bombing Suspect Killed in Shootout". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- Hirn, Johannes (2010). "Will box for Passport: An Olympic Drive to become a United States citizen" (PDF). The Comment. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- Burke, Timothy (April 19, 2013). "Everything we know about Tamerlan Tsarnaev, dead bombing suspect". Deadspin. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- Cooper, Michael (May 4, 2013). "Path From 'Social Butterfly' to Boston Suspect's Widow". The New York Times. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
- Nathan, Sara; Bates, Daniel (April 19, 2013). "Our hearts are sickened by the horror he inflicted': Shocked family of All-American girl who converted to Islam to marry Boston bomber say tragedy proves 'we never really knew him". Daily Mail (UK). Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- "Tamerlan Tsarnaev said he had no American friends". Now. MSN. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- Lister, Tim; Cruickshank, Paul (April 20, 2013). "Older brother in Boston bombings grew increasingly religious, analysis shows". CNN.
- Morales, Mark; Adams Otis, Ginger (April 21, 2013). "Bombing suspect brothers became more religious, radical after Tamerlan Tsarnaev's 2012 trip to Russia: friends". Daily News (New York).
- Schmitt, Eric; Schmidt, Michael S.; Barry, Ellen (April 21, 2013). "Inquiry Shifts to Suspect's Russian Trip". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- Forster, Peter (April 21, 2013). "Boston bomber arrested: Tamerlan Tsarnaev's hateful rage behind American dream". The Telegraph (UK).
- Radia, Kiril (April 20, 2013). "Boston Bomb Suspect Alarmed Russian Relatives With Extremist Views". ABC news.
- Tangel, Andrew; Powers, Ashley (April 20, 2013). "FBI: Boston suspect Tamerlan Tsarnaev followed 'radical Islam'". Los Angeles Times.
- Waxman, Olivia B. (April 20, 2013). "Brother's Keeper: Did Older Sibling Lure Bombing Suspect Into Plot?". Time.
- "Boston marathon bombs: Tamerlan Tsarnaev 'interviewed by FBI in 2011'". The Telegraph. April 20, 2013.
- "FBI got information from Russian FSB that Tamerlan Tsarnaev was radical Islam follower". The Washington Post. Associated Press. April 20, 2013. Archived from the original on April 23, 2013. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- Englund, Will; Finn, Peter (April 20, 2013). "Conflict in the Caucasus, reflected in suspect's YouTube playlist". The Washington Post.
- "Older Boston Suspect Made Two Trips to Dagestan, Visited Radical Mosque, Officials Say".
- Nemtsova, Anna (April 22, 2013). "The Caucasus Connection: At a radical mosque in Dagestan, alleged marathon bomber Tamerlan Tsarnaev is remembered by many worshippers—and the secret police". The Daily Beast. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- "Kotrova Street, Makhachkala". Bing. Microsoft. April 16, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- Jakes, Lara; Sullivan, Eileen (April 23, 2013). "From outsiders to bombing suspects in Boston". The Miami Herald. Retrieved April 24, 2013.[dead link]
- McBride, Janet (April 23, 2013). "Special Report: The radicalization of Tamerlan Tsarnaev". Reuters.
- "Bombing suspect attended UMass Dartmouth, prompting school closure; college friend shocked by charge he is Boston Marathon bomber". Boston. April 19, 2013.
- "How Boston bombing suspects became US citizens". The Atlantic Wire. Apr 2013
- Schuppe, Jon (April 19, 2013). "Brothers' Classic Immigrant Tale Emerges as Relatives Speak Out". NBC Bay Area. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- Deprez, Esmé E.; Gopal, Prashant (April 19, 2013). "Brothers Suspected in Boston Bombing Straddled Cultures". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- Rezendes, Michael (April 22, 2013). "Police probe possible link between Marathon bomber and unsolved triple homicide in Waltham". The Boston Globe. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- "Boston Bombing Brings Twist to Cold Murder Case". ABC News. April 29, 2013. Retrieved May 6, 2013.
- Waltham Murders not random
- Police could have prevented bombings
- Chandler, Adam (April 22, 2013). Boston Bomber Suspected in Triple Homicide. Tablet. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- Glazov, Jamie (April 29, 2013). "Muslim Mommy Dearest". FrontPage Magazine. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
- "Bombers' mother told older son to go to 'Palestine'". The Times of Israel. April 28, 2013. Retrieved May 3, 2013.
- "Suspects' Mother Was Placed on Watch List". The Wall Street Journal. April 28, 2013.
- Eileen Sullivan; Julie Pace (April 26, 2013). "Zubeidat Tsarnaeva, Bombing Suspect's Mom, Also on Terror List". Huffington Post. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
- "Russia 'withheld details on Tamerlan Tsarnaev'". The Telegraph. May 11, 2013. Retrieved May 18, 2013.
- Sison, Bree. "Injured Saudi man not a suspect in Boston attacks". CBS News. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Nelson, Steven. "Boston Police: 'We Are Questioning Many People'". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- Hunter, Walker (April 16, 2013). "Boston Police Commissioner: 'There Is No Suspect In Custody'". Talking Points Memo. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- Hallowell, Billy (April 22, 2013). "Saudi National Questioned in Boston Bombings Was Allegedly Flagged on Terror Watch List".
- Smith, Matt; Levs, Josh. "FBI will try to rebuild Boston bombs". CNN. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "Large police presence in Revere connected to Boston bombing". WFXT. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- "Bombing suspect dead after gunfight, one still at large". World News Australia. April 19, 2013.
- "Police hunt Boston bombing suspect" (live updates). New Zealand: News 3. April 20, 2013.
- "Police Converge on Watertown Block, Set Up Perimeter in Hunt For Bomb Suspect". Fox 17. April 20, 2013.
- "Man 'linked to Boston suspect' killed by FBI". Al Jazeera. October 4, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
- Schmidt, Michael S.; Rashbaum, William K.; Oppel, Jr., Richard A. (May 22, 2013). "Deadly End to FBI Queries on Tsarnaev and a Triple Killing". The New York Times. Retrieved May 22, 2013.
- Father of slain man linked to Boston bombing suspect maintains son's innocence
- "Police take 3 into custody in New Bedford at housing complex where Boston bombing suspect may have lived". MassLive.com. April 19, 2013.
- Peterson, Hayley (April 20, 2013). "The moment one woman and two men were taken into custody over Boston bombings near Dartmouth campus where suspect studied". Daily Mail.
- Ellement, John R; Wallack, Todd; Sacchetti, Maria; Carroll, Matt; Finucane, Martin (May 1, 2013). "Two Kazakh men, Cambridge man, face charges in disposal of backpack owned by Boston Marathon bombing suspect". Boston Globe. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- Michael Kelley (May 1, 2013). "Here's What We Know About The Three New Suspects Linked To Alleged Boston Bomber Dzhokhar Tsarnaev". Business Insider. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- Ellement, John R; Wallack, Todd; Sacchetti, Maria; Carroll, Matt; Finucane, Martin (May 1, 2013). "Three additional people taken into custody in Boston Marathon bombings". Boston Globe. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- Vincent, H. Michael (April 21, 2013). "More arrests in Boston bombings, FBI eyes terror cell". Rockford Record.
- DeQuattro, Dee (April 22, 2013). "Two men in New Bedford arrested on immigration charges". ABC 6.
- Taylor, Adam (May 1, 2013). "Here's The Criminal Complaint Against The New Suspects in the Boston Bombing Case". Business Insider. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- Kubin, Jacquie (May 1, 2013). "Boston Update: Azamat Tazhayakov, Dias Kadyrbayev arrested in bombings". Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- Lavoie, Denise; Murphy, Bridget (May 1, 2013). "FBI: 3 removed backpack from Boston suspect's room". Associated Press. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- "Bombing Suspect's Friend, Robel Phillipos, Released on Bail". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
- "FBI: Friends tried to cover bombing suspect's tracks". USA today (Facebook post). May 2, 2013. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
- "2 friends of Boston bombing suspect indicted". USA Today. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
- Lavidor-Berman, Adrienne (April 16, 2013). "Bombings at the Boston Marathon". Boston Globe. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- 奥巴马：我们为吕令子的中国家人祈祷. Sohu. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "【波士頓爆炸】第3名死者： 中國公民呂令子" [Boston explosion – 3 dead: Chinese citizen Lu Lingzi]. Apple Daily (Phoenix Television). April 17, 2013. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Johnson, Jenna; Mufson, Steven. "Boston University identifies third bombing victim as Lu Lingzi". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
- Buckley, Chris (April 17, 2013). "China Mourns the Death of a Student in Boston Blast". The New York Times. Retrieved April 17, 2013. A bilingual English-Chinese version is available.
- "Memorial honors Boston victims". News (photo gallery). Yahoo!. April 20, 2011. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "Letter from the Family of Lu Lingzi". Bu.edu. April 17, 2013. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
- Fantz, Ashley (April 17, 2013). "Death of terror's tiniest victim called 'surreal,' 'tragic'". CNN. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "Family says goodbye to youngest blast victim". Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- "Just 2 bombing victims still critically ill, but count of injured rises to 282". Boston Globe. April 23, 2013. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
- Dahler, Don (April 26, 2013). "For Boston bombing survivor, a life-changing decision". CBS News. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- "FBI takes over investigation, seeking suspects, motives in Boston bombings". Central Florida News 13. April 16, 2013. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- "All Boston Marathon bombing patients likely to live, doctors say". April 22, 2013. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
- Weise, Elizabeth; MacDonald, G. Jeffrey; Weintraub, Karen (April 18, 2013). "At least 14 amputees are among wounded in Boston attack". USA Today.
- Zoroya, Gregg (April 17, 2013). "For Boston attack's amputees, road to recovery begins". USA Today. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- "'Rapid strides': Limb advances offer hope for Boston amputees". Retrieved April 29, 2013.
- Kantor, Ira; McConville, Christine (April 16, 2013). "Docs describe nails, BBs viciously blasted into Marathon patients". Boston Herald. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Kolata, Gina; Longman, Jeré; Pilon, Mary (April 17, 2013). "Physical Legacy of Bomb Blasts Could Be Cruel for Boston Marathon Victims". The New York Times. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
- "Boston transit cop wounded in firefight with marathon bombers is expected to make full recovery...but doctors have left a bullet in his leg". Daily Mail. May 1, 2013. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- "Last Hospitalized Marathon Victim Heads Home". Associated Press. Retrieved July 24, 2013.
- "Boston Marathon bombs: The world reacts". News (CBS). Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- Reidy, Chris (April 24, 2013). "L.L.Bean commits $150,000 to the One Fund Boston". Boston Globe. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- Trumbull, Mark (April 23, 2013). "How can you help Boston? One Fund sets up rules to help victims. (+video)". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- Building The One Fund. Goodwinprocter.com (June 10, 2013). Retrieved on July 4, 2013.
- Aleccia, JoNel (April 21, 2013). "Crowdfunding raises $2 million for Boston victims; critics urge caution". NBC News. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- Lebovic, Matt. "Israeli Team helps boston". The Times of Israel. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- "$212K donation made to One Fund Boston". NECN.com.
- Morton, Victor (April 15, 2013). "Boston Bruins' NHL game, Celtics' NBA contest cancelled in blast aftermath". The Washington Times. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- "All-Beethoven Program – Canceled". Boston Symphony Orchestra. April 15, 2013. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- Powers, Martine (April 16, 2013). "Tight security helps allay fears on the MBTA". Boston Globe. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "Red Sox postpone game". ESPN. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "Nazareth agrees to be new host for national championship in place of MIT" (Press release). NCAA. April 19, 2013. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- Dezenski, Lauren. "BU starts scholarship to honor Chinese student who died in Marathon bombings." The Boston Globe. April 19, 2013. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "Celtics Honor Police, Other 1st Responders". Associated Press. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
- "New England Patriots honor first responders from Boston Marathon bombings and manhunt", by Shalize Manza Young, Boston Globe
- Martinez, Michael (November 2, 2013). "Boston Red Sox parade reclaims marathon finish line". CNN. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
- "Explosions hit Boston Marathon". BBC News. April 15, 2013.
- "Boston Marathon bomb blasts kill 2, injure dozens". CBC News. April 15, 2013. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- "President Obama calls the Boston Marathon bombings 'an act of terror'". The Daily News (NY, US). Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "Obama orders flags lowered to half staff". Politico. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- "Obama honors bombing victims in Boston". News. Yahoo!. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- Mills, Carys (April 16, 2013). "Boston Marathon explosions add to market woes". Toronto Star. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "Thousands cross Willamette for Boston Remembrance Run". KGW News. April 18, 2013. Retrieved April 18, 2013.
- "Marathon participants volunteers and spectators wear red socks in honor of Boston". Kfor. April 19, 2013.
- One Run for Boston
- "Boston Marathon: Security beefed up worldwide after deadly blast". Associated Press. April 15, 2013. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
- "Boston Marathon 2013 was 'chaos': Canadian runners recount panic". National Post. April 15, 2013. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- "Boston Marathon explosions: world leaders react". The Telegraph. UK. April 16, 2013. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "International officials react to Boston attacks". Sports Illustrated. April 16, 2013. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- Fan, Jiayang (April 17, 2013). "Lu Lingzi's journey to the marathon". The New Yorker. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- "Parents of China Victim Get U.S. Visas." The Wall Street Journal. April 18, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- Katz, Gregory (April 16, 2013). "London to review marathon security". NZ: TV3. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- "London Marathon: Runners and crowds mark Boston attack". UK: BBC News.
- "Ethiopia's Kebede wins London Marathon". Al Jazeera. Agence France-Presse. April 21, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- Crawford, Tiffany (April 17, 2013). "Vancouver Sun Run to donate $10 per late entry for Boston Marathon victims". The Vancouver Sun. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
- "Czech Republic Forced to Remind the Internet That Chechnya Is in Different Country After Boston Bombing". Time. April 23, 2013. Retrieved May 8, 2013.
- "Singapore Hit By Bomb Hoaxes After Boston Attacks".
- "Russia offers to help probe Boston blasts". News24. April 16, 2013. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
- "Russia's PR machine ready for fallout from Boston bombings". The Hill. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
- "Suspects' mother says bombing was staged with paint instead of blood". CNN. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
- Boston bombing suspects lost contact with Chechnya in childhood – Kadyrov's spokesman Interfax, April 19, 2013.
- Руководство Чечни дистанцировалось от бостонских "плохишей": их воспитала Америка NEWSru.
- "Chechen leader: 'The roots of evil must be searched for in America'". The Guardian (UK). April 19, 2013.
- "Заявление А. Закаева в связи с терактом в Бостоне". Chechenpress. April 19, 2013.
- Weaver, Courtney; Clover, Charles (April 21, 2013). "Russian militant group denies Boston link". The Financial Times. "The main militant group in Russia's southern Caucasus region, the Caucasus Emirate, has denied responsibility for last week's Boston bombing"
- "Daghestani Insurgency Denies Any Role in Boston Bombings". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. April 13, 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- "Statement of the Command of Mujahideen of Caucasus Emirate's Dagestan Province in relation to events in Boston". Kavkaz.org.uk. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- "Why does America lose its head over 'terror' but ignore its daily gun deaths?". The Observer. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- "Boston Bombing Lessons: Martial Law Doesn't Work". The New American. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- "America declares war on two losers". Spiked (magazine). Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- Sabrina Siddiqui (April 29, 2013). "Ron Paul: Shutdown After Boston Bombings More Frightening Than Attack Itself". Huffington Post.
- "The Boston bombers have already scored a tremendous victory for terror". Haaretz. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- "Thoughts on the Boston Lockdown". The New York Times. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- Killoran, Ellen (April 16, 2013). "One Day After Boston Bombing, New York Post Has Not Retracted Presumably Incorrect Reports of Death Toll and Saudi Suspect". International Business Times. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- Kaufman, Alexander C. (April 15, 2013). "NY Post Fail? Police Deny Tabloid's Report of Suspect 'Under Guard'". Mediabistro.com. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- Webster, Stephen C. (April 18, 2013). "New York Post repeatedly misidentifies Boston suspects". The Raw Story. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- Davidson, Amy (April 17, 2013). "The Saudi Marathon Man". The New Yorker. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- Morales, Mark; Ford, Bev (January 11, 2013). "Boston Marathon spectator Salah Barhoum, who was interviewed by authorities following the bombings, swears he 'didn't do it'". Daily News. New York. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- Chittum, Ryan. "The New York Post's disgrace: Columbia Journalism Review". CJR. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- "Reconsidering the Internet detectives in Boston manhunt on Reddit and 4Chan: the benefits and pitfalls". Associated Press. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
- Coscarelli, Joseph 'Joe' (April 20, 2013). "All the Mistakenly Identified 'Suspects' in the Boston Bombing Investigation". New York.
- "Innocents accused in online manhunt". 3 News NZ. April 22, 2013.
- Chuck, Elizabeth (April 25, 2013). "Missing Brown University student found dead in Providence River, authorities confirm". NBC News. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
- LoGiurato, Brett (April 17, 2013). "FBI Shreds The Media Over Unverified Boston Marathon Reports". BusinessInsider.com. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- Williams, Matt (April 17, 2013). "FBI urges media to 'exercise caution' after inaccurate arrest reports". The Guardian. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
- Garrison, Lynsea (April 18, 2013). "Boston bombings: Muslim Americans await bomber's ID". BBC News. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
|Photographs from Slate.com of the Boston Marathon Bombing|
|Photographs from TheAtlantic.com of the Boston Marathon Bombing|
|Video from Reuters showing the moment of deadly explosion at finish line of Boston Marathon|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2013 Boston Marathon bombings.|
- Updates on Investigation into Multiple Explosions in Boston. FBI. April 25, 2013.
- Criminal Complaint vs. Dzhokhar A. Tsarnaev. U.S. District Court, Massachusetts. April 21, 2013.
- Statement. Boston Athletic Association. April 15, 2013. Archived from the original on April 16, 2013.
- Statement. Boston Athletic Association. April 19, 2013. Archived from the original on April 20, 2013.
- "Boston Bombs". United Kingdom: BBC.
- "Boston Marathon Explosion". Reuters.
- "Guardian coverage of Boston Marathon explosions". UK. April 19, 2013.
- Explosions at the Boston Marathon. "The Lede". The New York Times. April 15, 2013. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- "Boston public safety response audio to marathon terrorist attack". Radio Reference. April 15, 2013.
- "Two blasts hit Boston Marathon finish line, at least 3 killed, more than 100 wounded". TV. Reuters. April 15, 2013.
- "Boston attack: probing the devices and destruction". TV. Reuters. April 15, 2013.
- "Boston marathon: the moment of the explosions". The Guardian (United Kingdom). April 16, 2013.