Inflatable castles ('Closed inflatable trampolines or CITs) are temporary inflatable structures and buildings and similar items that are rented for functions, school and church festivals and village fetes and used for recreational purposes, particularly for children. The growth in popularity of moonwalks has led to an inflatable rental industry which includes inflatable slides, obstacle courses, games, and more. Inflatables are ideal for portable amusements because they are easy to transport and store.
The name given to such structures varies. They have been marketed with such names as "Bounce House", "Moon Bounce", "Astrojump", "Moonwalk", "Jolly Jump" and "Spacewalk". The term "Bounce House" came to popularity with the resurgence of hipster culture in New England. "Brinca brinca" is another name commonly used by Latinos, which literally means "jump jump". The term "Jolly Jumps" is often used to describe the inflatable playground structure in rural areas and some areas in the Western US, but the term is otherwise obsolete. In Southern California, another popular term is "Closed Inflatable Trampolines", or "CITs". "Bouncy Castle" or "Inflatable Castle" are used in Ireland, the UK, New Zealand and parts of Australia, and "Jumping Castles" in Australia, Canada, South Africa and Arizona in the United States.
The first inflatable structure was designed in 1959 by John Scurlock in Shreveport, Louisiana who was experimenting with inflatable covers for tennis courts when he noticed his employees enjoyed jumping on the covers. He was a mechanical engineer and liked physics. John was a pioneer of inflatable domes, inflatable tents, inflatable signs and his greatest achievement was the invention of the safety air cushion that is used by fire and rescue departments to catch people jumping from buildings or heights.
The first space walk manufacturing company was in New Orleans in a leased warehouse that also sewed horse pads. His wife, Frances, started the first inflatable rental company in 1968 and in 1976 they built a custom facility for the production and rental of the products. They marketed the space walks to children's events such as birthday parties, school fairs and company picnics. These original inflatables did not have the enclosure of today's inflatables, creating a safety hazard.
Their son Frank Scurlock expanded their rental concept throughout the United States under the brand names "Space Walk" and "Inflatable Zoo". Frank also founded the first all inflatable indoor play park called "Fun Factory" on Thanksgiving Day 1986 in Metairie, Louisiana. A second unit was opened in Memphis Tennessee called "Fun Plex" in 1987. Both locations closed after the value of the property became too great for the operations. The first inflatable was an open top mattress with no sides, called a "Space Pillow". In 1967 a pressurized inflatable top was added, it required two fans and got hot in the summer like a greenhouse. That version was called "Space Walk" and was adopted as the company name.
In 1974, to solve the heat problem, a new product line called "Jupiter Jump" was created that has inflated columns that supported netting walls which allowed the air to pass through. Further enhancements of this style were developed such as a line of castles and animals which are referred to as the "Inflatable Zoo". In the early 1990s Frank created the first commercial inflatable water slide called the "Aqua Tunnel". Space Walk was the first company to bring an inflatable to the IAAPA convention, Showmen's Club and the American Rental Association.
The surfaces are typically composed of thick, strong PVC or vinyl and nylon, and the castle is inflated using an electric or petrol-powered blower. The principle is one of constant leakage, meaning small punctures are not a problem - a medium-size "bouncy castle" requires a fan with a mechanical output of about two horsepower (consuming around 2 kW electrical power, allowing for the efficiency of the motor).
UK and Australian bouncy castles have specifications calling for fully inflated walls on three sides with an open front and foam "crash mats" to catch children who may jump or fall out of the structure.
Modern moonwalks in the US are typically supported by inflatable columns and enclosed with netting. The netting allows for supervision as adults can see in from all sides.
Another type of home-use inflatable has evolved, with a blower pumping in air continuously. Pores in the seams and material allow air to escape as kids play, while the blower continues to inflate the unit. This category has emerged as a response to parents who wish to buy an inflatable for home use.
In 2005 the most severe standards in the construction of an inflatable amusement were adopted nationally in Australia, forming Federal Standard AS3533.4. This was a landmark safety standard bringing the toughest design/construction/operation standards to the inflatable industry of Australia. In 2006 the European Union (EU) followed and introduced similar standards throughout EU called EN14960:2006
In the US, Pennsylvania and New Jersey require inflatables to pass engineering and safety standards before allowing the equipment to be rented out.
Inflatable obstacle courses
There are also inflatable obstacle courses that allow for participants to have races and compete against one another.
Some inflatables are designed to allow games such as boxing rings, water football, penalty shootouts, basketball, rumbling, tug of war, and gladiator duels. These interactive inflatable games are made out of the same material that a continuous airflow bounce house is made of. Quad tracks are also popular and provide the perimeter for Quad bike racing.
To maintain the quality of inflatables, voluntary organizations exist for manufacturers, resellers and renters.
In Australia, the Australian Amusement Association (AAA) was formed in 1997 to bring a cohesion to the small amusement ride operators, with the majority of members being backyard inflatable hirers.
In Ireland, the Irish Inflatable Hirers Federation was set up in 2011 as a body promoting best practice in the private hirer of inflatables. Members sign up to a Code of Conduct, and are being guided towards meeting the EN14960:2006 standards, as well as insurance standards and operational standards. The IIHF are negotiating with governmental bodies for more self-regulation in the industry.
In 1994, after almost filing for bankruptcy caused by the 1993 world economics crisis, then restaurateur Ana Lilia Granados and her then husband bought the technology and business know-how from the United States and started manufacturing inflatable games under the name of Giant Slide™  in Cancún, Mexico. In 1995, the Mexican entrepreneur moved operations of her small inflatable games factory to the geographically strategic city of Celaya, and, with the change also renamed the franchise "Games R Us". In 2000, Columbian businessman Claudio Sabogal acquired the technology from Games R Us thus transferring the technological know-how and business model for the first time to South America operating under the name Jump&Play. They both still operate successfully to this day.
In the US, the Association of Inflatable Rental Company Operators (AIRCO) is the largest trade group for companies who rent inflatable amusements. Established in 2005, it evolved from a commercial forum. A trade group was needed to bring the industry together, promoting safety and monitoring standards. The Moonwalk Forum  is an online information source that was created by Matthew Mark. Currently over 5,000 members contribute the vast amount of information available. With other operators from the Moonwalk Forum, Mark created the Safe Inflatables Operators Training Organization (SIOTO) in 2005  to train operators of inflatable games.
In the UK, in 1978, plastics manufacturer Richard Hopkirk created the first bouncy castle where three out of four walls were inflatable, with the front left open for entry, exit and supervision. These Hop Castles, as the company was known, became the standard in the UK and are what is usually seen to this date (although Hopkirk failed to patent his castle and the design is used by many companies).
PIPA is a voluntary manufacturer and reseller's organization, which has been endorsed by the government Health and Safety organisation. Despite government backing it is not compulsory for inflatables sold for hire purposes to be PIPA tested. Hirers buying inflatables can ask for them to be "PIPA Tagged". This means the inflatable structure has been made to PIPA safety guidelines and has passed a PIPA test. If it passes a tag is put onto the inflatable specifying PIPA compliance. Hirers can also have their existing inflatables PIPA tested. Once an inflatable has passed a test it can be verified on the PIPA website to prevent fraud. All bouncy castles must conform to BS EN 14960:2006 standards and should be tested every year.
Other organizations are the Performance Textiles Association, Association of Inflatables Manufacturers, Operators, Designers and Suppliers (AIMODS), Bouncy Castle Network (BCN) and the Federation of Major Inflatable Manufacturers. A popular organisation for operators is the British Inflatable Hirers Alliance - BIHA  and its sister site - BouncyCastleOwner.com  which has a lively discussion forum for the industry. BouncyCastle.co.uk was created in 2009 and has built up a vast article section where safety guides and tips are freely provided to ensure the safety of all users. Since 2008 there have been some interesting innovators in the inflatable hire industry that have helped bouncy castle hirers improve their online presence and streamline business operations. The most popular of these development houses is the Bouncy Castle Network that has created the industry standard business management system; and a national network of operators that support each other through idea sharing. They have also pioneered the first 'find and book' bouncy castle hirers directory, BouncyCastleHire.co.uk.
Injury and death
According to recent studies injuries caused by inflatable rides have been on the rise. An average of 31 children per day are hospitalized because of injuries caused by a Bounce House or Inflatable Castle. That is approximately 65,000 children that have been injured from 1990 to 2010.
- In South Yorkshire a boy died in 2003 while using one.
- There have been numerous reports of the malicious deflation of bouncy castles whilst in use, notably the Horsington House Hotel incident which injured several people at a 21st birthday celebration.
- Two people were killed and 13 were injured when an inflatable structure took off at Riverside Park, Chester-le-Street, County Durham during powerful winds in 2006.
- An eight-year-old girl was killed and 15 people injured when a bouncy castle was caught in a strong wind and was lifted and thrown over 50 metres in 2001.
- A boy's parents sued the hirers of a jumping castle in 2005 when one boy somersaulted onto another at a birthday party causing brain damage. An appeal was lodged, and the verdict was overturned.
- An eight-year old girl died in May 2011 after falling head first from a bouncy castle onto a concrete pavement.
Methods of decoration
The artwork on most inflatable structures is hand-painted. It is cheaper for an artist to paint inflatables than to buy a printing machine or pay for a professional printer to print the artwork for a small quantity of inflatables.
For those wishing to have inflatables professionally printed, rather than painted, two technologies exist. One is to use screenprinting and the other uses digital printing machines which can print onto nylon. Usually, if the printing method is used then white PVC must be used and a pattern or artwork printed onto this.
Digital printing allows photographic quality pictures, something which is either difficult or impossible with hand-painting. Hand-painting is more durable as the paints tend to last longer in water, rain, and handling than printouts. It is also better for "cartoon" style images, which is the norm on children's inflatables.
The record for "Longest marathon on a bouncy castle (team)" is 25 hr 25 min 25 sec, set by Will Scogin, Patrick Taylor, Miller Wright, David Wilson, Forrest Haynes and Jimbo Wilhite (all from the United States) at Northridge High School, Tuscaloosa, Alabama on October 10–11, 2008.
- Mauro, Terri and Sharon A. Cermak (2006). The Everything Parent's Guide To Sensory Integration Disorder: Get the Right Diagnosis, Understand Treatments, And Advocate for Your Child. Everything Books. p. 60. ISBN 9781593377144.
- Cherry, Robin (2008). Catalog: The Illustrated History of Mail Order Shopping. Princeton Architectural Press. p. 81. ISBN 9781568987392.
- A collection of inflatable ride accident reports can be found at http://www.rideaccidents.com/inflatables.html
- "Bouncy castle death 'tragic accident'". BBC News. 8 January 2004. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
- Horsington House
- "Two killed as artwork 'lifts off'". BBC News. 23 July 2006. Archived from the original on August 16, 2008.
- The Coroners report can be read at http://www.courts.sa.gov.au/courts/coroner/findings/findings_2003/gorostiaga.finding.htm
- Pibb, Helen (9 May 2008). "Boy severely hurt on bouncy castle likely to get £1m payout". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2008-05-15.
- Topping, Alexandra (1 August 2008). "Parents win appeal over head injury on a bouncy castle". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2008-08-01.
- Byrne, Amy (16 May 2011). "Girl (8) dies after falling out of bouncy castle". Dungarvan, Co. Waterford, Ireland: The Irish Times. Retrieved 2011-08-09.
- "Inflatable Amusement Rides" (May 23, 2001, revised and re-issued December 5, 2001)
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- Media related to Inflatable castles at Wikimedia Commons