Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness

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Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness
IUCN category Ib (wilderness area)
Bwca-and-wooden-canoe.jpg
Map showing the location of Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness
Map showing the location of Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness
Location Cook / Lake / Saint Louis counties, Minnesota, USA
Coordinates 47°49′0″N 91°12′0″W / 47.81667°N 91.20000°W / 47.81667; -91.20000Coordinates: 47°49′0″N 91°12′0″W / 47.81667°N 91.20000°W / 47.81667; -91.20000
Area 1,090,000 acres (4,400 km2)[1]
Established 1964
Visitors 250,000+ [2]
Governing body U.S. Forest Service

The Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW or BWCA), is a 1,090,000-acre (4,400 km2) wilderness area within the Superior National Forest in northeastern Minnesota (USA) under the administration of the U.S. Forest Service. The BWCAW is renowned as a destination for both canoeing and fishing on its many lakes and is the most visited wilderness in the United States.

Geography[edit]

The BWCAW within the Superior National Forest

The BWCAW is located on the U.S.–Canadian border in the Arrowhead Region of Minnesota. Along with Voyageurs National Park to the west and the Canadian Quetico and La Verendrye Provincial Parks to the north, they make up a large area of contiguous wilderness lakes and forests called the "Quetico-Superior country", or simply the Boundary Waters. Lake Superior lies to the east of the Boundary Waters.

The continental divide between the Great Lakes and Hudson Bay watersheds runs northeast–southwest through the east side of the BWCAW, following the crest of the Superior Upland and Gunflint Range. The crossing of the divide at Height of Land Portage was the occasion for ceremony and initiation rites for the fur-trading Voyageurs of the 18th and early 19th centuries. The wilderness also includes the highest peak in Minnesota, Eagle Mountain (2,301 feet / 701 m), part of the Misquah Hills.

Eagle Mountain, the highest natural point in Minnesota at 2,301 feet (701 m) is located in BWCAW.

The two main communities with visitor services near the BWCAW are Ely and Grand Marais, Minnesota. The smaller town of Tofte is another gateway community. Several historic roads, such as the Gunflint Trail, the Echo Trail, and Fernberg Road allow access to the many wilderness entry points.

Natural history[edit]

An eastern white pine growing on glacially scoured bedrock, Nina Moose Lake

Geology[edit]

Main article: Geology of Minnesota

The lakes of the BWCAW are located in depressions formed by differential erosion of the tilted layers of the Canadian Shield. For the past two million years, massive sheets of ice have repeatedly scoured the landscape; the last glacial period ended with the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet from the Boundary Waters about 17,000 years ago.[3][4] The resulting depressions in the landscape later filled with water, becoming the lakes of today.

Many varieties of Precambrian bedrock are exposed, including granite, basalt, greenstone, gneiss, as well as metamorphic rocks derived from volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Greenstone of the Superior craton located near Ely, Minnesota is up to 2.7 billion years old,[5] some of the oldest exposed rock in the United States. Igneous rocks of the Duluth Complex comprise the bedrock of the eastern Boundary Waters. Ancient microfossils have been found in the banded iron formations of the Gunflint Chert.

Forest ecology[edit]

The Boundary Waters area contains both the boreal forest (taiga) and a mixed conifer-hardwood forest known as the North Woods, which is a transition province between the northern boreal forest and deciduous forests to the south.[6] The ranges of the plants and animals continue north into southern Canada and south into the rest of the upper Great Lakes region. Trees found within the wilderness area include conifers such as red pine, eastern white pine, jack pine, balsam fir, white spruce, black spruce, and white-cedar, as well as deciduous birch, aspen, ash, and maple. Blueberries are common in many parts of the BWCAW, as are raspberries. The BWCAW is estimated to contain some 400,000 acres (1,600 km2) of old growth forest, woods which may have burned but which have never been logged.[4] Forest fires were a natural part of the Boundary Waters ecosystem before fire suppression efforts during the 20th century, with recurrence intervals of 30 – 300 years in most areas.

On July 4, 1999, a powerful wind storm, or derecho, swept across Minnesota and southern Canada, knocking down millions of trees and affecting about 370,000 acres (1,500 km2) within the BWCAW. This event became known officially as the Boundary Waters-Canadian Derecho, commonly referred to as "the Boundary Waters blowdown". Although campsites and portages were quickly cleared after the storm, an increased risk of wildfire continues to remain a concern due to the large number of downed trees.[7] The U.S. Forest Service has undertaken a schedule of prescribed burns to reduce the forest fuel load in the event of a wildfire.[8]

Smoke from the 2011 Pagami Creek Fire

The first major wildfire within the blowdown occurred in August 2005, burning approximately 1,400 acres (5.7 km2) north of Seagull Lake in the northeastern BWCAW. In July 2006 the Cavity Lake fire burned over 30,000 acres (120 km2),[9] while the Turtle Lake Fire burned 2,000 acres (8 km2).[10] In May 2007, there was another wildfire that originated around Ham Lake, just to the east of the Cavity Lake fire. The Ham Lake Fire was the most extensive wildfire in Minnesota in 90 years. It burned from May 5 to May 20, and eventually covered 76,000 acres (310 km2) in Minnesota and Ontario.[11] The Pagami Creek Fire, sparked by lightning in August 2011, ultimately grew to over 92,000 acres (370 km2), spreading beyond the wildnerness boundary to threaten homes and businesses.[12] Smoke from the Pagami Creek Fire drifted east and south as far as the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, Ontario, Chicago, Poland, Ukraine, and Russia.[13][14][15][16]

Fauna[edit]

Common loon

Animals native to the region include moose, beaver, wolves, bears, bobcats, bald eagles, peregrine falcons and loons. The Boundary Waters is within the range of the largest population of wolves in the contiguous United States, as well as an unknown number of Canada lynx. Woodland caribou once inhabited the region but have disappeared due to loss of habitat, encroachment by deer, and the brainworm parasite carried by deer which is harmful to caribou and moose populations.[17][18] Increasing deer numbers may also affect the future of vegetation in this region as they favor some species over others, such as white-cedar.

Human history[edit]

Native peoples[edit]

Pictographs at Hegman Lake, as they looked in 2003

Within the BWCAW are hundreds of prehistoric pictographs and petroglyphs on rock ledges and cliffs. The BWCAW is part of the historic homeland of the Ojibwe people, who traveled the waterways in canoes made of birch bark. Prior to Ojibwe settlement, the area was sparsely populated by the Sioux who dispersed westward following the arrival of the Ojibwe. It is thought that the Hegman Lake Pictograph located on a large overlooing rock wall on North Hegman Lake were most likely created by the Ojibwe. The pictograph appears to represent Ojibwe meridian constellations visible in winter during the early evening, knowledge of which may have been useful for navigating in the deep woods during the winter hunting season. The Grand Portage Indian Reservation, just east of the BWCAW at the community of Grand Portage, is home to a number of Ojibwe to this day.

Fur trade[edit]

A Voyageur canoe during the fur trade era

In 1688, the French explorer Jacques de Noyon became the first European known to have traveled through the Boundary Waters. Later during the 1730s, La Vérendrye and others opened the region to trade, mainly in beaver pelts. By the end of the 18th century, the fur trade had been organized into groups of canoe-paddling Voyageurs working for the competing North West and Hudson's Bay Companies, with a North West Company fort located at the community of Grand Portage on Lake Superior. The US-Canadian border, the northern border of most of the BWCAW follows one of the primary voyageur routes.[19]

Development and protection[edit]

In the 1920s Edward Backus, a local industrialist, proposed building several dams in the region, which was successfully opposed by Ernest Oberholtzer. By 1926, the Superior Roadless Area had been designated by the U.S. Forest Service, offering some protection from mining, logging, and hydroelectric projects, although logging would not cease completely until 1979.[4] The Wilderness Act of 1964 made the BWCAW legal wilderness as a unit of the National Wilderness Preservation System, while the 1978 Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness Act established the Boundary Waters regulations much as they are today with motors allowed only on a few large entry point lakes.[20]

Several aspects of the management of the BWCAW remain controversial today, including the use of motorboats, snowmobiles, motorized portages, permit availability and allocation, as well as suggestions to expand the wilderness area.[21]

Many groups, such as the Boy Scouts and other service organizations, volunteer in the area to maintain the portage trails.

Recreation[edit]

The BWCAW contains over a thousand lakes and attracts visitors with its reputation for canoeing, canoe touring, fishing, backpacking, dog sledding, and remote wilderness character. The BWCAW has nearly 2,200 backcountry campsites. The BWCAW is one of Minnesota's top tourist attractions, drawing visitors from all over the United States as well as abroad. Permits are required for all overnight visits to the wilderness area. Quota permits are required for groups taking an overnight paddle, motor, or hiking trip, or a motorized day-use trip into the BWCAW from May 1 through September 30. These permits must be reserved in advance. Day use paddle and hiking permits do not require advance reservation and can be filled out at BWCAW entry points. From October 1 through April 30, permit reservations are not necessary, but a permit must be filled out at the permit stations located at each entry point.[22] Each permit must specify the trip leader, the specific entry point and the day of entry. The permits are for an indefinite length (although you are only allowed one entry into the wilderness), and you can not stay in one campsite for more than 14 nights. About half the users of the wilderness have their own gear, and about half use the services of one of the nearby canoe outfitters. Most of the outfitters are in two general areas. Along the eastern side of the wilderness the outfitters are scattered along the 60-mile Gunflint Trail (a two-lane paved road), and on the west side, many are located in the town of Ely.

Canoeing[edit]

Canoe campers on a trip in the BWCAW

Although there are numerous drive-in campgrounds surrounding the wilderness, most campsites in the BWCAW are accessible only by water. As of 1999, about 75% of the BWCAW's water area was reserved for non-motorized boat travel. Most lakes and rivers are interconnected by portage trails, resulting in over 1,000 miles (1,600 km) of canoe routes. Chains of lakes and portages of various lengths and difficulties can be combined to create either linear or circular routes. Some of the most popular entry points include Lake One, Trout Lake, Mudro Lake, Moose Lake, and Snowbank Lake near Ely, Saganaga Lake and Seagull Lake at the end of the Gunflint Trail, and Sawbill Lake near Tofte.

Canoe campers often use Duluth packs, designed for easy portaging and loading in canoes, to carry their gear.

Fishing[edit]

Fishing is a popular activity in the BWCAW. Game species include northern pike, walleye, largemouth and smallmouth bass, yellow perch, whitefish, and lake trout, among others. A small number of lakes are stocked with brook trout as well. Popular lures include rapalas, jigs, and spoons, while live bait such as leeches are also used. Multi-sectioned or collapsible fishing rods are often used for ease in carrying while portaging.

Hiking[edit]

Sunset over Pose Lake, a small lake accessible only by foot.

In addition to shorter trails to Eagle Mountain, Magnetic Rock, and Angleworm Lake, the Boundary Waters has several long-distance trails. The Border Route Trail runs east-west for over 60 miles (97 km) through the eastern BWCAW, following the ridges between the long border lakes such as Loon, South, and Rose. Eventually, a connection is planned from the eastern end of the Border Route Trail to the northern end of the Superior Hiking Trail. The Kekekabic Trail traverses the Boundary Waters from the Gunflint Trail on the east to Snowbank Lake on the west and is the only footpath through the center of the wilderness. Both the Border Route and the Kekekabic Trail are unofficially part of the longer North Country National Scenic Trail. Legislation in Congress is pending to make this designation official. There are also three longer loop trails in the Boundary Waters: the Pow Wow Trail, the Snowbank Trail, and the Sioux-Hustler Trail. These longer trails see a variable amount of maintenance; current conditions should be determined locally before use.

Notable people associated with the BWCAW[edit]

  • Sigurd Olson, Minnesota author and conservationist, wrote extensively about the Boundary Waters and worked to ensure preservation of the wilderness.
  • Dorothy Molter, known as the "Rootbeer Lady," lived in the BWCAW for 56 years (alone after 1948) until her death in 1986, and was the last resident of the BWCA.
  • Benny Ambrose lived alone on Ottertrack Lake until his death in 1982, leaving Dorothy Molter as the last remaining full-time resident.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Cited references[edit]

  1. ^ "Land Area Report". U.S. Forest Service. 2004. Retrieved 28 August 2006. 
  2. ^ Friends of the Boundary Waters Wilderness. Retrieved September 2, 2014 [1]
  3. ^ Ojakangas, Richard; Matsch, Charles (1982). Minnesota's Geology. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-0953-5. 
  4. ^ a b c Heinselman, Miron (1996). The Boundary Waters Wilderness Ecosystem. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press. 
  5. ^ "America's volcanic past: Minnesota". Cascades Volcano Observatory, United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 5 September 2006. 
  6. ^ Gibbon, Guy E.; Johnson, Craig M.; Hobbes, Elizabeth (2000). "Chapter 3: Minnesota's Environment and Native American Culture History". A Predictive Model of Precontact Archaeological Site Location for The State of Minnesota. Minnesota Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on 2011-07-26. Retrieved 2011-12-25. 
  7. ^ Breining, Greg (May–June 2000). "Boundary Waters: The Fire Next Time". Minnesota Conservation Volunteer (Minnesota Department of Natural Resources). Retrieved 27 September 2009. 
  8. ^ "Lowdown on the Blowdown". Superior National Forest, U.S. Forest Service. Retrieved 28 September 2009. 
  9. ^ "Cavity Lake Fire". BWCAwiki.org. Retrieved 4 September 2006. 
  10. ^ "Turtle Lake Fire". BWCAwiki.org. Retrieved 4 September 2006. 
  11. ^ "Gunflint Trail fire anniversary to be marked by tree plantings". KARE11.com. Retrieved 25 April 2008. 
  12. ^ Douglas Etten (2011-09-13). "Boundary Waters fire threatening homes, cabins". Lakeland Times. Retrieved 2011-09-13. 
  13. ^ http://wildfiretoday.com/2011/09/16/smoke-from-pagami-creek-fire-detected-over-eastern-europe-today/
  14. ^ "Ont. smells smoke from Minnesota forest fire". CTV Toronto. 2011-09-13. Retrieved 2011-09-13. 
  15. ^ "Smoke from Minnesota forest fire makes its way to Chicago's suburbs". Chicago Tribune. 2011-09-13. Retrieved 2011-09-13. 
  16. ^ http://www.duluthnewstribune.com/event/article/id/209444/group/Sports/
  17. ^ "Western Great Lakes forests (NA0416)". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 5 January 2007. 
  18. ^ "Reasons for Caribou Extirpation in Minnesota". Retrieved 5 January 2007. 
  19. ^ Fur Trade Canoe Routes of Canada/ Then and Now by Eric W. Morse Canada National and Historic Parks Branch, first printing 1969.
  20. ^ Wilbers, Stephen. "Boundary Waters Chronology". Retrieved 27 September 2009. 
  21. ^ Axelson, Gustave (March–April 2005). "True Wilderness". Minnesota Conservation Volunteer (Minnesota Department of Natural Resources). Retrieved 27 September 2009. 
  22. ^ "National Recreation Reservation Service for BWCAW". Recreation.gov. Retrieved 4 September 2006. 

General references[edit]

  • Heinselman, Miron. The Boundary Waters Wilderness Ecosystem, University of Minnesota Press, 1996. ISBN 0-8166-2804-1
  • Pauly, Daniel. Exploring the Boundary Waters: A Trip Planner and Guide to the BWCAW, University of Minnesota Press, 2005. ISBN 0-8166-4216-8
  • Searle, R. Newell. Saving Quetico-Superior, A Land Set Apart, Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1977. ISBN 0-87351-116-6

External links[edit]