Bournemouth

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Bournemouth, England)
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about a town in the United Kingdom. For other uses, see Bournemouth (disambiguation).
Bournemouth
Borough of Bournemouth
Town & Borough
Aerial view of Bournemouth town centre
Aerial view of Bournemouth town centre
Bournemouth UK locator map.svg
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region South West England
Ceremonial county Dorset
Founded 1810
Founded by Lewis Tregonwell
Admin. HQ Bournemouth
Government
 • Type Bournemouth Borough Council
 • Leadership: Leader & Cabinet
 • Executive: Conservative
 • MPs: Conor Burns,
Tobias Ellwood
 • Mayor Rod Cooper
Area
 • Total 17.83 sq mi (46.18 km2)
Area rank 276th
Population (2011)
 • Total 187,503
 • Rank Ranked 88th
 • Density 11,000/sq mi (4,100/km2)
Demonym Bournemouthian / Bournemouth-ite
Time zone Greenwich Mean Time (UTC+0)
 • Summer (DST) British Summer Time (UTC+1)
Postcode BH1–11
Area code(s) 1202
Website www.bournemouth.gov.uk

Bournemouth Listeni/ˈbɔərnməθ/ is a large coastal resort town on the south coast of England directly to the east of the Jurassic Coast, a 95-mile (153 km) World Heritage Site. According to the 2011 census, the town has a population of 187,503 [1] making it the largest settlement in Dorset. With Poole to the west and Christchurch in the east, Bournemouth forms the South East Dorset conurbation, which has a total population of over 400,000.

Before it was founded in 1810 by Lewis Tregonwell, the area was a deserted heathland occasionally visited by fishermen and smugglers. Initially marketed as a health resort, the town received a boost when it appeared in Dr Granville's book, The Spas of England. Bournemouth's growth really accelerated with the arrival of the railway and it became a recognised town in 1870. Historically part of Hampshire, it joined Dorset with the reorganisation of local government in 1974. Since 1997, the town has been administered by a unitary authority, giving it autonomy from Dorset County Council although it remains however part of the ceremonial county. The local council is Bournemouth Borough Council.

The town centre has notable Victorian architecture and the 202 feet (62 m) spire of St Peter's Church, one of three Grade I listed churches in the borough, is a local landmark. Bournemouth's location has made it a popular destination for tourists, attracting over five million visitors annually with its beaches and popular nightlife. The town is also a regional centre of business, home of the Bournemouth International Centre or BIC, and a financial sector that is worth more than £1,000 million in Gross Value Added.

Toponomy[edit]

The first record of Bournemouth as a place name was in the Christchurch cartulary of 1407, when a monk noted a stranded whale at "La Bournemowthe"; a purely geographical reference to the uninhabited area around the mouth of the small river that drained the heathland between the towns of Poole and Christchurch.[2][3][4] The word bourne, meaning a small stream, is a derivative of burna, old English for a brook.[3][5] From the latter half of the 16th century "Bourne Mouth" seems to be preferred, being recorded as such in surveys and reports of the period, but this appears to have been shortened to "Bourne" after the area had started to develop.[3][4] A travel guide published in 1831 calls the place "Bourne Cliffe" or "Tregonwell's Bourne" after its founder.[6]The Spas of England, published ten years later, calls it simply, "Bourne"[7] as does an 1838 edition of the Hampshire Advertiser.[8] In the late 18th century "Bournemouth" became predominant, although its two-word form appears to have remained in use up until at least the early 20th century, turning up on a 1909 ordnance map.[2][9]

History[edit]

Section of a 1759 map of Hampshire by Isaac Taylor, showing the Manor of Christchurch and the area around the Bourne chine.

In the 12th century the region around the mouth of the River Bourne was part of the Hundred of Holdenhurst. The hundred later became the Liberty of Westover when it was also extended to include the settlements of North Ashley, Muscliff, Muccleshill, Throop, Iford and Tuckton, and incorporated into the Manor of Christchurch.[10] Although the Dorset and Hampshire region surrounding it had been the site of human settlement for thousands of years, Westover was largely a remote and barren heathland before 1800.[11] In 1574 the Earl of Southampton noted that the area was "Devoid of all habitation", and as late as 1795 the Duke of Rutland recorded that "... on this barren and uncultivated heath there was not a human to direct us".[3][12]

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries the Borough of Bournemouth would grow to encompass a number of ancient settlements along the River Stour, including Longham where a skull thought to be 5,500 years old was found in 1932. Bronze Age burials near Moordown, and the discovery of Iron Age pottery on the East Cliff in 1969, suggest there may have been settlements there during that period. Hengistbury Head, added to the borough in 1930, was the site of a much older Palaeolithic encampment.[13][14][15] During the latter half of the 16th century James Blount, 6th Baron Mountjoy, began mining for alum in the area, and at one time part of the heath was used for hunting, although by the late 18th century little evidence of either event remained.[16][17] No-one lived at the mouth of the Bourne river and the only regular visitors to the area before the 19th century were a few fishermen, turf cutters and gangs of smugglers.[18]

Photochrom of Invalids' Walk, 1890s

Prior to the Christchurch Inclosures Act 1802, more than 70% of the Westover area was common land. The act, together with the Inclosure Commissioners' Award of 1805, transferred five thousand acres into the hands of five private owners, including James Harris, 1st Earl of Malmesbury, and Sir George Ivison Tapps.[19][20] In 1809 the Tapps Arms public house appeared on the heath. A few years later, in 1812, the first official residents, retired army officer Lewis Tregonwell and his wife, moved into their new home built on land purchased from Tapps. The area was well known to Tregonwell who, during the Napoleonic wars, spent much of his time searching the heath and coastline for French invaders and smugglers.[21]

Anticipating that people would come to the area to indulge in the newly fashionable pastime of sea-bathing, an activity with perceived health benefits, Tregonwell built a series of villas on his land between 1816 and 1822, which he hoped to let out.[22][23] The common belief that pine-scented air was good for lung conditions, and in particular tuberculosis, prompted Tregonwell and Tapps to plant hundreds of pine trees. These early attempts to promote the town as a health resort meant that by the time Tregonwell had died in 1832, Bournemouth had grown into a small community with a scattering of houses, villas and cottages.[22][24] The town would ultimately grow up around the scattered pines and tree-lined walk to the beach, later to become known as the Invalids' Walk.[25][26]

After the death of Tapps in 1835, his son Sir George William Tapps-Gervis inherited his father's estate. He hired the young local architect Benjamin Ferrey to develop the coastal area on the east side of the stream.[27] Bournemouth's first hotel, later to become part of the Royal Bath Hotel, opened in 1838 and is one of the few buildings designed by Ferrey still standing.[24][27] Bournemouth started to grow at a faster rate as Tapps-Gervis began developing the area similarly to the south coast resorts of Weymouth and Brighton. Despite enormous investment, the town's share of the market remained modest.[25] In 1841 Tapps-Gervis invited the physician and writer Augustus Granville to stay. Granville was the author of The Spas of England, which described health resorts around the country, and as a result of his visit he included a chapter on Bournemouth in the second edition of his book. The publication of the book, and the increase in visitors seeking the medicinal use of seawater and the pine-scented air, helped the town to grow and establish itself as an early tourist destination.[28][29]

Photochrom of the entrance to the pier, 1890s

In the 1840s Benjamin Ferrey was replaced by Decimus Burton, whose plans for Bournemouth included the construction of a garden alongside the Bourne stream, an idea first mooted by Granville. The fields south of the road crossing (later Bournemouth Square) were drained and laid out with shrubberies and walks. Many of these paths, including the Invalids' Walk, remain in the town today.[29][30] A second suggestion of Granville's, a sanatorium, was completed in 1855 and greatly raised Bournemouth's profile as a place for recuperation.[31]

At a time when the most convenient way to arrive in the town was by sea, a pier was considered to be a necessity. Holdenhurst Parish Council were reluctant to find the money, and an attempt to raise the money privately in 1847 had only succeeded in financing a small 100 feet (30 m) jetty.[32] The Bournemouth Improvement Act of 1856 granted greater financial autonomy to the town and a pier was approved that year. A number of wooden structures were built before an 838 feet (255 m) cast iron design by Eugenius Birch was completed in 1880.[32][33] Under the Act, a board of 13 Commissioners was established to build and organise the expanding infrastructure of the town, such as paving, sewers, drainage, street lighting and street cleaning.[34]

The arrival of the railways in 1870 precipitated a massive growth in seaside and summer visitors to the town, especially from the Midlands and London. In 1880 the town had a population of 17,000, but by 1900, when railway connections to Bournemouth were at their most developed, the town's population had risen to 60,000 and it had become a favourite location for visiting artists and writers.[22] The town was improved greatly during this period through the efforts of Sir Merton Russell-Cotes, the town's mayor and a local philanthropist, who helped to establish the town's first library and museum. The Russell-Cotes Art Gallery & Museum was housed in his mansion, and after his death it was given to the town.[35] Bournemouth became a municipal borough in 1890 and a county borough in 1900.[34]

As Bournemouth's growth increased in the early 20th century, the town centre spawned theatres, cafés, two art deco cinemas and more hotels. Other new buildings included the war memorial in 1921 and the Bournemouth Pavilion, the town's concert hall and grand theatre, finished in 1925. The town escaped heavy bombing during the Second World War, but the sea front incurred great damage when it was fortified against invasion.[36] The cast iron lamposts and benches along the front were removed and melted down for munitions, as was much of the superstructure from both Bournemouth and Boscombe piers before they were breached to prevent their use by enemy ships.[36] The large amounts of barbed wire and anti-tank obstacles along the beach, and the mines at the foot of the chines, took two years to remove when peace was finally achieved.[37]

The Waterfront Cinema and Leisure Complex. (Now demolished)

The Royal National Lifeboat Institution stationed an inshore lifeboat at Bournemouth between 1965 and 1972. Coverage for the area has otherwise been provided from Poole Lifeboat Station.[38] The Bournemouth International Centre (BIC), a large conference and exhibition centre, was constructed near the seafront in 1984,[39] and in the following year Bournemouth became the first town in the United Kingdom to introduce and use CCTV cameras for public street-based surveillance.[24]

The Waterfront complex, which was intended to hold an IMAX cinema, was constructed on the seafront in 1998.[40] The 19m (62 ft)-high concrete and smoked glass building featured a wavy roof design, but was despised by residents and visitors alike because it blocked views of the bay and the Isle of Purbeck.[40][41] In 2005 it was voted the most hated building in England in a 10,000-people poll conducted by the Channel 4 programme 'Demolition', and was pulled down in Spring 2013.[40][42] The site is to be used as an outdoor event arena. The council still plan a larger redevelopment of the site and adjoining council land in the long term.

In 2012 Bournemouth was unsuccessful in its bid for city status, losing out to Chelmsford in competition with 26 other towns to commemorate Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee.[43]

Governance[edit]

Bournemouth Town Hall was built in the Victorian period, originally serving as a hotel for visitors to the town.

Historically Bournemouth was part of Hampshire, with neighbouring Poole, just to the west of the border, in Dorset. At the time of the 1974 local government re-organisation, it was considered desirable that the whole of the Poole/Bournemouth urban area should be part of the same county. Bournemouth therefore became part of the non-metropolitan county of Dorset on 1 April 1974.[34] On 1 April 1997, Bournemouth became a unitary authority, independent from Dorset County Council.[44] For the purposes of the Lieutenancy it remains part of the ceremonial county of Dorset.

For local elections the district is divided into 18 wards,[45] and the Bournemouth Borough Council is elected every four years.[46] In the 2011 local elections the Conservatives held overall control, winning 45 of the available 51 seats.[47] The Council elects a Mayor and Deputy Mayor annually.[48] For 2013–14 the mayor is Rod Cooper.[49]

Bournemouth is represented by two parliamentary constituencies in the House of Commons; Bournemouth East and Bournemouth West.[50] In the 2010 general election, the former was held for the Conservatives by Tobias Elwood with 48.4% of the vote, while the latter was also held for the Conservatives by Connor Burns with 45.1%.[51][52]

Geography[edit]

Bournemouth Beach and Boscombe Pier

Bournemouth is located approximately 94 miles (151 km) southwest of London at 50°43′12″N 1°52′48″W / 50.72000°N 1.88000°W / 50.72000; -1.88000Coordinates: 50°43′12″N 1°52′48″W / 50.72000°N 1.88000°W / 50.72000; -1.88000.[53] The borough borders the neighbouring boroughs of Poole and Christchurch to the west and east respectively and the East Dorset District to the north. Poole Bay lies to the South.[54][55] The River Stour forms a natural boundary to the north and east, terminating at Christchurch Harbour;[55][56] while the River Bourne rises in Poole and flows through the middle of Bournemouth town centre, into the English Channel.[57] The towns of Poole, Bournemouth and Christchurch form the South East Dorset conurbation with a combined population of over 400,000. Bournemouth is both a retail and commercial centre.[58] Areas within Bournemouth include: Boscombe, Kinson, Southbourne, Springbourne, Throop, Westbourne and Winton.[59]

The area's geology has little variety, comprising almost entirely of Eocene clays which, prior to urbanisation, supported a heathland environment.[60][61] Patches of the original heath still remain, notably Turbary Common, a 36 Hectare site much of which is designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest.[62] This heathland habitat is home to all six species of native reptile, the Dartford Warbler and some important flora such as Sundew and Bog Asphodel. Small populations of Exmoor pony and Shetland cattle help to maintain the area.[63] Bournemouth is located directly to the east of the Jurassic Coast, a 95-mile (153 km) section of coastline designated a World Heritage Site in 2001.[64] Bournemouth's coastline stretches from Sandbanks to Christchurch Harbour and comprises mainly sandy beaches backed by gravel and sandy clay cliffs. These cliffs are cut by a number of chines which provide natural access to the shore.[65] At the easternmost point lies Hengistbury Head, a narrow peninsula that forms the southern shore of Christchurch Harbour. It is a local nature reserve and the site of a Bronze Age settlement.[66][67]

Climate[edit]

Due to its location on the south coast, Bournemouth has a temperate climate with moderate variation in annual and daily temperatures. From 1981 to 2010 the annual mean temperature was 10 to 11 °C (50 to 52 °F).[68] The warmest months are July and August, which have an average temperature range of 12 to 22 °C (54 to 72 °F), while the coolest months are January and February, which have an average temperature range of 1 to 8 °C (34 to 46 °F).[69] Average rainfall in Bournemouth is around 800 mm (31 in) annually, well below the national average of 1,126 millimetres.[70] Since 1960, temperature extremes as measured at Bournemouth Hurn Airport have ranged from 34.1 °C (93.4 °F) in August 1990,[71] down to −13.4 °C (7.9 °F) in January 1963.[72] The lowest temperature recorded in recent years was −10.4 °C (13.3 °F) in December 2010.[73]

Climate data for Bournemouth Hurn 10m asl, 1981–2010,[Note 1] Extremes 1960–
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.7
(58.5)
15.3
(59.5)
21.0
(69.8)
25.0
(77)
27.6
(81.7)
33.8
(92.8)
33.9
(93)
34.1
(93.4)
27.9
(82.2)
25.2
(77.4)
17.6
(63.7)
16.0
(60.8)
34.1
(93.4)
Average high °C (°F) 8.4
(47.1)
8.5
(47.3)
11.0
(51.8)
13.5
(56.3)
17.0
(62.6)
19.8
(67.6)
22.1
(71.8)
22.0
(71.6)
19.3
(66.7)
15.3
(59.5)
11.5
(52.7)
8.7
(47.7)
14.76
(58.56)
Average low °C (°F) 1.5
(34.7)
1.2
(34.2)
2.7
(36.9)
3.8
(38.8)
7.2
(45)
9.8
(49.6)
11.9
(53.4)
11.6
(52.9)
9.4
(48.9)
7.1
(44.8)
3.7
(38.7)
1.6
(34.9)
5.96
(42.73)
Record low °C (°F) −13.4
(7.9)
−10.9
(12.4)
−10.2
(13.6)
−5.7
(21.7)
−3.6
(25.5)
0.4
(32.7)
2.6
(36.7)
2.1
(35.8)
−1.4
(29.5)
−6.4
(20.5)
−9.6
(14.7)
−10.5
(13.1)
−13.4
(7.9)
Rainfall mm (inches) 86.9
(3.421)
62.5
(2.461)
64.7
(2.547)
53.9
(2.122)
49.5
(1.949)
51.6
(2.031)
47.8
(1.882)
51.8
(2.039)
65.3
(2.571)
100.7
(3.965)
100.5
(3.957)
100.0
(3.937)
835.2
(32.882)
Avg. rainy days 12.8 9.6 10.8 9.1 8.8 7.7 7.9 7.3 9.0 12.6 12.5 12.3 120.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 66.5 84.5 121.4 185.1 218.5 229.5 232.0 214.6 159.1 115.2 80.1 60.3 1,766.8
Source: Met Office[69]

Demography[edit]

Religious demography[74]
Religion % Population Religion % Population Religion % Population
Christian 57.1 Buddhist 0.7 Hindu 0.7
Jewish 0.7 Muslim 1.8 Sikh 0.1
Other religion 0.7 No religion 30.5 Not stated 7.8

The 2011 census records the population of Bournemouth as 183,491, comprising 91,386 males and 92,105 females, which equates to 49.8% and 50.2% of the population respectively.[75][76] The mean average age of all persons is 40 years.[77] With 4,000 residents per square kilometre, Bournemouth has the highest population density of any authority in the South-West region, and is the eighth most populated.[78]

Much of the population, 83.8%, describe their ethnicity as 'white British' while other white groups account for a further 8.1%. Asian groups; Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Chinese and other Asian, make up 3.9%. Black British, black African, black Caribbean and other black groups form 1.0% of the population, Those of a mixed race make up 2.3% of the population, and 0.9% are from other ethnic groups.[79]

Over 30% of residents said they weren't religious and 7.8% refused to say whether they were religious or not. Of those that said they were, Christians formed the largest group at 57.1% with Muslims the next largest at 1.8% of the population. Budhists, Hindus and Jews each have a 0.7% share and Sikhs 0.1%. Other religions make up 0.7%.[74]

Of all Bournemouth residents aged 16 or over, 19.1% had no qualifications at all, although 35% said they had between one and four O-levels, CSEs, GCSEs or equivalent, and 36.5% have more than five O-level equivalents (grade C and above), an A-level or two to three AS-levels. Those with an NVQ level 1 comprise 8.0% of the population while 15.2% have a level 2 NVQ, a City and Guilds craft certificate, BTEC or general diploma. Just over 20% of residents had two or more A-levels, four or more AS-Levels or an advanced diploma while 15.8% possessed a degree, such as a BA or BSc or a higher degree such as an MA or PhD. An NVQ level 4 or 5, HNC, HND, higher BTEC or higher diploma, is held by 4.2% and a professional qualification is held by 13.9% of residents. An apprenticeship has been completed by 6.3% of the population while 16.9% have some other work related or vocational qualification and 8.3% hold a foreign qualification.[80]

Historical population of Bournemouth
Year Population Year Population Year Population
1801 726 1871 13,160 1941 128,099
1811 738 1881 18,725 1951 144,531
1821 877 1891 34,098 1961 149,106
1831 1,104 1901 52,981 1971 153,906
1841 1,605 1911 82,424 1981 140,216
1851 2,029 1921 96,741 1991 158,711
1861 7,594 1931 113,557 2001 163,441
Historical population figures are for an area that equates to the modern Unitary Authority of Bournemouth[81]
Source: GIS / University of Portsmouth, A Vision of Britain through Time.[82]

Historically Bournemouth has suffered from negative rates of natural increase and has relied on immigration to maintain population growth. In 2007 however, births exceeded deaths for the first time, and this trend has continued through to 2011. This, coupled with a substantial increase in people moving into the area, has led to a sharp rise in the resident population since 2001.[78][83] Of the total population, 3.3% are 85 or over, compared to 2.2% nationally; however the largest group of people moving into the area are students in the 16-24-year age group, and 9% of the current population are between 20 and 24. In England this age group accounts for only 7%.[83]

Economy[edit]

Financial Services are crucial to the town's economy and Unisys is a major employer in the industry.

Similarly to the rest of Dorset, Bournemouth's economy is primarily in the service sector, which employed 95% of the workforce in 2010.[84] This was 10% higher than the average employment in the service sector for Great Britain and 11% higher than the South West.[84] Of particular importance are the financial and public service sectors which through 2011 continued to show sustained growth. Compared to the rest of the country, Bournemouth performed well in these two areas but under performed in transport and communications.[85]

The smallest geographical region for which Gross Value Added information is available is the NUTS3 area, Bournemouth and Poole. The latest figures, as of 2012, are for the year 2009 which showed that the Bournemouth and Poole area enjoyed the strongest annualised growth in the South-West region.[86][87] In 2009 the South West Regional Accounts showed that the Financial Services sector in Bournemouth was worth £1,031.8 million in Gross Value Added. Important employers in this sector include: JPMorgan, Nationwide Building Society, and the Liverpool Victoria, Unisys, and RIAS insurance companies.[87] The manufacturing sector is predominantly based in neighbouring Poole, but still employed 2% of the workforce in 2010 and 2.6% in 2011.[84][88][Note 2]

Tourism is also important to the local economy. In 2011, domestic and overseas visitors made more than 5.6 million trips to the town and spent over £460 million between them. The equivalent of 8,531 full-time jobs exist as a result which accounts for 15% of all employment in the town.[89] Bournemouth seafront is one of the UK's biggest attractions with 4.5 million visitors in 2011.[90]

With a third of all town centre businesses in the leisure industry, Bournemouth has a booming nightlife economy and is a popular destination for stag and hen parties.[91][92] These party-goers contribute £125 million a year to the economy and support 4,000 jobs. In 2010 the town was awarded a Purple Flag for providing a wide variety of night-time activities while maintaining the safety of both residents and visitors.[92] An independent report published in 2012 indicates there has been a rise in antisocial behaviour which it attributes to the increase in nightlife.[91]

Those of working age make up approximately 65% of Bournemouth's population and of these, 74.6% are economically active although not necessarily employed within the Bournemouth area.[87] Industry in Bournemouth employed more than 76,400 people in 2011 but not all of these were Bournemouth residents.[88] Of those employed in Bournemouth based industries, 29.32% were employed in the public administration, education and health sector. This compares favourably with Dorset, the South-West region, and the country as a whole, as do the other large sectors; distribution, hotels & restaurants (29.06%), and banking, finance and insurance (24.48%). 37.2% of Bournemouth's resident population are employed full-time while 13.3% are employed part-time. An additional 7.1% full-time workers are self-employed, 3.1% are self-employed part-time. Full-time students with jobs account for 5.3% and 3.8% are unemployed.[93]

The shopping streets are mostly pedestrianised with modern shopping malls, Victorian arcades and a large selection of bars, clubs and cafés. North of the centre there is an out-of-town shopping complex called Castlepoint. The 41 acre site has 40 units and was the largest shopping centre in the UK when it opened it 2003.[94] Other major shopping areas are situated in the districts of Westbourne and Boscombe.

Employment by sector (2011)[88]
Agriculture & Fishing Energy & Water Manufacturing Construction Distribution, Hotels & Restaurants Transport & Communication Banking, Finance & Insurance Public admin, Education & Health Other Industry
Bournemouth 0.00%* 0.52% 2.62% 3.14% 29.06% 6.28% 24.48% 29.32% 4.58%
Dorset 0.38%* 1.14% 11.16% 6.66% 27.58% 5.20% 13.51% 29.55% 4.82%
South West region 2.91% 1.25% 9.20% 4.92% 25.12% 7.16% 18.20% 27.25% 4.01%
England & Wales 1.55% 1.12% 8.59% 4.72% 22.96% 8.51% 21.40% 26.56% 4.59%
*Figures exclude farm agriculture

Culture[edit]

The Bournemouth International Centre (BIC) is a national conference and music venue in the town.
Bournemouth Pier including the Pier Theatre

Bournemouth is a tourist and regional centre for leisure, entertainment, culture and recreation. Local author and former mayor, Keith Rawlings, suggests that Bournemouth has a thriving youth culture due to its large university population and many language school students.[95][96] In recent years, Bournemouth has become a popular nightlife destination with UK visitors and many clubs, bars and restaurants are located within the town centre.[96][97] In a 2007 survey by First Direct, Bournemouth was found to be the happiest place in the UK, with 82% of people questioned saying they were happy with their lives.[98]

Major venues for concerts include BIC, Pavilion Theatre and O2 Academy.[99] Built in 1984, the BIC is also a popular place for party political conferences and has been used by all three major political parties.[100] Its four auditoria make it the largest venue on the south coast.[101] The O2 and Pavilion are older and are both Grade II listed buildings. The O2, which opened in 1895 as The Grand Pavilion Theatre, was initially used as a circus and later for music hall theatre. The Pavilion opened in 1929 as concert hall and tea room while also providing a venue for the municipal orchestra. It continues to provide traditional entertainment today, presenting West End stage shows, ballet and operas.[102][103][104] Bournemouth has more than 200 listed buildings, mainly from the Victorian and Edwardian eras, including three grade I churches; St Peter's, St Clement's and St Stephen's.[104]

The Russell-Cotes Museum is a Grade II* listed, villa completed in 1901. It houses artefacts and paintings collected by the Victorian philanthropist Merton Russell-Cotes and his wife during their extensive travels around the world.[105] The four art galleries display paintings by William Powell Frith, Edwin Landseer, Edwin Long, William Orchardson, Arthur Hughes, Albert Moore, and Dante Gabriel Rossetti.[106] It was Russell-Cotes who successfully campaigned to have a promenade built; it runs continuously along the Bournemouth and Poole shoreline.[107]

The Lower, Central and Upper Gardens are Grade II* public parks, leading for several miles down the valley of the River Bourne through the centre of the town to the sea.[108] Bournemouth has a further 425 acres (172 ha) of parkland. Initially serving to compensate for the loss of common rights after common land was enclosed in 1802, it was held in trust until 1889 when ownership passed to Bournemouth Corporation and the land became five public parks: King's Park, Queen's Park, Meyrick Park, Seafield Gardens and Redhill Common.[6][109]

One of Bournemouth's most noted cultural institutions is the Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra which was formed in 1893 under Dan Godfrey.[110][111] It became the first municipal orchestra in the country when in 1896, Bournemouth Borough Council took control and Godfrey was appointed musical director and head of the town's entertainments.[110][112] Originally playing three concerts a day during the summer season, in the great glass palm house known as the Winter Gardens;[111][113] the orchestra is now based in Poole and performs around 130 concerts a year across Southern England.[114]

Bournemouth is currently host to a number of festivals. The Bournemouth Food and Drink Festival is a ten-day event which combines a market with live cookery demonstrations.[115] The Arts by the Sea Festival is a mix of dance, film, theatre, literature, and music[116] which was launched in 2012 by the local university, The Arts University Bournemouth, and is set to become an annual event.[117] The Bourne Free carnival is held in the town each year during the summer. Initially a gay pride festival, it has become a celebration of diversity and inclusion.[118] Since 2008, Bournemouth has held its own air festival over four days in August.[119] This has featured displays from the Red Arrows as well as appearances from the Yakovlevs, Blades, Team Guinot Wing-Walkers, Battle of Britain Memorial Flight including Lancaster, Hurricane, Spitfire and also the last flying Vulcan. The festival has also seen appearances from modern aircraft such as the Eurofighter Typhoon.[120] The air festival attracts up to a million people over the four-day event.[121][122]

The grave of writer Mary Shelley and her parents including Mary Wollstonecraft in St. Peter's Church, Bournemouth.

The town was especially rich in literary associations during the late 19th century and earlier years of the 20th century. P. C. Wren author of Beau Geste, Frederick E. Smith, writer of the 633 Squadron books, and Beatrice Webb, later Potter, all lived in the town.[123] Paul Verlaine taught at Bournemouth a preparatory school[124][125] and the writer J. R. R. Tolkien, spent 30 years taking holidays in Bournemouth, staying in the same room at the Hotel Miramar. He eventually retired to the area in the 1960s with his wife Edith, where they lived close to Branksome Chine. Tolkien died in September 1973 at his home in Bournemouth but was buried in Oxfordshire. The house was demolished in 2008.[126]

Percy Florence Shelley lived at Boscombe Manor; a house he had built for his mother, Mary Shelley, the writer and author of the gothic horror novel, Frankenstein. Mary died before the house was completed but she was buried in Bournemouth, in accordance with her wishes. The family plot in St Peter's churchyard also contains her parents William Godwin and Mary Wollstonecraft, and the heart of her husband, Percy Bysshe Shelley.[127] Robert Louis Stevenson wrote The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and most of his novel Kidnapped from his house "Skerryvore" on the west cliff, Westbourne.[128] Count Vladimir Chertkov established a Tolstoyan publishing house with other Russian exiles in Iford Waterworks at Southbourne, and under the 'Free Age Press' imprint, published the first edition of several works by Leo Tolstoy.[123] Author Bill Bryson worked for a time with the Bournemouth Echo newspaper and wrote about the town in his 1995 work Notes from a Small Island.[129]

Landmarks[edit]

St Peter's Church, completed in 1879

Bournemouth has three Grade I listed churches, St Peter's and St Stephen's in the town centre and St Clemment's in Boscombe.[104] St Peter's was the town's first church, completed in 1879 and designed by George Edmund Street.[130] In his book, England's Thousand Best Churches, Simon Jenkins describes the chancel as "one of the richest Gothic Revival interiors in England", while the 202 feet (62 m) spire dominates the surrounding skyline.[131][132] When the architect, John Loughborough Pearson, designed St Stephen's his aim was to,"bring people to their knees". It has a high stone groined roof, twin aisles and a triforium gallery, although the tower lacks a spire.[133][134]

The Grade II listed entrance to Boscombe Pier. "Britain's coolest pier" according to fashion designer Wayne Hemingway.

The borough has two piers: Bournemouth Pier, close to the town centre, and the shorter but architecturally more important Boscombe Pier. Designed by the architect Archibald Smith, Boscombe Pier opened in 1889 as a 600 feet (180 m) structure which was extended to 750 feet (230 m) in 1927 when a new head was constructed.[135] Added in 1958, the boomerang-shaped entrance kiosk and overhanging concrete roof is now a Grade II listed building. In 1961 a theatre was added but this was demolished in 2008 when the rest of the pier was renovated.[135][136] In 2009, fashion designer Wayne Hemingway described Boscombe Pier as "Britain's coolest pier". It was also voted Pier of the Year 2010 by the National Piers Society.[137]

In 1856, Bournemouth Pier was a simple, wooden jetty. This was replaced by a longer, wooden pier five years later, and a cast iron structure in 1880.[33] Two extensions to the pier in 1894 and 1905, brought the total length to 305 metres (1000 feet). After World War II, the structure was strengthened to allow for the addition of a Pier Theatre, finally constructed in 1960. Between 1979 and 1981, a £1.7 million redevelopment programme, saw a great deal of reconstruction work, and the addition of a large two-storey, octagonal-shaped entrance building.[33]

Built as the Mont Dore Hotel in 1881, Bournemouth Town Hall was designated a Grade II listed building in 2001. Designed by Alfred Bedborough in the French, Italian and neo-classical styles, the foundation stone was laid by King Oscar II of Sweden and Norway and the hotel opened in 1885.[138][139][140] The buff brick exterior features Bath stone dressings and terracotta friezes. The main entrance is sited within a projected façade that reaches to the eaves and is topped with a pediment, while above sits a belvedere with turrets and a pavilion roof.[139] During the First World War the hotel was used as a hospital for British and Indian soldiers and after as a convalescent home. It never opened as a hotel again and was purchased by Bournemouth Borough Council in 1919.[141]

Built in the Art Deco style in 1929, situated close to the seafront, the Pavilion Theatre was at the time considered to be the greatest ever municipal enterprise for the benefit of entertainment.[142] Built from brick and stone, the frontage features square Corinthian columns.[138] Still a popular venue, it is today a Grade II listed building.[142]

The Bournemouth Eye is a helium-filled balloon attached to a steel cable in the town's lower gardens. The spherical balloon is 69 m (226 ft) in circumference and carries an enclosed, steel gondola. Rising to a height of 192 m (630 ft), it provides a panoramic view of the surrounding area for up to 28 passengers.[143] [144]

Sport[edit]

The town has a professional football club, AFC Bournemouth, known as the Cherries, who were promoted to the Championship in 2013,[145] AFC Bournemouth play at the Goldsands Stadium near Boscombe in Kings' Park, 2 miles (3 km) east of the town centre.[146]

Bournemouth Rugby Club, which competes in the National League Division Two South, has its home at the Bournemouth Sports Club, next to Bournemouth Airport, where it hosts an annual Rugby sevens tournament and festival.[147][148][149] Bournemouth Cricket Club also plays at Bournemouth Sports Club and is reported to be one of biggest cricket clubs in the country. Its first team plays in the Southern Premier League.[150] Dean Park is a former county cricket ground, once home to Hampshire County Cricket Club and later Dorset County Cricket Club. Today it is a venue for university cricket.[151]

The BIC has become a venue for a round of the Premier League Darts Championship organised by the Professional Darts Corporation.[152]

The Westover and Bournemouth Rowing Club, is the town's coastal rowing club. Established in 1865, it is reported to be the oldest sporting association in the county. The club regularly competes in regattas organised by the Hants and Dorset Amateur Rowing Association which take place on the South Coast of England between May and September.[153]

Other watersports popular in Poole Bay include sailing and surfing, and there are a number of local schools for the beginner to learn either sport.[154] Bournemouth has the third largest community of surfers in the UK and in 2009 an artificial surf reef, one of only four in the world, was constructed there.[155] The reef failed to deliver the promised grade 5 wave, suffered a series of delays and ran over budget, finally costing £3.2 million. It has since closed.[156][157]

Transport[edit]

Road[edit]

The principal route to the town centre is the A338 spur road, a dual carriageway that connects to the A31 close to the Hampshire border. The A31 joins the M27 at Southampton and from there the M3 to London and the A34 to the Midlands and the North can be accessed.[158] The main road west is the A35 to Honiton in Devon which runs through the South East Dorset Conurbation and continues east as far as Southampton, albeit as a non-primary route.[159][160] The A350 in the neighbouring borough of Poole provides the only northern route out of the conurbation.[161] National Express coaches serve Bournemouth Travel Interchange & Bournemouth University. There are frequent departures to London Victoria Coach Station and Heathrow Airport and Gatwick Airports.[162][163] Local buses are provided mainly by two companies, More Bus, the former National Bus Company subsidiary and now owned by the Go-Ahead group, and Yellow Buses, the former Bournemouth Council-owned company and successors to Bournemouth Corporation Transport, which began operating trams in 1902.[163][164] Other operators serving the town include Damory Coaches and the Shaftesbury & District bus company.[163]

Rail[edit]

Bournemouth railway station, built in 1885, with a replica Victorian iron and glass roof.

There are two stations in the town, Bournemouth railway station and Pokesdown railway station to the east.[165] Parts of western Bournemouth can also be reached from Branksome station. All three stations lie on the South Western Main Line from Weymouth to London Waterloo.[166] South West Trains operates a comprehensive service along this line, which also serves Southampton, Winchester and Basingstoke to the east, and Poole, Wareham, and Dorchester to the west.[166][167] Before its closure in 1966, Bournemouth was also served by the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway which provided direct access to Somerset and the Midlands.[168]

Air[edit]

Originally an RAF airfield, Bournemouth Airport was transferred to the Civil Aviation Authority in 1944 and was the UK's only international airport before the opening of Heathrow in 1946.[169] Acquired by the Manchester Airports Group in 2001, the airport underwent a £45 million phased expansion programme between 2007 and 2011.[170][171][172] Situated in the village of Hurn on the periphery of Bournemouth, the airport is 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) from the town centre and serves around 600,000 passengers annually.[173] There are direct flights to more than 35 international destinations in 19 countries including: Croatia, Egypt, Finland, France, Greece, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey and the United States.[173]

Education[edit]

The Bournemouth local education authority was first set up in 1903 and remained in existence until local government was reorganised in 1974 when Bournemouth lost its County Borough status and became part of the county of Dorset. Under the later reforms of 1997, Bournemouth became a unitary authority and the Bournemouth local education authority was re-established.[174][175]

The local council operates a two-tier comprehensive system whereby pupils attend one of the 26 primary schools in the borough before completing their education at secondary school.[176] Bournemouth is one of the minority of local authorities in England still to maintain selective education, with two grammar schools (one for boys, one for girls) and ten secondary modern/comprehensive schools.[177] There are also a small number of independent schools in the town, and a further education college.[178] Bournemouth has two universities: Bournemouth University and Arts University Bournemouth, both of which are located across the boundary in neighbouring Poole.[179]

In 2012, 60.7% of the borough's school leavers gained 5 GCSEs of grade C or above. This was slightly better than the national average of 59.4% and above the average for the rest of Dorset, with 58.8% of pupils from the local authority of Poole, and 54.1% from the remainder of the county, managing to do likewise.[180]

Religion[edit]

St Stephen's Church, Bournemouth, built in 1898

The 2011 census revealed that 57.1% of the borough's population are Christian. With all other religions combined only totalling 4.7%, Christianity is by far the largest religious group.[74] 40% of the borough falls within the Church of England Diocese of Salisbury.[181] The remainder, to the east, belongs to the Diocese of Winchester.[182] The Roman Catholic Diocese of Portsmouth incorporates most of Bournemouth with the exception of two small parishes to the west which are covered by the Diocese of Plymouth.[183][184]

The borough has several notable examples of Victorian church architecture[104] including the previously mentioned St. Peter's, the churchyard of which contains the grave of the author Mary Shelley;[185] St Stephen's Church, completed in 1898 for services under the influence of the Oxford Movement[132][186] and St Clement's, one of the first churches to be designed by John Dando Sedding, built in Boscombe in 1871.[187] To serve a rapidly expanding population a third church was built in the town centre in 1891. St Augustin's church was commissioned by Henry Twells who was 'priest-in-charge' there until 1900.[188][189] The largest church in the town is the Richmond Hill St Andrew's Church, part of the United Reformed Church. Built in 1865 and enlarged in 1891, it has a seating capacity of 1,100 and is unusually ornate for a non-conformist church.[190][191]

Few purpose-built places of worship exist in borough for faiths other than Christianity although with a higher proportion of Jewish residents than the national average, there are three synagogues.[192] Chabad-Lubavitch of Bournemouth is a branch of the worldwide movement. The Bournemouth Reform Synagogue, formerly known as Bournemouth New Synagogue, is a Reform Jewish synagogue with over 700 members.[193][194] There is also the architecturally notable Bournemouth Hebrew Congregation synagogue built in 1911 with an Art Nouveau take on the Moorish Revival style.[195]

The Bournemouth Islamic Centre provides information, support and a place of worship for the Islamic community. There is also a separate mosque in the town.[196]

Those who are not religious, over 30% of the population, are welcomed by the Dorset Humanists who hold bi-monthly meetings in the borough and are affiliated to the British Humanist Association.[74][197]

Naming conventions[edit]

The word 'Bournemouth' is often used loosely to describe the South East Dorset conurbation, which also contains the neighbouring towns of Poole, Christchurch, Wimborne Minster, and Verwood.[58] As a result, "Bournemouth" is used in the following terms:

Twin towns[edit]

Bournemouth is twinned with:[202]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In accordance with World Meteorological Organization (WMO) recommendations, the Met Office maintains long-term averages of the UK climate, based on standard 30-year periods. The latest 30-year period is for 1981–2010.
  2. ^ Agriculture data is excluded from ONS figures at a sub-regional level, therefore an estimate has been made using DEFRA 2010 data. As there is little farming within the Bournemouth area, this has a minimal effect.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.lovemytown.co.uk/Populations/TownsTable1.asp
  2. ^ a b Ashley and Ashley (p.52)
  3. ^ a b c d Edwards (p.24)
  4. ^ a b Andrews & Henson (p.7)
  5. ^ Ashley & Ashley (p.51)
  6. ^ a b Ashley & Ashley (p.9)
  7. ^ Edwards (p.39)
  8. ^ Edwards (p.32)
  9. ^ Andrews and Henson (p.7)
  10. ^ Page, William, ed. (1912). "The liberty of Westover: with Holdenhurst and Bournemouth". A History of the County of Hampshire 5. Constable & Co. pp. 133–137. 
  11. ^ Edwards (pp. 1–2)
  12. ^ Cave (p.4)
  13. ^ Ashley and Ashley (p.7)
  14. ^ Edwards (pp.1–3)
  15. ^ Stannard, Michael (1999). The Makers of Christchurch: A Thousand Year story. Natula Publications. p. 223. ISBN 978-1-897887-22-6. 
  16. ^ Ashley and Ashley (p.31)
  17. ^ Edwards (pp.2 & 27)
  18. ^ Edwards (pp.4 & 38)
  19. ^ Andrews & Henson (p.8)
  20. ^ Ashley and Ashley (pp.18–19)
  21. ^ John Walker (March 2010). "The Beginnings of Bournemouth". Dorset Life Magazine. Retrieved 23 October 2012. 
  22. ^ a b c Ashley & Ashley (p.6)
  23. ^ Edwards (p.28)
  24. ^ a b c "Bournemouth, Garden by the Sea". Diamond Jubilee Civic Honours Bid. Bournemouth County Council. May 2011. p. 3. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  25. ^ a b Edwards (pp.31–32)
  26. ^ Ashley & Ashley (p.17)
  27. ^ a b Emery (p.16)
  28. ^ Edwards (pp.38–40)
  29. ^ a b Ashley & Ashley (pp.10–11)
  30. ^ Edwards (pp.70–71)
  31. ^ Emery (p.21)
  32. ^ a b Emery (p.24)
  33. ^ a b c "History of Bournemouth Pier". National Piers Society. 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2012. 
  34. ^ a b c Ashley and Ashley (p.28)
  35. ^ Ashley and Ashley (p.22)
  36. ^ a b Emery (p.100)
  37. ^ Emery (p.102)
  38. ^ Denton, Tony (2009). Handbook 2009. Shrewsbury: Lifeboat Enthusiasts Society. p. 59. 
  39. ^ Ashley and Ashley (p.24)
  40. ^ a b c Steven Morris (20 January 2010). "England's most hated building to be demolished". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 February 2013. 
  41. ^ "Work to lower height of Dorset's Imax building starts". BBC Dorset. 18 March 2011. Retrieved 10 February 2013. 
  42. ^ "Cinema to be demolished to restore famous view". The Telegraph. 21 January 2010. Retrieved 10 February 2013. 
  43. ^ Slade, Darren (14 March 2012). "Bournemouth loses bid for city status". Bournemouth Echo. Retrieved 6 April 2012. 
  44. ^ "History of Bournemouth". Bournemouth County Council. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  45. ^ "Local Elections 2011". Bournemouth Borough Council. Retrieved 23 August 2013. 
  46. ^ "Final recommendations on thefuture electoral arrangements for Bournemouth". Report to the Secretary of State for Transport, Local Government and the Regions. Local Government Commission for England. December 2001. p. vii. Retrieved 27 September 2013. 
  47. ^ "Bournemouth at a glance". 2011 council election results. BBC. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  48. ^ "Mayor making and annual civic service". Bournemouth Borough Council. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  49. ^ "Mayor's biography". Mayor 2013–2014. Bournemouth Borough Council. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  50. ^ "Find your MP". UK Parliament. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  51. ^ "Bournemouth East". 2010 election results. BBC. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  52. ^ "Bournemouth West". 2010 election results. BBC. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  53. ^ Straight line distances from:Daft Logic. "Google Maps Distance Calculator". Retrieved 30 July 2010. 
  54. ^ "Rural Atlas". Disadvantaged Districts. Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Retrieved 27 November 2012. 
  55. ^ a b "A picture of Bournemouth – Overview". Wards and ward profiles. Bournemouth Borough Council. p. 3. Retrieved 27 November 2012. 
  56. ^ Stuart Clarke. "River Path". The Stour in Bournemouth. England in Particular. Retrieved 27 November 2012. 
  57. ^ "About the Bourne Stream". Bourne Stream Partnership. 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2013. 
  58. ^ a b "Final First Detailed Proposals for RSS Sub-Regional Policies for South East Dorset.". South East Dorset Joint Study Area Reports. Bournemouth, Poole and Dorset County Councils. November 2005. p. 2. Retrieved 18 November 2012. 
  59. ^ "A picture of Bournemouth – Overview". Wards and ward profiles. Bournemouth Borough Council. p. 2. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  60. ^ "Geology of Britain Viewer". British Geological Survey. Retrieved 27 September 2013. 
  61. ^ Wightman, R. (1983). Portrait of Dorset. London: Robert Hale. pp. 22–25. ISBN 0-7090-0844-9. 
  62. ^ "Turbary Common". Dorset For You. 2011. Retrieved 29 November 2012. 
  63. ^ "Turbary Common Local Nature Reserve". Bournemouth Borough Council. 2011. Retrieved 29 November 2012. 
  64. ^ "Jurassic Coast Leaflet Download". Jurassic Coast Partnership. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  65. ^ "Seafront Strategy 2007–2011". Bournemouth Borough Council. p. 10. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  66. ^ "Hengistbury Head Management Plan". Bournemouth Borough Council. 2005. pp. 15 & 27. Retrieved 4 December 2012. 
  67. ^ "Hengistbury Head and its Antiquities". Pastscape. English Heritage. 2005. Retrieved 4 December 2012. 
  68. ^ "Mean Temperature Annual Average". Met Office. 2010. Retrieved 25 August 2013. 
  69. ^ a b "Hurn Climatic Averages 1981–2010". Met Office. Retrieved 23 December 2012. 
  70. ^ "Mean Annual Rainfall Average". Met Office. 2010. Retrieved 25 August 2013. 
  71. ^ "1990 temperature". KNMI. Retrieved 25 August 2013. 
  72. ^ "1963 temperature". KNMI. Retrieved 25 August 2013. 
  73. ^ "2010 temperature". UKMO. Retrieved 25 August 2013. 
  74. ^ a b c d "Religious group, local authorities in England and Wales". 2011 Census. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 7 April 2013. 
  75. ^ "Male usual resident population by five-year age group, local authorities in the United Kingdom". 2011 Census. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 6 April 2013. 
  76. ^ "Female usual resident population by five-year age group, local authorities in the United Kingdom". 2011 Census. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 6 April 2013. 
  77. ^ "Age structure, local authorities in England and Wales". 2011 Census. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 6 April 2013. 
  78. ^ a b "Population trends in Bournemouth". Bournemouth Borough Council. October 2012. Retrieved 21 April 2013. 
  79. ^ "Ethnic group, local authorities in England and Wales". 2011 Census. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 7 April 2013. 
  80. ^ "Highest qualification, local authorities in England and Wales". 2011 Census. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 April 2013. 
  81. ^ "Population". A Vision of Britain Through Time. Retrieved 25 April 2013. 
  82. ^ "Historical population of Bournemouth". A Vision of Britain Through Time. Retrieved 16 April 2013. 
  83. ^ a b "Health and Wellbeing in Bournemouth: Strategic Assessment". Joint Strategic Needs Assessment. Bournemouth Borough Council. 2012. Retrieved 21 April 2013. 
  84. ^ a b c "Key Facts – Economy". Dorset For You. 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  85. ^ "Economy". Bournemouth Statistics. Bournemouth Borough Council. 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2013. 
  86. ^ "Economic Performance, State of the South West 2011". South West Observatory. 2011. Retrieved 10 April 2013. 
  87. ^ a b c "Current Local Economic Overview". Bournemouth Economic Bulletin. Bournemouth Borough Council. February 2012. Retrieved 25 February 2013. 
  88. ^ a b c Business Register and Employment Services (2011). "Employment by Sector". Bournemouth Statistics – Economy. Bournemouth Borough Council. Retrieved 29 March 2013. 
  89. ^ "Bournemouth". Value of Tourism. South West Research Company. 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  90. ^ "Economy Tourism Scrutiny Panel Minutes". Bournemouth Borough Council. 5 October 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2013. 
  91. ^ a b Rebecca Wearn (10 January 2013). "Bournemouth shines light on night time economy". BBC. Retrieved 28 March 2013. 
  92. ^ a b "Statement of Licensing Policy". Bournemouth Borough Council. 1 March 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  93. ^ "Economic activity, local authorities in England and Wales". 2011 Census. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 13 April 2013. 
  94. ^ "Centre may be shut over Christmas". BBC. 1 December 2005. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  95. ^ "Bournemouth, Garden by the Sea". Diamond Jubilee Civic Honours Bid. Bournemouth County Council. May 2011. pp. 9 & 10. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  96. ^ a b Rawlings (p.145)
  97. ^ "Bournemouth's Stag Culture". BBC Dorset. 26 October 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2012. 
  98. ^ "Bournemouth happiest town in UK". BBC News. 8 March 2007. Retrieved 6 September 2007. 
  99. ^ "Cinemas and theatres". Dorset For You. Dorset County Council. Retrieved 21 May 2011. 
  100. ^ "Bournemouth venue marks 25 years". BBC Dorset. Retrieved 20 December 2012. 
  101. ^ "About the BIC". BIC and Pavillion Theatres. Retrieved 20 December 2012. 
  102. ^ "About the O2 Academy". Academy Music Group. Retrieved 20 December 2012. 
  103. ^ "The Lively Old Lady". Dorset Life Magazine. Retrieved 20 December 2012. 
  104. ^ a b c d "Bournemouth's listed buildings". Bournemouth County Council. Retrieved 8 September 2012. 
  105. ^ "Background". Russell-Cotes Art Gallery and Museum. 2008. Archived from the original on 5 January 2013. Retrieved 4 January 2013. 
  106. ^ "The collections". Russell-Cotes Art Gallery and Museum. 2008. Archived from the original on 5 January 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2013. 
  107. ^ Rawlings (p.25)
  108. ^ "Bournemouth, Garden by the Sea". Diamond Jubilee Civic Honours Bid. Bournemouth County Council. May 2011. p. 2. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  109. ^ Rawlings (p.10)
  110. ^ a b Rawlings (p.39)
  111. ^ a b Ashley & Ashley (p.59)
  112. ^ Ashley & Ashley (pp.59–60)
  113. ^ Rawlings (pp.39–40)
  114. ^ "Orchestra". Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra. Archived from the original on 4 March 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2009. 
  115. ^ Findley, Nick (1 July 2012). "Bournemouth Food and Drink Festival is hot stuff". Dorset Echo. Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  116. ^ "Bournemouth Arts Festival by the Sea". Official Tourist Guide. Bournemouth Borough Council. Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  117. ^ "AUCB helps launch Arts by the Sea Festival". The Arts University College at Bournemouth. Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  118. ^ "Bournemouth pride parade award is tribute to organiser". BBC News Dorset. 6 July 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  119. ^ "Bournemouth Air Festival 2008". Bournemouth Echo. 2008. Retrieved 6 January 2013. 
  120. ^ "Plane fascinating – Bournemouth Air Festival factfile". Bournemouth Echo. 2012. Archived from the original on 1 June 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2013. 
  121. ^ "Bournemouth Air Festival 2012". Bournemouth Echo. 2012. Archived from the original on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2013. 
  122. ^ "One million people at air show". BBC Dorset. 2009. Retrieved 29 September 2013. 
  123. ^ a b Rawlings (pp.131–132)
  124. ^ Delahave, Ernst (22 May 2010). "Biography of Paul Verlaine". The Left Anchor. Retrieved 11 January 2013. 
  125. ^ Rawlings (p.132)
  126. ^ Legg, Rodney (November 2009). "Tolkien in Bournemouth and Dorset". Dorset Life Magazine. Retrieved 12 January 2013. 
  127. ^ "Mary Shelley's Bournemouth legacy". BBC Dorset. 4 February 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2013. 
  128. ^ Rawlings (p.131)
  129. ^ "Notes from a Small Island | Bill Bryson | Chapter Seven". Read Free Online Publishing. 8 May 1947. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  130. ^ "Who We Are". St Peter's Church, Bournemouth. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  131. ^ Jenkins, Simon, 'England's Thousand Best Churches', Allen Lane, 1999, p.148
  132. ^ a b Ashley & Ashley (p.45)
  133. ^ "Internal Architecture". St Stephen's Church, Bournemouth. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  134. ^ "External Architecture". St Stephen's Church, Bournemouth. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  135. ^ a b "Boscombe pier". National Piers Society. 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  136. ^ "Neck or Entrance building at Boscombe Pier". National Heritage List for England. English Heritage. 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  137. ^ "Britain's coolest pier". Bournemouth Borough Council. 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  138. ^ a b Ashley & Ashley (p.43)
  139. ^ a b "The Town Hall". National Heritage List for England. English Heritage. 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2013. 
  140. ^ Edwards (p.42)
  141. ^ Edwards (p.43)
  142. ^ a b "Bournemouth Pavilion". Local Histories. BBC Dorset. 2009. Retrieved 8 September 2012. 
  143. ^ "Bournemouth Balloon Facts". S&D Leisure. 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  144. ^ "About Us". S&D Leisure. 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  145. ^ "Cherries Open Top Bus Tour". Bournemouth Echo. 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2013. 
  146. ^ "New sponsor deal for Cherries stadium". Bournemouth Echo. 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2013. 
  147. ^ "Rugby Sevens". 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2013. 
  148. ^ "National League Tables". National Clubs Association. 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2013. 
  149. ^ "Bournemouth Rugby Club". Pitchero Rugby Union Network. 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  150. ^ "Bournemouth cricket club (about)". Bournemouth Cricket Club. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  151. ^ "Dean Park Cricket Ground". Bournemouth University. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  152. ^ "Premier League Darts 2013 Dates and Venues". Live Darts. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  153. ^ "About". Westover and Bournemouth Rowing Club. 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013. 
  154. ^ "Watersports in Bournemouth". Watersporty. Retrieved 7 September 2013. 
  155. ^ "Boscombe's Surf Reef Project.". British Broadcasting Corporation. 2 November 2009. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  156. ^ "Rectifying Boscombe's Surf Reef.". Daily Echo. Retrieved 23 July 2011. 
  157. ^ "Boscombe surf reef 'should be demolished'.". BBC Dorset. Retrieved 29 September 2013. 
  158. ^ "A338 Bournemouth Spur Road – Major Scheme Business Case". Dorset for You. 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2013. 
  159. ^ "Roader's Digest – A35". SABRE. 2012. Retrieved 15 June 2013. 
  160. ^ "Protest pensioner halts A35 traffic in Dorset". BBC News. 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013. 
  161. ^ "North Dorset MP, Robert Walter, to the House". Hansard. 2003. Retrieved 15 June 2013. 
  162. ^ "Services to Bournemouth (Coach Station Section)". National Express. 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2013. 
  163. ^ a b c "Public Transport". Bournemouth Borough Council. 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2013. 
  164. ^ "Yellow Buses – History". Yellow Buses. 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2013. 
  165. ^ "Getting Here". Bournemouth Official Tourist Guide. Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
  166. ^ a b "South West Main Line, Route Utilisation Strategy". Network Rail. 2006. Retrieved 26 June 2013. 
  167. ^ "Route 3, South West Main Line". Network Rail. 2008. Retrieved 27 June 2013. 
  168. ^ "Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway History". Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway Trust. 2002. Retrieved 29 September 2013. 
  169. ^ "Our History". Bournemouth International Airport Limited. 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2013. 
  170. ^ -acquired by MAG "Airport in give away sale". Bournemouth Echo. 2001. Retrieved 1 July 2013. 
  171. ^ "Bournemouth airports terminal on course". Bournemouth Echo. 2010. Retrieved 30 June 2013. 
  172. ^ "Bourne Again – New terminal unveiled". Bournemouth International Airport Limited. 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2013. 
  173. ^ a b "Bournemouth Airport Facts & Figures". Bournemouth International Airport Limited. 2013. Retrieved 26 June 2013. 
  174. ^ Ashley & Ashley (p.50)
  175. ^ Edwards (pp.85–87)
  176. ^ "A Picture of Bournemouth". Bournemouth Borough Council. 2011. pp. 11–12. Retrieved 21 November 2012. 
  177. ^ Edwards (p.87)
  178. ^ "A Picture of Bournemouth". Bournemouth Borough Council. 2011. p. 12. Retrieved 21 November 2012. 
  179. ^ "A Picture of Bournemouth". Bournemouth Borough Council. 2011. p. 13. Retrieved 21 November 2012. 
  180. ^ "Regional Picture: GCSE Results 2012". BBC. 2013. Retrieved 16 September 2013. 
  181. ^ "Diocese". Diocese of Salisbury. 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012. 
  182. ^ "Archdeaconry of Bournemouth". Diocese of Winchester. 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012. 
  183. ^ "Portsmouth Diocese Directory". Roman Catholic Diocese of Portsmouth. 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2012. 
  184. ^ "Plymouth Diocese Directory". Roman Catholic Diocese of Plymouth. 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2012. 
  185. ^ "Frankenstein author Mary Shelley's Bournemouth legacy". BBC Dorset. 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  186. ^ "Origins". St Stephen's. Bournemouth Town Centre Parish. 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013. 
  187. ^ "Church of St Clement". Listed Buildings. English Heritage. 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013. 
  188. ^ - available on this Saint Mary Magdalene Church, Enfield website: Joy Heywood, The Twells Family Retrieved 15 February 2012
  189. ^ "Who we are". St Augustin's. Bournemouth Town Centre Parish. 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013. 
  190. ^ "A Christian service at the heart of Bournemouth". Richmond Hill St. Andrews Church. 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013. 
  191. ^ "History". About Us. Richmond Hill St. Andrews Church. 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013. 
  192. ^ "Religion". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  193. ^ Ruth Pauline Goldschmidt-Lehmann (1973). Anglo-Jewish Bibliography, 1937–1970. Jewish Historical Society of England. 
  194. ^ David Soetendorp (2003). "A Generation Confronting the Loss of Community". European Judaism 36. 
  195. ^ Sharman Kadish, Jewish Heritage in England : An Architectural Guide, English Heritage, 2006, pp. 80–81
  196. ^ "Faith". BBC Dorset. 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2013. 
  197. ^ "Dorset Humanists meet in Moordown, Bournemouth". Dorset Humanists. 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013. 
  198. ^ "10 Reasons to Choose BU". Bournemouth University. 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  199. ^ "Contact Details". Cobham Aviation. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  200. ^ "Bournemouth Bay Run". British Heart Foundation. 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  201. ^ "BSO Our Vision". Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra. Retrieved 22 September 2013. 
  202. ^ a b c "Dorset Twinning Association List". The Dorset Twinning Association. Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  203. ^ "Netanya – Twin Cities". Netanya Municipality. Archived from the original on 1 February 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  204. ^ "Partnerstädte der Stadt Luzern". Stadt Luzern (in German). Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Andrews, Ian; Henson, Frank (2004). Images of England – Bournemouth. Stroud, Glos: Tempus Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-7524-3065-3. 
  • Ashley, Harry W.; Ashley, Hugh (1990). Bournemouth 1890–1990 (a brief history of Bournemouth over the last 100 years). Bournemouth: Bournemouth Borough Council. 
  • Cave, Paul (1986). A History of the Resort of Bournemouth. Southampton: Paul Cave Publications Ltd. ISBN 0-86146-039-1. 
  • Edwards, Elizabeth (1981). A History of Bournemouth. Chichester: Phillimore & Co Ltd. ISBN 0-85033-412-8. 
  • Emery, Andrew (2008). A History of Bournemouth Seafront. Stroud, Glos: Tempus Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7524-4717-9. 
  • Rawlings, Keith (2005). Just Bournemouth. Wimborne: Dovecote Press. ISBN 1-904349-39-0. 

External links[edit]