|Place of origin||Arkansas, USA|
|Blade length||5–24 in|
A Bowie knife (pronounced // BOO-ee or // BOW-ee) is a pattern of fixed-blade fighting knife first popularized by Jim Bowie in the early 19th century. Since the first incarnation was created by James Black, the Bowie knife has come to incorporate several recognizable and characteristic design features, although in common usage the term refers to any large sheath knife with a crossguard and a clip point.
The "Jim Bowie knife" first became famous due to Bowie's use of a large knife at a duel known as the Sandbar Fight. The knife pattern is still popular with collectors; in addition to various knife manufacturing companies there are hundreds of custom knife makers producing Bowies and variations.
- 1 Historical Complications
- 2 Origin and description
- 3 History
- 4 Variations and collecting, portrayal in popular culture
- 5 Legal status
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
The early history of the Bowie knife is complicated by murky definitions, limited supporting documentation and conflicting claims.
- The Bowie knife is not well defined. By the mid-20th century most would include some combination of blade length and blade shape. In the mid-19th century, when the popularity of the knife was at its peak, the term was applied to a wide range of blades. Absent a consensus definition, it is impossible to clearly define the origin of the knife. To complicate matters, some American blades that meet the modern definition of the Bowie knife may pre-date Bowie.
- The Bowie knife obviously derives part of its name and reputation from James Bowie, a notorious knife-fighter, who died at the Alamo. James Bowie left a very thin paper trail; in the absence of verifiable facts his history was buried in unverifiable knife-fighting legend. Historians seriously entertain the possibility that Bowie only fought one personal knife fight (and that was not fought with a blade meeting the modern definition if Rezin Bowie's account is true). That Sandbar Fight received national publicity (accounts in Philadelphia, New York and the Niles Register of Washington, D.C.) within months of the event. James Bowie prominently wore a large knife after the Sandbar fight.
- The Bowie family provided a variety of conflicting knife histories. James Bowie left nothing. His brother Rezin Bowie provided a terse history 2 years after James' death. Sixteen years after James' death someone (assumed to be James' brother John) slightly amended Rezin's explanation to include a blacksmith. Rezin's grandchildren named a different blacksmith. A later Bowie claimed that the information attributed to John was a lie and that John probably never saw the document, etc.
- In the mid-20th century a Bowie knife book author took liberties with the historical facts. Some documents were misquoted, some reported facts cannot be confirmed, etc. Others incorporated the errors into their accounts of both Bowie and his knives.
- With no solid definition and conflicting accounts of knife history, many were credited with the invention or improvement of the blade.
Origin and description
The historical Bowie knife was not a single design, but was a series of knives improved several times by Jim Bowie over the years. The earliest such knife, made by Jesse Clift at Bowie's brother's request resembled Spanish hunting knives of the day, and differed little from a common butcher knife. The blade, as later described by Rezin Bowie, was 9.5 inches (24 cm) long, 0.25 inches (0.64 cm) thick and 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) wide. It was straight-backed, described by witnesses as "a large butcher knife", and having no clip point nor any hand guard, with a simple riveted wood scale handle.
Bernard Levine has reported that the first known Bowie knife showed a strong Mediterranean influence insofar as general lines were concerned, particularly the shape of the traditional Spanish folding knife, the often carried by immigrants to Mexico and other territories of the Old Southwest. In an 1828 account of the capture of a pirate schooner carrying a mixed group of Spanish and South American pirates, the carrying of knives similar to the early Bowie knife is mentioned:
"Amongst these [weapons], were a large number of long knives – weapons which the Spaniards use very dexterously. They are about the size of a common English carving knife, but for several inches up the blade cut both sides."
After the Vidalia Sandbar fight, Bowie was a famous man, and the Bowie brothers received many requests for knives of the same design. Bowie and his brothers would later commission more ornate custom blades from various knife makers including Daniel Searles and John Constable. George William Featherstonhaugh described them as, "These formidable instruments...are the pride of an Arkansas blood, and got their name of Bowie knives from a conspicuous person of this fiery climate."
According to an 1847 article, the Bowie knife was originally designed to fill the need for a wearable, convenient close combat weapon - a short sword much shorter than the saber or other swords of the day, yet still possessing a heavy blade. This cleaver-like blade had enough weight to give the blade sufficient force in a slashing attack, while permitting the use of cut-and-thrust sword fighting tactics. By this time the 'Bowie knife' was already being made in a variety of sizes, with the optimum blade length similar to "that of a carving knife" The blade design was described as:
"Back (spine) perfectly straight in the first instance, but greatly rounded at the end on the edge side; the upper edge at the end, for a length of about two inches, is ground into the small segment of a circle and rendered sharp...The back itself gradually increases in weight of metal as it approaches the hilt, on which a small guard is placed. The Bowie knife, therefore, has a curved, keen point; is double-edged for the space of about two inches of its length, and when in use, falls with the weight of a bill hook."
Most later versions of the Bowie knife had a blade of at least 8 inches (20 cm) in length, some reaching 12 inches (30 cm) or more, with a relatively broad blade that was an inch and a half to two inches wide (4 to 5 cm) and made of steel usually between 3⁄16 to 1⁄4 in (4.763 to 6.350 mm) thick. The back of the blade sometimes had a strip of soft metal (normally brass or copper) inlaid which some believe was intended to catch an opponent's blade while others hold it was intended to provide support and absorb shock to help prevent breaking of poor quality steel or poorly heat treated blades. (A brass back is an indication of modern construction.) Bowie knives often had an upper guard that bent forward at an angle (an S-guard) intended to catch an opponent's blade or provide protection to the owner's hand during parries and corps-a-corps.
Some Bowie knives had a notch on the bottom of the blade near the hilt known as a "Spanish Notch". The Spanish Notch is often cited as a mechanism for catching an opponent's blade; however, some Bowie researchers hold that the Spanish Notch is ill-suited to this function and frequently fails to achieve the desired results. These researchers, instead, hold that the Spanish Notch has the much more mundane function as a tool for stripping sinew and repairing rope and nets, as a guide to assist in sharpening the blade (assuring that the sharpening process starts at a specific point and not further up the edge), or as a point to relieve stress on the blade during use.
One characteristic of Bowie knives is the clip point at the top of the blade, which brings the tip of the blade lower than the spine and in line with the handle for better control during thrusting attacks. As the goal is to produce a sharp, stabbing point, most Bowie knives have a bevel ground along the clip, typically 1/4 of the way, but sometimes much further running the entire top-edge. This is referred to as a false edge as from a distance it looks sharpened, although it may or may not be. Regardless of whether or not the false edge is sharp, it serves to take metal away from the point, streamlining the tip and thus enhancing the penetration capability of the blade during a stab. The version attributed to blacksmith James Black had this false edge fully sharpened in order to allow someone trained in European techniques of saber fencing to execute the maneuver called the "back cut" or "back slash". A brass quillon, usually cast in a mold, was attached to protect the hand.
The Bowie knife's design also lends itself to use as a hunting knife for skinning or butchering game. The curved top clip bevel of the blade, when suitably sharpened, may be used to remove the skin from a carcass, while the straight portion of the blade edge, toward the guard, can be used for cutting meat. This is similar in concept to the traditional Finnish hunting knife, the "puukko" (though the typical early 19th-century Bowie knife was far larger and heavier than the typical puukko). Arkansas culturalist and researcher Russell T. Johnson describes the James Black knife in the following manner and at the same time captures the quintessence of the Bowie Knife: "It must be long enough to use as a sword, sharp enough to use as a razor, wide enough to use as a paddle, and heavy enough to use as a hatchet." Most such knives intended for hunting are only sharpened on one edge, to reduce the danger of cutting oneself while butchering and skinning the carcass.
Earlier variants of the Bowie knife can be seen looking at European seax's, a knife/short sword used every day by the Vikings, Anglo Saxons, and Germanic people of the Dark Ages. History shows the evolution of the blade from a simple round ended multi purpose tool to a clip pointed, heavy backed knife or short sword used as a side arm after initial attacks rendered a broken spear or long sword useless.[dubious ]
The Vidalia Sandbar Fight
The first knife, with which Bowie became famous, allegedly was designed by Jim Bowie's brother Rezin in Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana and smithed by blacksmith Jesse Clifft out of an old file. Period court documents indicate that Rezin Bowie and Cleft were well acquainted with one another. Rezin's granddaughter claimed in an 1885 letter to Louisiana State University that she personally witnessed Clifft make the knife for her grandfather.
This knife became famous as the knife used by Bowie at the Sandbar Fight, a famous 1827 duel between Bowie and several men including a Major Norris Wright of Alexandria, Louisiana. The fight took place on a sandbar in the Mississippi River across from Natchez, Mississippi, and is the only documented fight in which Bowie was known to have employed his Bowie knife design. In this battle Bowie was stabbed, shot, and beaten half to death but managed to win the fight using the large knife.
Jim Bowie's older brother John would later claim that the knife at the Sandbar Fight was not Cleft's knife, but a knife specifically made for Bowie by a blacksmith named Snowden.
James Black's Bowie knife
The most famous version of the Bowie knife was designed by Jim Bowie and presented to Arkansas blacksmith James Black in the form of a carved wooden model in December 1830. Black produced the knife ordered by Bowie, and at the same time created another based on Bowie's original design but with a sharpened edge on the curved top edge of the blade. Black offered Bowie his choice and Bowie chose the modified version. Knives such as this, with a blade shaped like that of the Bowie knife, but with a pronounced false edge, are today called "Sheffield Bowie" knives, because this blade shape became so popular that cutlery factories in Sheffield, England were mass-producing such knives for export to the U.S. by 1850, usually with a handle made from either hardwood, deer antler, or bone, and sometimes with a guard and other fittings of sterling silver. The James Black Bowie knife had a blade approximately twelve inches long, two inches wide, and 0.25 inch thick. The spine of the knife was covered with soft brass or silver, reportedly to catch the opponent's blade in the course of a knife fight, while a brass quillion protected the hand from the blade.
In 1831 Bowie returned with his James Black Bowie knife to Texas, and was involved in a knife fight with three men armed with firearms, who had been hired to kill him by the man he had spared in his 1829 fight. According to reports of the time, Bowie used his knife to kill all three men: one assassin was nearly decapitated, the second was disemboweled, and the skull of the third man was split open.[note 1] Bowie died at the Battle of the Alamo five years later and in death both he and his knife became an American legend. The fate of the original Bowie knife is unknown; however, a knife bearing the engraving "Bowie No. 1" has been acquired by the Historic Arkansas Museum from a Texas collector and has been attributed to Black through scientific analysis.
Black soon had a booming business making and selling these knives out of his shop in Washington, Arkansas. Black continued to refine his technique and improve the quality of the knife as he went. In 1839, shortly after his wife's death, Black was nearly blinded when, while he was in bed with illness, his father-in-law and former partner broke into his home and attacked him with a club, having objected to his daughter having married Black years earlier. Black was no longer able to continue in his trade.
Black's knives were known to be exceedingly tough, yet flexible, and his technique has not been duplicated. Black kept his technique secret and did all of his work behind a leather curtain. Many claim that Black rediscovered the secret of producing true Damascus steel.
In 1870, at the age of 70, Black attempted to pass on his secret to the son of the family that had cared for him in his old age, Daniel Webster Jones. However, Black had been retired for many years and found that he himself had forgotten the secret. Jones would later become Governor of Arkansas.
The birthplace of the Bowie knife is now part of the Old Washington Historic State Park which has over 40 restored historical buildings and other facilities including Black's shop. The park is known as "The Colonial Williamsburg of Arkansas". The American Bladesmith Society established the William F. Moran School of Bladesmithing at this site to instruct new apprentices as well as journeyman, and mastersmiths in the art of bladesmithing.
The claims regarding James Black and his knives have been challenged by historians and knife experts. Little can be either proven or disproven; Black was found mentally incompetent before his (largely plausible) claims were published.
The term "Bowie knife" appeared in advertising (multiple places) by 1835, about 8 years after the sandbar brawl, while James Bowie was still alive. From context, "Bowie knife" needed no description then, but the spelling was variable. Among the first mentions was a plan to combine a Bowie knife and pistol. Cutlers were shipping sheath knives from Sheffield England by the early 1830s. By 1838 a writer in a Baltimore newspaper (posted from New Orleans) suggested that every reader had seen a Bowie knife.
The Bowie knife found its greatest popularity in the Old Southwest of the mid-19th century, where several knife fighting schools were established to teach students the art of fighting with the Bowie knife pattern.[note 2]
Bowie knives had a role in the American conflicts of the nineteenth century. They are historically mentioned in the independence of Texas, in the Mexican War, the California gold rush, the civil strife in Kansas, the Civil War and later conflicts with the American Indians. John Brown (abolitionist) carried a Bowie (which was taken by J. E. B. Stuart). (p 117) John Wilkes Booth (assassin of Abraham Lincoln) dropped a large Bowie knife as he escaped. (p 158) "Buffalo Bill" Cody reportedly scalped a sub-chief in 1876 in revenge for Custer (the Battle of Warbonnet Creek). An illustration of the reputed event showed a Bowie knife. (p 171)
The popularity of the Bowie knife declined late in the nineteenth century. Large caliber reliable revolvers were available by the mid-1870s, reducing a knife advantage. The frontier rapidly vanished, reducing the number of hunters and trappers. Large knives had limited utility, so Bowies shrunk.
Since the 1960s, Bowie knives with sawteeth machined into the back side of the blade appeared inspired by the United States Air Force survival knife (NSN 7340-00-098-4327). The sawteeth were intended to cut through the acrylic glass canopy of a downed aircraft. During the Vietnam War the United States Army issued them to helicopter crews for the same purpose.
Variations and collecting, portrayal in popular culture
A Bowie knife appears on the shoulder sleeve insignia of the 39th Infantry Brigade Combat Team, headquartered in Little Rock, Arkansas. Jim Bowie was posthumously inducted into the Blade Magazine Cutlery Hall of Fame at the 1988 Blade Show in Atlanta, Georgia in recognition for the impact that his design made upon generations of knife makers and cutlery companies. Rock star David Bowie (born David Robert Jones) took the name Bowie after the Bowie knife because, in his words "it cuts both ways".
Among the many variations on Bowie knives (discussed or shown by Flayderman or Peterson) are Bowies with interchangeable blades, push daggers, double-ended Bowies, folding Bowies, Bowies with a cork screw or other accessories, Bowie bayonets, combination Bowie/pistols, a Bowie with a saw-toothed back and Confederate Bowies with D-guards. Some were works of fine art. A giant folding Bowie, almost 7 feet (2 meters) in length and weighing 34 lb (15 kg) was made for presentation to an American congressman who offered to engage in a knife duel (a dispute between Roger Atkinson Pryor and John F. Potter). A few huge Bowies up to 9 ft long (2.7 meters) were created for exhibition .
Over the years many knives have been called Bowie knives and the term has almost become a generic term for any large sheath knife. During the early days of the American Civil War Confederate soldiers carried immense knives called D-Guard Bowie knives. Many of these knives could have qualified as short swords and were often made from old saw or scythe blades.
The Bowie knife is sometimes confused with the "Arkansas toothpick," possibly due to the interchangeable use of the names "Arkansas toothpick", "Bowie knife", and "Arkansas knife" in the antebellum period. The Arkansas toothpick is essentially a heavy dagger with a straight 15-25-inch blade. While balanced and weighted for throwing, the toothpick can be used for thrusting and slashing. Although James Black is popularly credited with inventing the "Arkansas Toothpick", no firm evidence exists for this claim.
Knives made in Sheffield, England, were quick to enter the market with "Bowie Knives" of a distinctive pattern that most modern users identify with the true form Bowie. The Sheffield pattern blade is thinner than the Black/Musso knives, while the false edge is often longer, with a more oblique and less pronounced clip edge. While the Bowie is often considered a uniquely American knife, most blades were produced in Sheffield England. Sheffield Bowies were sold with a wide range of etched or stamped slogans designed to appeal to Americans: "Death to Abolition", "Death to Traitors", "Americans Never Surrender", "Alabama Hunting Knife", "Arkansas Toothpick", "Gold Seeker's Protection"... American victories and generals were commemorated. "Bowie Knife" is etched on many different designs (including folding knives) of the era. The British disguised the origin of their products, operating the "Washington", "Philadelphia", "Boston", "Manhattan", "America" and "Columbia Works" in Sheffield. They stamped "US", "NY", etc. on their blades. The Sheffield "factories" were warehouses that collected the work of area craftsmen. The smelters, forgers, grinders, silversmiths, carvers, etchers... were individuals or small businesses.
During the late 19th and 20th centuries, the Bowie knife served usefully as a camp and hunting tool as well as a weapon, and is still popular with some hunters and trappers in the present day. However, as today's campers and backpackers generally rely on prepared lightweight foods, and have little or no use for a large knife as a weapon or for butchering wild game animals, the traditional Bowie pattern knife is today mostly purchased by collectors or edged weapon enthusiasts.
The Bowie remains popular with collectors. In addition to various knife manufacturing companies there are hundreds of custom knife makers and bladesmiths producing Bowies and variations. The Bowie knife dominates the work produced by members of the American Bladesmith Society. Collecting antique Bowie knives is one of the higher-end forms of knife collecting with rare models selling as high as $200,000. Even mass-produced Sheffield Bowies from the 19th century can sell in the range of $5,000US to $15,000US.
Portrayal in popular culture
The Bowie knife has also been present in popular culture throughout the ages, ranging from the days of the Western dime novels and pulps, to Literary Fiction such as the 1897 classic vampire novel Dracula by Irish author Bram Stoker, Despite the popular image of Count Dracula having a stake driven through his heart at the conclusion of the story, Dracula is actually killed by his heart being pierced by Quincey Morris's Bowie knife and his throat being sliced by Jonathan Harker's Kukri knife. Bowie knives appeared in the classic works of Americans Harriet Beecher Stowe and Mark Twain, Englishman Charles Dickens and Frenchman Jules Verne.
The Bowie knife has also appeared in Television and Cinema such as the largely fictional 1952 Alan Ladd film loosely based on the life of James Bowie 'The Iron Mistress' and the 'Jim Bowie' Television series of the 1950s. At the end of John Ford's film 'The Searchers' (1958) John Wayne's character Ethan Edwards uses a Bowie knife to scalp the Comanche Indian chief 'Scar' he has been hunting throughout the film.
The Bowie knife was also a staple in The Alamo movies of (1960) and (2004), and the first three Rambo movies, First Blood (1981) Rambo: First Blood Part II (1985) Rambo III (1988) and the Crocodile Dundee films, Crocodile Dundee (1986) Crocodile Dundee II (1988).
Although many jurisdictions worldwide have knife legislation regulating the length of a blade one may own or carry, certain locales in the United States have legislation restricting or prohibiting the carrying of a "Bowie knife". Most of these laws were passed decades earlier, originally in the interest of controlling or eliminating the then-common practice of "dueling", a term which had degenerated from a rarely used social custom into a generalized description for any knife or gun fight between two contestants. In some states, many of these laws are still in force today whereas, in other states, these laws were repealed or amended.
In 1837, the year after Bowie’s death at the Alamo, the Alabama legislature passed laws imposing a $100 transfer tax on 'Bowie' knives and decreeing that anyone carrying a Bowie knife who subsequently killed a person in a fight would be charged with premeditated murder. Louisiana and Virginia prohibited the concealed carrying of any Bowie knife, while Mississippi made such knives illegal when carried concealed or when used as a dueling weapon. In Tennessee, the use of Bowie knives to settle disputes on the spot so alarmed state legislators that in 1838 they not only made the concealed carrying of a Bowie knife a criminal felony, but also prohibited the use of a Bowie knife in any altercation, regardless of self-defense or other mitigating excuse:
"That if any person carrying any knife or weapon known as a Bowie knife...or any knife or weapon that shall in form, shape, or size resemble a Bowie knife, on a sudden encounter, shall cut or stab another person with such knife or weapon, whether death ensues or not, such person so stabbing or cutting shall be guilty of a felony, and upon conviction thereof shall be confined in the jail and penitentiary house of this State, for a period of time not less than three years, nor more than fifteen years."
In modern-day Texas, the state Jim Bowie died defending, the carrying of a Bowie knife "on or about one's person" in public places is specifically regulated under state law. This prohibition does not apply to a person carrying the Bowie knife on one's own property, private properties etc. nor to any person carrying a Bowie knife inside of or directly en route to a motor vehicle or watercraft owned by that person or under that person's control.
It is argued that the terms "Bowie Knife" and "Arkansas Toothpick" are too subjective to form the basis of sound legislation.
- The details of this account are the result of a 20th century dramatization by an influential writer. It was originally reported that "Bowie became entangled in a difficulty with three desperados who assaulted him with knives. He killed them all with the knife Black had made." The dramatic enhancement (a prior duel, assassins with guns, details of deaths) infected later knife history and Bowie biography. Historians have not located a contemporary report of the fight with three desperados.
- Accounts of Bowie knife fighting schools are based on fiction. Regional newspapers of the era contained advertisements for classes in fencing and self-defense.
- Manns, William (May–Jun 2004). "The Bowie Knife". American Cowboy 11 (1): 40–43. ISSN 1079-3690.
- Janin, Hunt (2007). Fort Bridger, Wyoming. Jefferson: McFarland & Company. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-7864-2912-7.
- "Bowie knife". Merriam-Webster online dictionary. Retrieved 2011-04-27.
- Todd, Frederick P., American Military Equipage, 1851–1872, Scribners (1980), pp. 180–181: "The American fighting knife of the mid-19th century was par excellence the 'bowie knife'. The term itself defied definition in those days as it does today, but a rough description would be a large sheath knife, usually with a small cross guard and a clipped point, whose story began in the American Southwest about 1830."
- Peterson, Howard L. (1958). American Knives; The First History and Collector's Guide. Highland Park, N. J.: Gun Room Press. p. 26. Four definitions of "Bowie" knifes had supporters (in the mid-20th century). All agree that they are sheath knifes (basically short swords with a handle and a blade optionally separated by a guard). Some require a blade length; some require a clipped blade; some require both; some require neither for knives produced between 1830 and 1890.
- Flayderman, Norm (2004). The Bowie knife : unsheathing an American legend. Lincoln, R.I: Andrew Mowbray. p. 345. ISBN 9781931464123. "Nor was the "clip point" unknown in America, pre-Jim Bowie." (Acompanied by examples and references.)
- Davis, William C. (1998). Three Roads to the Alamo: The Lives and Fortunes of David Crockett, James Bowie, and William Barret Travis. New York: HarperCollins. p. 638. ISBN 0-06-017334-3. "More nonsense has been written over the last century and a half about James Bowie and the Bowie knife than any other episode in his heavily mythologized life." "However, there is no verifiable account of him ever using any knife in a fight except once, in the Sandbar brawl, and there is no reason at all to doubt the statement of Rezin Bowie..."
- Edmondson, J. R. (2000). The Alamo story from early history to current conflicts. Plano, Tex: Republic of Texas Press. pp. 121–123. ISBN 978-1556226786. "If James Bowie ever wrote a single word about the original Bowie knife, that document has not surfaced. Unfortunately, even those who saw the knife could not agree about its dimensions." (Descriptions) "Curiously, Rezin's grandchildren contradicted their grandfather by asserting that Rezin's blacksmith, Jesse Clifft, actually forged the knife under Rezin's supervision. John Bowie and Caiaphas Ham both credited the knife to a blacksmith from Kentucky named Lovell Snowden."
- Flayderman, Norm (2004). The Bowie knife : unsheathing an American legend. Lincoln, R.I: Andrew Mowbray. pp. 68–69. ISBN 9781931464123. Rezin Bowie's account is given in full and termed the "most important letter in Bowiedom".
- Flayderman, Norm (2004). The Bowie knife : unsheathing an American legend. Lincoln, R.I: Andrew Mowbray. p. 71. ISBN 9781931464123. Quotes of the later Bowie on John's presumed work: "...every statement I find untrue." "It is probable that John J. Bowie never knew of the article."
- Davis, William C. (1998). Three Roads to the Alamo: The Lives and Fortunes of David Crockett, James Bowie, and William Barret Travis. New York: HarperCollins. p. 752. ISBN 0-06-017334-3. "Raymond Thorp's Bowie Knife, privately published in 1948, is a dreadful work..." "Its citations are confused or erroneous, genuine quotations have been altered, and some material apparently simply invented."
- Flayderman, Norm (2004). The Bowie knife : unsheathing an American legend. Lincoln, R.I: Andrew Mowbray. p. 482. ISBN 9781931464123. "There is little doubt but that [Thorp's Bowie Knife] is responsible, more than any other source, for perpetrating misinformation about the subject." "Among the most annoying faults with Bowie Knife was the author's marked tendency to alter direct, cited quotes from nineteenth century sources." "Perhaps Thorp's most mischievous perversion of a directly quoted passage pertains to Bowie knife schools in Saint Louis..." That perversion has corrupted both knife history (example: Peterson, American Knives, 1958) and Bowie biography (example: Hopewell, James Bowie: Texas Fighting Man, 1994).
- Edmondson, J. R. (2000). The Alamo story from early history to current conflicts. Plano, Tex: Republic of Texas Press. pp. 121–123. ISBN 978-1556226786. "More than a dozen men have been credited with its invention; accordingly there exist a broad diversity of descriptions and dimensions; and at least as many men claimed to have acquired the knife."
- Walker, Greg (1993). Battle Blades: A Professional's Guide to Combat/Fighting Knives (Hardcover), pages 210 ISBN 0-87364-732-7
- Cumpston, Mike (2007-04-01). "The American Excalibur: Jim Bowie's lethal legacy". Guns Magazine 57 (4).
- Levine, Bernard. (2002).Knives and their Values, p. 64
- Wood, Enoch, An Account of the Pirates Executed at St. Christopher's, in the West Indies, in 1828, London: John Mason (1830)
- Featherstonhaugh, George William (1844). "Excursion Through The Slave States, From Washington On The Potomac To The Frontier Of Mexico".
- Robertson, J. C., (ed.), The Bowie Knife and its Inventor, The Mechanic's Magazine, Museum, Register, and Gazette, Vol. 46, No. 1231 London: Robertson & Co. (13 March 1847), p. 262
- Corbin, Annalies, The Material Culture of Steamboat Passengers: Archaeological Evidence from the Missouri River, New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, ISBN 0-306-46168-4, ISBN 978-0-306-46168-2 (2000), p. 92: By 1847, the most common carving knife made by large volume manufacturers such as John Russell of Green River featured an eight-inch blade, but other carving knives of the day could have blades of up to eighteen inches in length.
- Kennedy, William (1841). Texas: The Rise, Progress, and Prospects of the Republic of Texas. R. Hastings. pp. 122–128.
- Hopewell, Clifford (1994). James Bowie Texas Fighting Man: A Biography. Austin, TX: Eakin Press. pp. 40, 42. ISBN 0-89015-881-9.
- Flayderman, Norm (2004). The Bowie knife : unsheathing an American legend. Lincoln, R.I: Andrew Mowbray. pp. 464–466. ISBN 9781931464123. "[N]o authenticated brass back Bowie has yet to be accepted in all quarters as genuine...".
- Johnson, Russel (2006). "The Bowie Knife and the Arkansas Toothpick". The Arkansas Travelog Home Page. Retrieved 2014-04-15.
- Shackleford, Steve (2010). Blade's Guide to Knives & Their Values. Iola, Wisconsin: Krause Publications. p. 307. ISBN 978-1-4402-0387-9. Retrieved 27 January 2012.
- Manns, William, The Bowie Knife, American Cowboy, Vol. 11, No. 1 (May–June 2004), p. 41
- Pacella, Gerard (2002). 100 Legendary Knives. Krause Publications. p. 145. ISBN 0-87349-417-2.
- Flayderman, Norm (2004). The Bowie knife : unsheathing an American legend. Lincoln, R.I: Andrew Mowbray. pp. 448–449. ISBN 9781931464123. "... [20th century knife historian] Raymond Thorp, lacking rational foundation and apparently without rhyme or reason, injected another dose of melodrama into the plot line."
- "Bill Moran Jr. (1925–2006)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved 2011-03-08.
- Davis, William C. (1998). Three Roads to the Alamo: The Lives and Fortunes of David Crockett, James Bowie, and William Barret Travis. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 675–677. ISBN 0-06-017334-3.
- Flayderman, Norm (2004). The Bowie knife : unsheathing an American legend. Lincoln, R.I: Andrew Mowbray. ISBN 9781931464123.
- Hopewell, Clifford, James Bowie Texas Fighting Man: A Biography, Austin, TX: Eakin Press, ISBN 0-89015-881-9 (1994), p. 55
- Flayderman, Norm (2004). The Bowie knife : unsheathing an American legend. Lincoln, R.I: Andrew Mowbray. p. 312. ISBN 978-1-931464-12-3. Chapter 11: "Bowie Knife Duels, Rules, Manuals ... and Schools - Dueling in American Folkways and Folklore" "... the evidence for "knife schools in all the major cities" fails to support or corroborate their presence." Charles Dickens' fictional Great Expectations was quoted as proof of the existence of knife fighting schools.
- Walker, Greg (2001). KA-BAR: The Next Generation of the Ultimate Fighting Knife. Boulder, Colorado: Paladin Press. ISBN 1-58160-120-4.
- Norman, Chris (1995). "Ernest Emerson". Knives Illustrated 10 (4): 104–108.
- Edmondson, J. R. (2000). The Alamo story from early history to current conflicts. Plano, Tex: Republic of Texas Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-1556226786. "... it has been estimated that more than seventy-five percent of all Bowies carried on the American frontier were manufactured in Sheffield factories."
- Flayderman, Norm (2004). The Bowie knife : unsheathing an American legend. Lincoln, R.I: Andrew Mowbray. pp. 403–442. ISBN 9781931464123. Chapter 14
- Flayderman, Norm (2004). The Bowie knife : unsheathing an American legend. Lincoln, R.I: Andrew Mowbray. pp. 361–402. ISBN 9781931464123. Chapter 13
- Miracle, Leonard, Complete Book of Camping, HarperCollins (2000), ISBN 978-0-06-071230-3, p. 160.
- Lewis, Jack; Roger Combs (1992). Gun digest Book of Knives. Iola, WI: DBI Books. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-87349-129-7.
- Manns, William (2004). "The Bowie Knife". American Cowboy (Active Interest Media, Inc.) 11 (1): 40–43. Retrieved 2011-04-03.
- Flayderman, Norm (2004). The Bowie knife : unsheathing an American legend. Lincoln, R.I: Andrew Mowbray. pp. 72–73. ISBN 9781931464123.
- "Bowie Inducted into the Hall of Fame". Blade Magazine. 1988-08-01.
- Cassidy, William L., The Complete Book Of Knife Fighting, ISBN 0-87364-029-2, ISBN 978-0-87364-029-9 (1997), pp. 9–18, 27–36
- See Ala. Code 1975, §13-6-120, Sec. 13A-11-50: "Carrying concealed weapons. Except as otherwise provided in this Code, a person who carries concealed about his person a bowie knife or knife or instrument of like kind or description or a pistol or firearm of any other kind or an air gun shall, on conviction, be fined not less than $50.00 nor more than $500.00, and may also be imprisoned in the county jail or sentenced to hard labor for the county for not more than six months."
- Mississippi Code, Crimes § 97-37-1: Deadly weapons; carrying while concealed; use or attempt to use; penalties: "(1) Except as otherwise provided in Section 45-9-101, any person who carries, concealed in whole or in part, any bowie knife, dirk knife, butcher knife, switchblade knife...shall upon conviction be punished" by a fine and/or imprisonment.
- New Mexico, Criminal Offenses – 30-1-12 (B), Definitions..."deadly weapon" means any... weapon which is capable of producing death or great bodily harm, including but not restricted to any types of daggers,...bowie knives..."
- Wong, David, Knife Laws of the Fifty States: A Guide for the Law-Abiding Traveler, AuthorHouse, ISBN 1-4259-5092-2, ISBN 978-1-4259-5092-7 (2006
- Virginia Code § 18.2-308(A): The Virginia statute prohibits only the concealed carrying of a Bowie knife upon one's person, while Texas prohibits the carrying of such a knife whether concealed or not.
- Cassidy, p. 10: In some states the popularity of certain knives such as the Bowie and Arkansas Toothpick was such that schools were established to teach their use in knife fighting, further popularizing such knives and compelling authorities to pass legislation severely restricting such schools.
- Texas Penal Code sec. 46.01(6) and sec. 46.02.
- Cramer, Clayton (1999). Concealed Weapon Laws of the Early Republic: Dueling, Southern Violence, and Moral Reform. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-275-96615-7.
- Blackburn, Roger. "Maine Knife Laws". KnifeUp. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- Merrill, Laurie. "Arizona law standardizes knife regulations". Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- Nelson's Louisiana Annotated Statutes, 38 La. Ann. 942 (1886): "That whoever shall carry a weapon or weapons concealed on or about his person, such as pistols, bowie knife, dirk or other dangerous weapon, shall be liable to a prosecution by indictment or presentment."
- "Code of Virginia § 18.2-308". Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- Cramer, pp. 111–112: So great was public pressure to clamp down on use of the Bowie knife that the Tennessee Supreme Court upheld the law two years later (Aymette v. State, 2 Hump. (21 Tenn.) 154 (1840)), even though it had to pointedly ignore its own prior 1833 decision on the state constitutional right to bear arms in order to do so (Simpson v. State, 5 Yerg. 356, Tenn. 1833: "By this clause of the constitution, an express power is given and secured to all the free citizens of the state to keep and bear arms for their defence, without any qualification whatever as to their kind or nature."
- "AKTI Approved Knife Definitions". American Knife and Tool Institute. Retrieved Feb 2015. "In the intervening 170 or so years since the Natchez Sandbar duel, the label “Bowie Knife” has been applied to a wide variety of styles. No agreement exists among historians as to exactly what constitutes a Bowie Knife. Given this uncertainty and a lack of agreement among people who have exhaustively studied and researched the topic, AKTI suggests that “Bowie Knife,” and for that matter “Arkansas Toothpick,” are terms which are simply too generalized and vague, and about which there would be too much potential for inconsistent application as to be enforceable..."
- Cramer, Clayton E. Concealed Weapon Laws of the Early Republic: Dueling, Southern Violence, and Moral Reform. Praeger Publishers, 1999.
- Kirchner, Paul (2010). Bowie Knife Fights, Fighters, and Fighting Techniques (2010 ed.). Paladin Press. ISBN 978-1-58160-742-0.
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