Lenok

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Lenoks
Temporal range: Miocene–Recent
Brachymystax lenokBMNHM.jpg
Museum specimen of Brachymystax (living adults have fine dark spots, but lack obvious dark bars)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Salmoniformes
Family: Salmonidae
Subfamily: Salmoninae
Genus: Brachymystax
Günther, 1866

Lenoks (otherwise known as Asiatic trout or Manchurian trout)[1] are a genus, Brachymystax, of salmonid fishes native to rivers and lakes in Mongolia, Kazakhstan, wider Siberia (Russia), Northern China, and Korea.[2][1][3][4]

Species[edit]

There are currently 4 recognized species in this genus:

Appearance[edit]

Lenoks can be sharp-snouted (B. lenok) or blunt-snouted (B. tumensis).[2] Traditionally both these were included in B. lenok, but today they are generally recognized as separate. They are relatively round in shape, and speckled with dark brown spots.[1][4] Their ventrals are usually colored a reddish hue, and their pectoral fins yellowish.[6] They weigh up to 15 kilograms (33 lb),[4] and can reach a length of 70 cm (2.3 ft).

Habitat, range and status[edit]

Lenoks tend to live in rivers of any sort,[4] but usually upstream, where the water is colder.[4] They are also found in lakes such as Baikal.[2]

As currently defined, the sharp-snouted lenok (B. lenok) is widespread in central and eastern Russia, and also found widely in northern Mongolia, locally in northeastern Kazakhstan (Irtysh Basin) and northeastern China (Amur Basin).[2] The blunt-snouted lenok (B. tumensis) is found widely in southeastern Russia and more locally in northeastern and central parts of the country, as well as northeastern Mongolia (Amur Basin), northern China and Korea.[2] Although the two generally are found in separate areas, there are also regions where their ranges overlap such as the Amur Basin.[2][3]

Though overall widespread, lenoks in South Korea are now on the verge of extinction due to deforestation and they have also declined in China.[4][7]

History[edit]

In the Korean peninsula, lenoks were landlocked inland during the glacial epoch.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c http://jamescard.net/flyfishing/
  2. ^ a b c d e f Kartavtseva, I.V., Ginatulina, L.K., Nemkova, G.A., & Shedko, S.V. (2013): Chromosomal study of the lenoks, Brachymystax (Salmoniformes, Salmonidae) from the South of the Russian Far East. Journal of Species Research, 2 (1): 91-98.
  3. ^ a b Alekseev, S. S.; Osinov, A. G. (2006). Blunt-snouted lenoks (genus Brachymystax: Salmoniformes, Salmonidae) from the Ob' basin: New data on morphology and allozyme variation. Journal of Ichthyology, 46 (7): 500–516.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2015). Species of Brachymystax in FishBase. February 2015 version.
  5. ^ Xing, Y.-C., Lv, B.-B., Ye, E.-Q., Fan, E.-Y., Li, S.-Y., Wang, L.-X., Zhang, C.G., & Zhao, Y.-H. (2015). "Revalidation and redescription of Brachymystax tsinlingensis Li, 1966 (Salmoniformes: Salmonidae) from China" (PDF). Zootaxa, 3962 (1): 191–205. 
  6. ^ Shaw, G & Stephens, J.F. General zoology, or Systematic natural history, Volume 5, Part 1. 
  7. ^ Xia, Y.-Z., Sheng, Y. & Chen, Y.-Y. (2006): DNA sequence variation in the mitochondrial control region of lenok (Brachymystax lenok) populations in China. Chinese Biodiversity, 14 (1): 48-54.