December 17, 1987 |
Crescent, Oklahoma, U.S.
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||Since 2007|
|Rank||Private First Class|
|Unit||2nd Brigade Combat Team,
10th Mountain Division
|Military awards||National Defense Service Medal
Army Service Ribbon
Global War on Terrorism Service Medal
Iraq Campaign Medal
|Civilian honors||Community Grand Marshal of 2013 San Francisco Pride Parade (later rescinded)|
Bradley Edward Manning (born December 17, 1987) is a United States Army soldier who was arrested in May 2010 in Iraq on suspicion of having passed classified material to the website WikiLeaks. He was ultimately charged with 22 offenses, including communicating national defense information to an unauthorized source and aiding the enemy.
Assigned to an army unit based near Baghdad, Manning had access to databases used by the United States government to transmit classified information. He was arrested after Adrian Lamo, a computer hacker, told the FBI that Manning had confided during online chats that he had downloaded material from these databases and passed it to WikiLeaks. The material included videos of the July 12, 2007 Baghdad airstrike and the 2009 Granai airstrike in Afghanistan; 250,000 United States diplomatic cables; and 500,000 army reports that came to be known as the Iraq War logs and Afghan War logs. It was the largest set of restricted documents ever leaked to the public. Much of it was published by WikiLeaks or its media partners between April and November 2010.
Manning was held from July 2010 in the Marine Corps Brig, Quantico, Virginia, under Prevention of Injury status, which entailed de facto solitary confinement and other restrictions that caused international concern. In April 2011 he was transferred to Fort Leavenworth, where he could interact with other detainees. He pleaded guilty in February 2013 to 10 of the 22 charges, which could carry a sentence of up to 20 years. Prosecutors will pursue a court-martial on the remaining charges, including aiding the enemy, which could carry a life sentence. The trial is scheduled to begin on June 3, 2013.
Reaction to his arrest was mixed. Denver Nicks, one of Manning's biographers, writes that the leaked material, particularly the diplomatic cables, was widely seen as a catalyst for the Arab Spring that began in December 2010, and that Manning was viewed as both a 21st-century Tiananmen Square Tank Man and an embittered traitor. Several commentators focused on why an apparently very unhappy Army private had access to classified material, and why no security measures were in place to prevent unauthorized downloads.
Early life 
Manning was born to Susan Fox, originally from Wales, and her American husband, Brian Manning, in Crescent, Oklahoma. His father had joined the United States Navy in 1974 when he was 19, and served for five years as an intelligence analyst, meeting Susan when he was stationed in Wales at Cawdor Barracks. Manning's sister, eleven years his senior, was born in 1976. The couple returned to the United States in 1979, moving at first to California, then to a two-story house outside Crescent, with an above-ground swimming pool and five acres of land where they kept pigs and chickens.
Manning's father took a job as an IT manager for a rental car agency, which meant he had to travel. His mother suffered from poor health – she developed a drinking problem, and was living several miles out of town and unable to drive – and as result Manning was largely left to fend for himself. His father would stock up on food before his trips, and leave pre-signed checks for the children to pay the bills. A neighbor told The New York Times that whenever the school went on field trips, she would give her son extra food or money so he could make sure Manning had something to eat.
Manning was small for his age – as an adult, he reached 5 ft 2 in (1.57 m) and weighed 105 lb (47.6 kg) – and excelled at the saxophone, science, and computers. His father told PBS that Manning created his first website when he was ten years old. He taught himself how to use PowerPoint, won the grand prize three years in a row at the local science fair, and in sixth grade took top prize at a state-wide quiz bowl.
Parents' divorce, move to Wales 
Those who knew Manning told Denver Nicks, author of Private: Bradley Manning, WikiLeaks, and the Biggest Exposure of Official Secrets in American History (2012), that he always had a mind of his own; he was openly opposed to religion, for example, and remained silent during the part of the Pledge of Allegiance that refers to God. When he was 13 he began to question his sexual orientation, and around this time his parents divorced. Manning and his mother moved out of the house to a rented apartment in Crescent. His father's second wife was also called Susan, and Manning apparently reacted badly when the second wife's son by a previous relationship changed his surname to Manning. When he found out about it, he started taking running jumps at the walls, and told his mother: "I'm nobody now."
In November 2001 Manning and his mother left the United States and moved to Haverfordwest, Wales, where his mother had family. Manning attended the town's Tasker Milward secondary school, where they nicknamed him "Bradders." A schoolfriend there told Ed Caesar for The Sunday Times that Manning's personality was "unique, extremely unique. Very quirky, very opinionated, very political, very clever, very articulate." His interest in computers continued, and in 2003 he and a friend set up a website, angeldyne.com, a message board that offered games and music downloads.
He became the target of bullying at the school because he was the only American. The students would imitate his accent, and they apparently abandoned him once during a camping trip. His aunt told The Washington Post: "[H]e woke up, and all the tents around him were gone. They left while he was sleeping." He was also targeted because of being considered "effeminate." Nicks writes that he had told two of his friends in Oklahoma that he was gay, but he was not open about it at school in Wales.
Return to the United States 
He feared that his mother was becoming too ill to cope with him, so he decided in 2005, when he was 17, to return to the United States. He moved in with his father in Oklahoma City, where his father was living with his second wife and her child, and got a job as a developer with a software company, Zoto. He was apparently happy for a time, but was let go after four months. His boss told The Washington Post that on a few occasions Manning had "just locked up," and would simply sit and stare, and in the end communication became too difficult. The boss told the newspaper he felt that "nobody’s been taking care of this kid for a really long time."
Manning was by then living as a openly gay man, which his father accepted, but there were problems in the relationship with his stepmother. In March 2006, Manning reportedly threatened her with a knife during an argument about his failure to get another job; she called the police, and he was asked to leave the house. He drove to Tulsa in a pick-up truck his father had given him, at first sleeping in it, then moving in with a friend from school. The two of them got jobs at Incredible Pizza in April, then Manning spent some time in Chicago, before he ran out of money and again had nowhere to stay. His mother arranged for him to live with his father's sister, Debra, a lawyer in Potomac, Maryland. Nicks writes that the 15 months he spent with his aunt were among the most stable of his life. He had a boyfriend, took several low-paid jobs, and spent a semester studying history and English at Montgomery College, though he left after failing an exam.
Enlistment in the U.S. Army 
Manning went through basic training at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, but six weeks after enlisting was sent to the discharge unit. He was allegedly being bullied, and in the opinion of another soldier there, he was having a breakdown. The soldier told The Guardian: "The kid was barely five foot ... He was a runt, so pick on him. He's crazy, pick on him. He's a faggot, pick on him. The guy took it from every side. He couldn't please anyone." Denver Nicks writes that Manning, who was used to being bullied, fought back – if the drill sergeants screamed at him, he would scream at them – to the point where they started calling him "General Manning."
The decision to discharge him was revoked, and he started basic training again in January 2008. After graduating in April, he moved to Fort Huachuca, Arizona, where he trained as an intelligence analyst, receiving a TS/SCI security clearance (Top Secret/Sensitive Compartmented Information). According to Nicks, this security clearance, combined with the digitization of classified information and the government's policy of sharing it widely, gave Manning access to an unprecedented amount of material. Nicks writes that he was reprimanded while at Fort Huachuca for posting three video messages to friends on YouTube, in which he described the inside of the "Sensitive Compartmented Information Facility" (SCIF) where he worked.
Move to Fort Drum 
In August 2008, Manning was sent to Fort Drum in Jefferson County, New York, where he joined the 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division, and trained for deployment to Iraq. It was while stationed there in the fall of 2008 that he met Tyler Watkins, who was studying neuroscience and psychology at Brandeis University, near Boston. Watkins was his first serious relationship, and he posted happily on Facebook about it, regularly traveling 300 miles to Boston on visits.
Watkins introduced him to a network of friends and the university's hacker community. He also visited Boston University's "hackerspace" workshop, known as "Builds," and met its founder, David House, the MIT researcher who was later allowed to visit him in jail. In November 2008, he gave an anonymous interview to a high-school reporter during a rally in Syracuse in support of gay marriage, telling her: "I was kicked out of my home and I once lost my job. The world is not moving fast enough for us at home, work, or the battlefield. I've been living a double life. ... I can't make a statement. I can't be caught in an act. I hope the public support changes. I do hope to do that before ETS [Expiration of Term of Service]."
Denver Nicks writes that Manning would travel back to Washington, D.C., for visits, where an ex-boyfriend helped him find his way around the city's vibrant gay community, introducing him to lobbyists, activists, and White House aides. Back at Fort Drum, he continued to display emotional problems and, by August 2009, had been referred to an Army mental-health counselor. A friend told Nicks that Manning could be emotionally fraught, describing an evening they had watched two movies together – The Last King of Scotland and Dancer in the Dark – after which Manning cried for hours. By September 2009, his relationship with Watkins was in trouble, and although they reconciled for a short time, it was effectively over.
Deployment to Iraq, discussion with counselor 
After four weeks at the Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC) in Fort Polk, Louisiana, he was deployed to Forward Operating Base Hammer, near Baghdad, arriving in October 2009. From his workstation there, he had access to SIPRNet (the Secure Internet Protocol Router Network) and JWICS (the Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System). Two of his superiors had discussed not taking him to Iraq – it was felt he was "a risk to himself and possibly others," according to a statement later issued by the army – but again the shortage of intelligence analysts held sway.
A month later, in November 2009, he was promoted from Private First Class to Specialist. That same month, according to his chats with Lamo, he made his first contact with WikiLeaks, shortly after it posted 570,000 pager messages from the 9/11 attacks, which it released on November 25. Also in November, Manning wrote to a gender counselor in the United States, said he felt female, and discussed having sex reassignment surgery. The counselor told Steve Fishman of New York Magazine that it was clear Manning was in crisis, partly because of his gender concerns, but also because he was opposed to the kind of war in which he found himself involved.
He was by all accounts unhappy and isolated. Because of the army's "Don't ask, don't tell" policy (known as DADT, which was repealed in September 2011), he was not allowed to be openly gay, though he apparently made no secret of it; his friends said he kept a fairy wand on his desk. When he told his roommate he was gay, the roommate responded by suggesting they not speak to each other. His working conditions – 14–15 hour night shifts in a dimly lit secure room – did not help his emotional well being. On December 20, 2009, after being told he would lose his one day off a week for being persistently late, he overturned a table in a conference room, damaging a computer that was sitting on it, and in the view of one soldier looked as though he was about to grab a rifle from a gun rack, before his arms were pinned behind his back. Several witnesses to the incident believed his access to sensitive material ought to have been withdrawn at that point. The following month, he began posting on Facebook that he felt alone and hopeless.
Army investigators told a pre-trial hearing (see below) that they believed Manning downloaded the Iraq and Afghan war logs around this time, in January 2010. WikiLeaks tweeted on January 8 that year that they had obtained "encrypted videos of US bomb strikes on civilians," and linked to a story about the May 2009 Granai airstrike in Afghanistan. Manning put the files on a digital storage card for his camera and took it home with him on a leave in early 2010. During the same month, Manning traveled to the United States via Germany for a two-week holiday, arriving on January 24, and attended a party at Boston University's hacker space. It was during this visit that Manning first lived for a few days as a woman, dressing in women's clothes, wearing a wig and going out. After his arrest, his former partner, Tyler Watkins, told Kevin Poulsen of Wired that Manning had said during the January visit that he had found some sensitive information and was considering leaking it.
Loss of rank and recommended discharge 
Manning told Lamo he passed the Baghdad helicopter attack ("Collateral murder") video to WikiLeaks shortly after this incident, in February 2010. In April, just as WikiLeaks published the video, Manning sent an e-mail to his master sergeant, Paul Adkins, saying he was suffering from gender identity disorder and attaching a photograph of himself dressed as a woman. Captain Steven Lim, Manning's commander, said he first saw the e-mail after Manning's arrest – when information about hormone replacement therapy was found in his room in Baghdad – and learned that Manning had been calling himself Breanna. Manning told Lamo that his commander had found out about the gender issue before his arrest, after looking at his medical files at the beginning of May. He said he had set up Twitter and YouTube accounts in Breanna's name to give her a digital presence, writing in the Lamo chat: "i wouldn't mind going to prison for the rest of my life, or being executed so much, if it wasn't for the possibility of having pictures of me ... plastered all over the world press ... as [a] boy ... the CPU is not made for this motherboard ..."
On April 30, he posted on Facebook that he was utterly lost, and over the next few days that "Bradley Manning is not a piece of equipment," that he was "beyond frustrated," and "livid" after being "lectured by ex-boyfriend despite months of relationship ambiguity ..." On May 7, he seemed to spiral out of control. According to army witnesses, he was found curled into a fetal position in a storage cupboard, with a knife at his feet, and had cut the words "I want" into a vinyl chair. A few hours later he had an altercation with a female intelligence analyst, Specialist Jihrleah Showman, during which he punched her in the face. The brigade psychiatrist recommended a discharge, referring to an "occupational problem and adjustment disorder." His master sergeant removed the bolt from his weapon, and he was sent to work in the supply office, though at this point his security clearance remained in place. He was demoted from Specialist to Private First Class just two days before his arrest on May 26.
Ellen Nakashima writes that, on May 9, Manning contacted Jonathan Odell, a gay American novelist in Minneapolis, via Facebook, leaving a message that he wanted to speak to him in confidence; he said he had been involved in some "very high-profile events, albeit as a nameless individual thus far." On May 19, according to army investigators, he e-mailed Eric Schmiedl, a mathematician he had met in Boston, and told him he had been the source of the "Collateral Murder" video. Two days later, he began the series of chats with Adrian Lamo that led to his arrest.
Alleged disclosure of classified material 
WikiLeaks was set up in late 2006 as a disclosure portal, initially using the Wikipedia model, where volunteers would write up restricted or legally threatened material submitted by whistleblowers. It was Julian Assange – an Australian Internet activist and journalist, and the de facto editor-in-chief of WikiLeaks – who had the idea of creating what Ben Laurie called an "open-source, democratic intelligence agency." The open-editing aspect was soon abandoned, but the site remained open for anonymous submissions.
According to Daniel Domscheit-Berg, a former WikiLeaks spokesman, part of the WikiLeaks security concept was that they did not know who their sources were. The New York Times wrote in December 2010 that the U.S. government was trying to discover whether Assange had been a passive recipient of material from Manning, or had encouraged or helped him to extract the files; if the latter, Assange could be charged with conspiracy. Manning told Lamo in May 2010 that he had developed a relationship with Assange, communicating directly with him using an encrypted Internet conferencing service, but knew little about him. WikiLeaks did not identify Manning as their source. Army investigators told a pre-trial hearing that they had found 14–15 pages of chats between Manning and someone they believed to be Assange, but Nicks writes that no decisive evidence was found of Assange offering Manning any direction.
Material obtained by WikiLeaks 
WikiLeaks posted the first of the material allegedly from Manning on February 18, 2010, a diplomatic cable dated January 13, 2010, from the U.S. Embassy in Reykjavik, Iceland, a document now known as Reykjavik13. In the chat log, Manning called it a "test" document. On March 15, WikiLeaks posted a 32-page report written in 2008 by the U.S. Department of Defense about WikiLeaks itself. On March 29, it posted U.S. State Department profiles of politicians in Iceland.
Baghdad airstrike 
Manning told Lamo that he gave WikiLeaks the video of the July 12, 2007 Baghdad airstrike after finding it in a Judge Advocate's directory. WikiLeaks named it "Collateral Murder," and Assange released it during a press conference at the National Press Club in Washington, D.C., on April 5, 2010. The video showed an American helicopter firing on a group of men in Baghdad. One of the men was a journalist, and two other men were Reuters employees carrying cameras that the pilots mistook for an anti-tank grenade launchers (an RPG-7). The helicopter also fired on a van that stopped to help the injured members of the first group; two children in the van were wounded and their father killed. The Washington Post wrote that it was this video, viewed by millions, that put WikiLeaks on the map. According to Nicks, Manning e-mailed a superior officer after the video aired and tried to persuade her that it was the same version as the one stored on SIPRnet. Nicks writes that it seemed as though Manning wanted to be caught.
Afghan War logs, Iraq War logs 
On July 25, WikiLeaks and three media partners – The New York Times, The Guardian, and Der Spiegel – began publishing the 91,731 documents that became known as the Afghan War logs. This was followed on October 22 with 391,832 classified military reports covering the period January 2004 to December 2009 that became known as the Iraq War logs. Nicks writes that the publication of the former was a watershed moment, the "beginning of the information age exploding upon itself."
Diplomatic cables, Guantanamo Bay files 
Manning told Lamo he was also responsible for the "Cablegate" leak of 251,287 State Department cables, written by 271 American embassies and consulates in 180 countries, dated December 1966 to February 2010. The cables were passed by Assange to his three media partners, plus El País and others, and published in stages from November 28, 2010, with the names of sources removed. WikiLeaks said it was the largest set of confidential documents ever released into the public domain. The rest of the cables were published unredacted by WikiLeaks on September 1, 2011, after David Leigh and Luke Harding of The Guardian inadvertently published the passphrase for a file that was still online; Nicks writes that one Ethiopian journalist had to leave his country and the U.S. government said it had to relocate several sources. Manning is also thought to have been the source of the Guantanamo Bay files leak, originally obtained by WikiLeaks in 2010, and published by The New York Times over a year later on April 24, 2011.
Granai airstrike 
According to Manning's written memo to the court, he also provided Wikileaks with a classified video of the Granai airstrike. The airstrike occurred on May 4, 2009, in the village of Granai, Afghanistan, killing 86–147 Afghan civilians. In March 2013, Julian Assange said that Wikileaks had received the video from Manning and described the airstrike as a "war crime," but said it was lost when Daniel Domscheit Berg left the organization.
Manning and Adrian Lamo 
On May 20, 2010, Manning contacted Adrian Lamo, a former "grey hat" hacker convicted in 2004 of having accessed The New York Times computer network two years earlier without permission. Lamo had been profiled that day by Kevin Poulsen in Wired magazine; the story said he had been involuntarily hospitalized and diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. Poulsen, by then a reporter, was himself a former hacker who had used Lamo as a source several times since 2000. Indeed, it was Poulsen who, in 2002, had told The New York Times, on Lamo's behalf, that Lamo had gained unauthorized access to its network. Poulsen then wrote the story up for SecurityFocus. Lamo would often hack into a system, tell the organization he had done it – using Poulsen as an intermediary – then offer to fix their security.
Lamo said Manning sent him several encrypted e-mails on May 20. He said he was unable to decrypt them but replied anyway and invited the e-mailer to chat on AOL IM. Lamo said he later turned the e-mails over to the FBI without having read them. In a series of chats from May 21 until May 25/26, Manning – using the handle "bradass87" – told Lamo that he had leaked classified material. He began by introducing himself as an army intelligence analyst, and within 17 minutes, without waiting for a reply, began a tentative discussion about the leaks.
Lamo replied several hours later. Before Manning started discussing the leaks, Lamo told him: "I'm a journalist and a minister. You can pick either, and treat this as a confession or an interview (never to be published) & enjoy a modicum of legal protection." They talked about restricted material in general, then Manning made his first explicit reference to the leaks: "This is what I do for friends." He linked to a section of the May 21, 2010, version of Wikipedia's article on WikiLeaks, which described the WikiLeaks release in March that year of a Department of Defense report on WikiLeaks itself. He added "the one below that is mine too"; the section below in the same article referred to the leak of the Baghdad airstrike ("Collateral Murder") video. Manning said he felt isolated and fragile, and was reaching out to someone he hoped might understand:
Manning said he had started to help WikiLeaks around Thanksgiving in November 2009 – which fell on November 26 that year – after WikiLeaks had released the 9/11 pager messages; the messages were released on November 25. He told Lamo he had recognized the messages had come from an NSA database, and that it had made him feel comfortable about stepping forward. Lamo asked what kind of material he was dealing with, and Manning replied: "uhm ... crazy, almost criminal political backdealings ... the non-PR-versions of world events and crises ..." Although he said he dealt with Assange directly, he also said Assange had adopted a deliberate policy of knowing very little about him, telling Manning: "lie to me."
At that point, Lamo again assured him that he was speaking in confidence. Manning wrote: "but im not a source for you ... im talking to you as someone who needs moral and emotional fucking support," and Lamo replied: "i told you, none of this is for print."
He said the incident that had affected him the most was when 15 detainees had been arrested by the Iraqi Federal Police for printing anti-Iraqi literature. He was asked by the army to find out who the "bad guys" were, and discovered that the detainees had followed what Manning said was a corruption trail within the Iraqi cabinet. He reported this to his commanding officer, but said "he didn't want to hear any of it"; he said the officer told him to help the Iraqi police find more detainees. Manning said it made him realize, "i was actively involved in something that i was completely against ..." He explained that "i cant separate myself from others ... i feel connected to everybody ... like they were distant family," and cited Carl Sagan, Richard Feynman, and Elie Wiesel. He said he hoped the material would lead to "hopefully worldwide discussion, debates, and reforms. if not ... than [sic] we're doomed as a species." He said he had downloaded the material onto music CD-RWs, erased the music and replaced it with a compressed split file. Part of the reason no one noticed, he said, was that staff were working 14 hours a day, seven days a week, and "people stopped caring after 3 weeks."
Lamo's approach to FBI, publication of chat logs 
Lamo first discussed the chat with Chet Uber of the volunteer group, Project Vigilant, which researches cyber crime, and a friend who had worked in military intelligence. Both men advised Lamo to go to the FBI, and they reported what he had told them to the United States Army Criminal Investigation Command. Lamo contacted the FBI shortly after the first chat on May 21; he said he believed Manning was endangering lives. He was largely ostracized by the hacker community afterwards. Nicks argues, on the other hand, that it was thanks to Lamo that the government had months to ameliorate any harm caused by the release of the diplomatic cables. On May 25, Lamo met with FBI and Army investigators in California, where he showed them the chat logs. On or around that date, he also passed the story to Kevin Poulsen of Wired, and on May 27 gave him the chat logs and Manning's name under embargo. He saw the FBI again that day, at which point they told him Manning had been arrested in Iraq the day before. Poulsen and Kim Zetter broke the news of the arrest in Wired on June 6. Wired published around 25 percent of the chat logs on June 6 and 10, and the full logs in July 2011, after the personal material about Manning had appeared elsewhere.
Legal proceedings 
Arrest and charges 
Manning was arrested on May 26, 2010, and held at Camp Arifjan in Kuwait. He was charged with several offences in July 2010, replaced by 22 charges in March 2011, including violations of Articles 92 and 134 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ), and of the Espionage Act. The most serious charge is "aiding the enemy," a capital offense. Prosecutors said they would not seek the death penalty, but if convicted he would face life imprisonment.
While initially confined in Kuwait, he was placed on suicide watch due to his behavior. moved from Kuwait to the Marine Corps Base Quantico, Virginia, on July 29, 2010, and classified as a maximum custody detainee, with Prevention of Injury (POI) status. POI status is one stop short of suicide watch, entailing checks by guards every five minutes. His lawyer, David Coombs, a former military attorney, said he was not allowed to sleep between 5 am (7 am at weekends) and 8 pm, and was made to stand or sit up if he tried to. He was required to remain visible at all times, including at night, which entailed no access to sheets, no pillow except one built into his mattress, and a blanket designed not to be shredded. Manning complained that he regarded it as pre-trial punishment.
His cell was 6 × 12 ft with no window, containing a bed, toilet, and sink. The jail had 30 cells built in a U shape, and although detainees could talk to one another, they were unable to see each other. His lawyer said the guards behaved professionally, and had not tried to harass or embarrass Manning. He was allowed to walk for up to one hour a day, meals were taken in the cell, and he was shackled during visits. There was access to television when it was placed in the corridor, and he was allowed to keep one magazine and one book. Because he was in pre-trial detention, he received full pay and benefits.
On January 18, 2011, the jail classified him as a suicide risk after an altercation with the guards. Manning said the guards began issuing conflicting commands, such as "turn left, don't turn left," and upbraiding him for responding to commands with "yes" instead of "aye." Shortly afterwards, he was placed on suicide risk, had his clothing and eyeglasses removed, and was required to remain in his cell 24 hours a day. The suicide watch was lifted on January 21 after a complaint from his lawyer, and the brig commander who ordered it was replaced. On March 2, 2011, he was told that his request that his POI status be removed had been denied. His lawyer said Manning joked to the guards that, if he wanted to harm himself, he could do so with his underwear or his flip-flops. The comment resulted in him having his clothes removed at night, and he had to present himself naked one morning for inspection.
The detention conditions prompted national and international concern. Juan E. Mendez, a United Nations Special Rapporteur on torture published a report saying the detention conditions had been "cruel, inhuman and degrading." In January 2011, Amnesty asked the British government to intervene because of Manning's status as a British citizen by descent, though Manning's lawyer said he did not regard himself as a British citizen. The controversy claimed a casualty in March that year when State Department spokesman Philip J. Crowley criticized Manning's treatment and resigned two days later. In early April, 295 academics (most of them American legal scholars) signed a letter arguing that the treatment was a violation of the United States Constitution. On April 20, the Pentagon transferred Manning to the Midwest Joint Regional Correctional Facility, a new medium-security facility in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, where he was placed in an 80-square-foot cell with a window and a normal mattress, able to mix with other pre-trial detainees and keep personal objects in his cell.
Evidence presented at Article 32 hearing 
In April 2011, a panel of experts ruled that Manning was fit to stand trial. An Article 32 hearing, presided over by Lieutenant Colonel Paul Almanza, was convened on December 16, 2011, at Fort Meade, Maryland; the hearing resulted in Almanza recommending that Manning be referred to a general court-martial. He was arraigned on February 23, 2012, and declined to enter a plea.
During the Article 32 hearing, the prosecution, led by Captain Ashden Fein, presented 300,000 pages of documents in evidence, including chat logs and classified material. The court heard from two army investigators, Special Agent David Shaver, head of the digital forensics and research branch of the army's Computer Crime Investigative Unit (CCIU), and Mark Johnson, a digital forensics contractor from ManTech International, who works for the CCIU. They testified that they had found 100,000 State Department cables on a workplace computer Manning had used between November 2009 and May 2010; 400,000 military reports from Iraq and 91,000 from Afghanistan on an SD card found in his basement room in his aunt's home in Potomac, Maryland; and 10,000 cables on his personal MacBook Pro and storage devices that they said had not been passed to WikiLeaks because a file was corrupted. They also recovered 14–15 pages of encrypted chats, in unallocated space on Manning's MacBook hard drive, between Manning and someone believed to be Julian Assange. Two of the chat handles, which used the Berlin Chaos Computer Club's domain (ccc.de), were associated with the names Julian Assange and Nathaniel Frank.
Johnson said he found SSH logs on the MacBook that showed an SFTP connection, from an IP address that resolved to Manning's aunt's home, to a Swedish IP address with links to WikiLeaks. There was also a text file named "Readme" attached to the logs, a note apparently written by Manning to Assange, which called the Iraq and Afghan War logs "possibly one of the most significant documents of our time, removing the fog of war and revealing the true nature of 21st century asymmetric warfare." The investigators testified they had also recovered an exchange from May 2010 between Manning and Eric Schmiedl, a Boston mathematician, in which Manning said he was the source of the Baghdad helicopter attack ("Collateral Murder") video. Johnson said there had been two attempts to delete material from the MacBook. The operating system was re-installed in January 2010, and on or around January 31, 2010, an attempt was made to erase the hard drive by doing a "zero-fill," which involves overwriting material with zeroes. The material was overwritten only once, which meant it could be retrieved.
Manning's lawyers argued that the government had overstated the harm the release of the documents had caused, and had overcharged Manning to force him to give evidence against Assange. The defense also raised the issue of his gender identity disorder, whether it had affected his judgment, and whether the "don't ask, don't tell" policy had made it difficult for Manning to serve in the army.
Guilty plea on 10 charges 
In December 2012 the judge, Army Col. Denise Lind, accepted terms that would allow Manning to plead guilty to lesser charges in exchange for a maximum sentence of 16 years. In January 2013 she ruled that any sentence should be reduced by 112 days because of his treatment at Quantico, but that the dismissal of charges was not appropriate. On February 28, 2013, Manning pleaded guilty to 10 of the 22 charges. Reading for over an hour from a 35-page statement, he said he had leaked the cables "to show the true cost of war." Prosecutors will pursue a court-martial on the remaining charges, including aiding the enemy. The trial is scheduled to begin on June 3, 2013.
The publication of the leaked material, particularly the diplomatic cables, attracted in-depth coverage across the globe, with several governments blocking websites that contained embarrassing details. Alan Rusbridger, editor of The Guardian, said: "I can't think of a time when there was ever a story generated by a news organisation where the White House, the Kremlin, Chávez, India, China, everyone in the world was talking about these things. ... I've never known a story that created such mayhem that wasn't an event like a war or a terrorist attack."
Denver Nicks wrote that Manning's name "appended like a slogan to wholesale denunciations and exultations alike." United States Navy Admiral Michael Mullen, then Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said the leaks had placed the lives of American soldiers and Afghan informants in danger. Glenn Greenwald argued that he was the most important whistleblower since Daniel Ellsberg leaked the Pentagon Papers in 1971.
A Washington Post editorial asked why an apparently unstable Army private had been able to access and transfer sensitive material in the first place. According to Nicks, Manning's sexuality came into play too. "Don't ask, don't tell" was repealed not long after his arrest, with Manning illustrating to the far right that gays were unfit for military service, while the mainstream media presented him as a gay soldier driven mad by bullying.
Manning and WikiLeaks were credited as catalysts for the Arab Spring that began in December 2010, when waves of protesters rose up against rulers across the Middle East and North Africa after the leaked cables exposed government corruption. Heather Brooke writes that, in Tunisia, where the uprisings began on December 17 with the self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi in protest at being unable to make a living, one of the cables – published around 10 days earlier – showed that the President's daughter and her husband had their ice-cream flown in from Saint-Tropez. As Time magazine designated "the protester" as its 2011 person of the year, Brooke writes that WikiLeaks came under tremendous pressure, experiencing distributed denial-of-service attacks that shut down their servers, and finding themselves unable to receive donations when PayPal, banks, and credit card companies refused to process them.
Mike Gogulski, an American expatriate in Slovakia, formed the Bradley Manning Support Network in June 2010. By May 2013 it had raised over $1 million for his defense fund and over $55,000 for his legal trust account, including $15,100 from WikiLeaks.
See also 
- Material associated with Manning
- Afghan War documents leak
- Granai airstrike#Video of the airstrike
- Guantanamo Bay files leak
- Iraq War documents leak
- July 12, 2007 Baghdad airstrike#Leaked video footage
- United States diplomatic cables leak
- Contents of the United States diplomatic cables leak
- Reactions to the United States diplomatic cables leak
- Note: Articles used as references repeatedly, or which are central to the story, are presented in shortened form in this section, as are books; for full citations for those sources, see the References section below. Other references are cited in full in this section.
- Nicks, September 23, 2010.
- For the initial charges, see "Soldier faces criminal charges", United States Division—Center, Media Release, July 6, 2010.
- Also see "Charge sheet", Cryptome. Retrieved December 26, 2010; and "Charge sheet", The Washington Post.
- For the additional charges, see Miklaszewski, Jim and Kube, Courtney. "Manning faces new charges, possible death penalty", MSNBC, March 2, 2011.
- Leigh and Harding 2011, pp. 194ff, 211.
- For reference to the documents, see Poulsen and Zetter, June 6, 2010.
- For the letter from the legal scholars, see Ackerman, Bruce and Benkler, Yochai. "Private Manning’s Humiliation", The New York Review of Books. Retrieved April 5, 2011 (see a later correction here).
- For the jail transfer, see "WikiLeaks Suspect Transferred to Fort Leavenworth", Associated Press, April 20, 2011.
- "Judge accepts Manning's guilty pleas in WikiLeaks case", CBS News, February 28, 2013.
- "Soldier to Face More Serious Charges in Leak".
- Tate, Julie. "Parts of Bradley Manning trial to be closed to public", The Washington Post, May 21, 2013.
- For the comparisons, see Nicks 2012, p. 3, and for the Arab Spring, see pp. 212–216.
- For the "access to sensitive material" questions, see "The right response to WikiLeaks", The Washington Post, editorial, November 30, 2010; Greenwald, June 18, 2010; and Nicks 2012, pp. 116–117: "Though he was a lowly private in the chain of command, the digitization of classified communications and the government's twenty-first century information-sharing initiatives conspired to him give unprecedented access to state secrets."
- Fishman, July 3, 2011, pp. 2–3.
- For the swimming pool and the house, see Nicks, September 23, 2010.
- For his mother not adjusting, Manning fending for himself, and the neighbor, see Thompson, August 8, 2010, p. 1.
- For his weight and height, see Kirkland, Michael. "Under the U.S. Supreme Court: Bradley Manning, WikiLeaks martyr?", United Press International, March 13, 2011.
- For the view of a teacher, see Nicks, September 23, 2010.
- Nakashima, May 4, 2011.
- For "Bradders," see Nicks 2012, p. 21.
- For being the only American in the school and being impersonated, see Leigh and Harding 2011, p. 24.
- On his way through London to renew his passport, he arrived at the King's Cross underground station on the day of the July 7, 2005 London bombings, and said he heard the sirens and the screaming. See Hansen, July 13, 2011, and Nicks 2012, pp. 23–24.
- Fishman, July 3, 2011, p. 3.
- For Zoto and Campbell, see Nakashima, May 4, 2011.
- Nicks 2012, pp. 24–25, 51–56.
- Also see:
- For concerns about his stability, see Nakashima, May 4, 2011.
- For basic training, and the video interview with the soldier, see Smith et al, May 27, 2011; soldier's interview begins 07:10 mins.
- For a transcript of the interview, see "Bradley Manning: fellow soldier recalls 'scared, bullied kid'", The Guardian, May 28, 2011.
- For the drill sergeants and "General Manning," see Nicks 2012, p. 62.
- For his restarting basic training in January 2008, see Nicks 2012, p. 73.
- For the army needing intelligence analysts, and for the top-security clearance, see Nakashima, May 4, 2011, and for the "TS/SCI security clearance," see Nicks 2012, p. 116.
- For "unprecedented access to state secrets," see Nicks 2012, p. 117.
- Also see Fishman, July 3, 2011, p. 2.
- For the reprimand regarding YouTube, see Nicks, September 23, 2010; also see Nicks 2012, p. 75.
- For the 10th Mountain Division, 2nd Brigade, see Nicks 2012, p. 82.
- Leigh and Harding 2011, pp. 27–28; Nicks 2012, p. 83.
- For his introduction to the hacker community, see Leigh and Harding 2011, pp. 27–28.
- For the anonymous interview, see Her, Phim. "Teen hears peoples' stories at LGBTQ rally", syracuse.com, November 17, 2008.
- That the interviewee was Manning, see Nicks, September 23, 2010, and Nick 2012, p. 82.
- For Manning's reference to the interview on Facebook, see "Bradley Manning's Facebook Page", PBS Frontline, March 2011.
- For the introduction to lobbyists and others, see Nicks 2012, p. 85.
- For his time in Fort Polk, and for "risk to himself and possibly others," see Nicks 2012, pp. 114–115; for Forward Operating Base Hammer, see pp. 123–124.
- For "risk to himself," also see Nakashima, May 4, 2011, and "Accused WikiLeaker Bradley Manning's Dream of Becoming President", Newsweek, April 12, 2012 (excerpt from Nicks 2012).
- For the promotion, see "Bradley Manning's Facebook Page", PBS Frontline, March 2011.
- Leigh and Harding, 2011, p. 31, and Hansen, July 13, 2011.
- Fishman, July 3, 2011, p. 5.
- For the fairy wand, see Thompson, August 8, 2010, p. 2. l* For the roommate, see Rushe, Dominic and Williams, Matt. "Bradley Manning pre-trial hearing – Monday 19 December", The Guardian, December 19, 2011.
- For the nightshifts, see Fishman, July 3, 2011, p. 4.
- For a description of the incident, and the view that his access to sensitive material ought to have been withdrawn, see Nicks 2012, pp. 133–134.
- For the same incident, also see Radia, Kirit and Martinez, Luis. "Bradley Manning Defense Reveals Alter Ego Named 'Breanna Manning'", ABC News, December 17, 2011.
- For the gun rack, see Williams, Matt. "Bradley Manning hearing told of lax security at military intelligence unit", The Guardian, December 18, 2011.
- For the Facebook comments, "Bradley Manning's Facebook Page", PBS Frontline, March 201, and Blake, Heidi; Bingham, John; and Rayner, Gordon. "Bradley Manning, suspected source of WikiLeaks documents, raged on his Facebook page", The Daily Telegraph, July 30, 2010.
- Charlie Savage; Scott Shane (1 March 2013). "Soldier Admits Providing Files To WikiLeaks". The New York Times. p. A1.
- Nicks 2012, pp. 131–135, 137–138.
- For his living as a woman, see Nicks 2012, p. 146.
- For the WikiLeaks tweet, see "Have encrypted videos ...", Twitter, January 8, 2010 (archived from the original, May 8, 2012). The tweet said:
- "Have encrypted videos of US bomb strikes on civilians http://bit.ly/wlafghan2 we need super computer time http://ljsf.org/"
- Note: bit.ly is on Wikipedia's spam blacklist, which is why the first link is not live. It leads to Shachtman, Noah. "Afghan Airstrike Video Goes Down the Memory Hole", Wired, June 23, 2009.
- For the e-mail to his master sergeant about Breanna Manning, see Nicks 2012, pp. 162–163.
- For the same information, see Radia, Kirit and Martinez, Luis. "Bradley Manning Defense Reveals Alter Ego Named 'Breanna Manning'", ABC News, December 17, 2011.
- Hansen, July 13, 2011.
- For the Facebook comments, see Nicks 2012, p. 164, and "Bradley Manning's Facebook Page", PBS Frontline, March 2011.
- For the storage cupboard, the psychiatrist, and the recommended discharge, see Nakashima, May 4, 2011.
- For the same incident, see Nicks 2012, pp. 161–163.
- For the altercation with the female soldier, see Sanchez, Raf. "Bradley Manning 'attacked female soldier and sent picture of himself as a woman'", The Daily Telegraph, December 18, 2011.
- Also see O'Kane, Maggie et al. "Bradley Manning: the bullied outsider who knew US military's inner secrets", and "WikiLeaks accused Bradley Manning 'should never have been sent to Iraq'", The Guardian, May 27, 2011.
- For Jonathan Odell, see Nakashima, May 4, 2011.
- For Eric Schmiedl and the pre-trial hearing, see Dishneau, David and Jelinek, Pauline. "Witness: Manning said leak would lift 'fog of war'", Associated Press, December 19, 2011.
- For Odell and Eric Schmiedl, also see Nicks 2012, p. 164.
- Leigh and Harding 2011, pp. 52–56.
- For WikiLeaks security, see Domscheit-Berg 2011, p. 165.
- For the U.S. government trying to determine whether Assange encouraged Manning, see Savage, Charlie. "U.S. Tries to Build Case for Conspiracy by WikiLeaks", The New York Times, December 15, 2010.
- For Manning's chats with Lamo, see Hansen, July 13, 2011.
- For the 14 pages of chats between Manning and Assange, see Nicks 2012, p. 155, and Zetter, Kim. "Jolt in WikiLeaks Case: Feds Found Manning-Assange Chat Logs on Laptop", Wired, December 19, 2011.
- For the publishing sequence, see Leigh and Harding 2010, p. 70.
- For more information about the "Reykjavik 13" cable and the State Department profiles of politicians, see Myers, Steven Lee. "Charges for Soldier Accused of Leak", The New York Times, July 6, 2010.
- For "test" document, see Hansen, July 13, 2011 and Nicks, September 23, 2010.
- For the leak of the Defense Dept report on WikiLeaks, see Kravets, David. "Secret Document Calls Wikileaks ‘Threat’ to U.S. Army", Wired, March 15, 2010.
- For the Defense Dept report itself, see Assange, Julian. "U.S. intelligence planned to destroy WikiLeaks", WikiLeaks release on March 15, 2010, of Horvath, Michael D. "Wikileaks.org—An Online Reference to Foreign Intelligence Services, Insurgents, or Terrorist Groups?", United States Army Counterintelligence Center, Department of Defense Counterintelligence Analysis Program, March 18, 2008.
- "Open Secrets: WikiLeaks, War and American Diplomacy," The New York Times.
- He told Lamo: "At first glance it was just a bunch of guys getting shot up by a helicopter. No big deal ... about two dozen more where that came from, right? But something struck me as odd with the van thing, and also the fact it was being stored in a JAG officer’s directory. So I looked into it." See Hansen, July 13, 2011.
- Nicks 2012, pp. 157–161.
- For the video putting WikiLeaks on the map, see Nakashima, May 4, 2011.
- For Nicks's analysis, see Nicks 2012, pp. 191–193; for the number of documents in the Afghan and Iraq War logs and Cablegate, and for the publication dates, see pp. 204, 206.
- Note: there were 91,731 documents in all in the Afghan War logs; around 77,000 had been published as of May 2012.
- Leigh and Harding, 2010, p. 70 for the publishing sequence; p. 194ff for the material WikiLeaks published; and p. 211 for the number of documents and comment from WikiLeaks.
- For Manning's chat with Lamo, see Hansen, July 13, 2011.
- For the Ethiopian journalist and the relocation of sources, see Nicks 2012, p. 208.
- For the inadvertent publication of the passphrase, see:
- Greenwald, Glenn. "Facts and myths in the WikiLeaks/Guardian saga", Salon, September 2, 2011; archived from the original on March 7, 2012.
- Stöcker, Christian. "A Dispatch Disaster in Six Acts", Der Spiegel, September 1, 2011; archived from the original on March 7, 2012.
- Mackey, Robert et al. "All Leaked U.S. Cables Were Made Available Online as WikiLeaks Splintered", The New York Times, September 1, 2011; archived from the original on March 7, 2012.
- For Manning as the alleged source of the Guantanamo Bay files, see Leigh, David. "Guantánamo leaks lift lid on world's most controversial prison", The Guardian, April 25, 2011; and Nicks 2012, p. 153.
- PFC Manning's Redacted Statement PFC Manning's Statement Redacted.pdf (MEMORANDUM THRU Civilian Defense Counsel, 2013-01-29)
- "WikiLeaks has more US secrets, Assange says". March 5, 2013. The Age. Retrieved March 5, 2013.
- For Poulsen's relationship with Lamo, see Last, January 11, 2011.
- For more on the relationship, see Greenwald, June 18, 2010.
- For Poulsen's article about Lamo, see Poulsen, May 20, 2010.
- For Lamo's conviction, see Shachtman, Noah, "Adrian Lamo Cuts Deal With Feds", Wired, January 9, 2004.
- Hulme, George V. "With Friends Like This", InformationWeek, July 8, 2002.
- Greenwald, June 18, 2010.
- Greenwald, Glenn. Email exchange between Glenn Greenwald and Kevin Poulsen, June 14–17, 2010.
- Greenwald wrote: "Lamo told me that Manning first emailed him on May 20 and, according to highly edited chat logs released by Wired, had his first online chat with Manning on May 21; in other words, Manning first contacted Lamo the very day that Poulsen's Wired article on Lamo's involuntary commitment appeared (the Wired article is time-stamped 5:46 p.m. on May 20).
- "Lamo, however, told me that Manning found him not from the Wired article – which Manning never mentioned reading – but from searching the word "WikiLeaks" on Twitter, which led him to a tweet Lamo had written that included the word "WikiLeaks." Even if Manning had really found Lamo through a Twitter search for "WikiLeaks," Lamo could not explain why Manning focused on him, rather than the thousands of other people who have also mentioned the word "WikiLeaks" on Twitter, including countless people who have done so by expressing support for WikiLeaks."
- Hansen, July 13, 2011.
- Also see Nicks 2012, pp. 171–184.
- Hansen, July 13, 2011.
- Caesar, December 19, 2010.
- For more on Lamo approaching the authorities, see Zetter, Kim. "In WikiLeaks Case, Bradley Manning Faces the Hacker Who Turned Him In", Wired, December 2011.
- For Chet Uber and the friend reporting what Lamo told them, see Nicks 2012, p. 179.
- Nicks 2012, pp. 225–233; p. 232 for the point about the government having months to prepare.
- For the first Wired story, see Poulsen and Zetter, June 6, 2010.
- For the sequence of events, and Lamo meeting with the FBI, see Greenwald, June 18, 2010.
- Hansen and Poulsen, December 28, 2010.
- For the full chat log, see Hansen, July 13, 2011.
- Poulsen and Zetter, June 16, 2010.
- Nicks 2012, p. 247.
- Ed Pilkington November 29, 2012
- For Manning's lawyer's description of the detention, see "A Typical Day for PFC Bradley Manning", The Law Offices of David E. Coombs, December 18, 2010; archived from the original on April 6, 2012.
- For Manning's own description, see Manning, March 10, 2011, particularly pp. 10–11.
- For the books he requested, see Nicks, Denver. "Bradley Manning's Life Behind Bars", The Daily Beast, December 17, 2010.
- The list was: Decision Points by George W. Bush; Critique of Practical Reason by Immanuel Kant; Critique of Pure Reason by Immanuel Kant; Propaganda by Edward Bernayse; The Selfish Gene by Richard Dawkins; A People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn; The Art of War by Sun Tzu; The Good Soldiers by David Finke; and On War by Gen. Carl von Clausewitz.
- For a description of the jail, see Nakashima, Ellen. "In brig, WikiLeaks suspect Bradley Manning ordered to sleep without clothing", The Washington Post, March 5, 2011.
- For full pay and benefits, see Marshall, Serena. "Court Martial for Bradley Manning in Wikileaks Case?", ABC News, December 22, 2011, p. 2.
- Manning, March 10, 2011, p. 7.
- Nicks 2012, pp. 240–242.
- Manning, March 10, 2011, p. 9ff.
- Nakashima, Ellen. "In brig, WikiLeaks suspect Bradley Manning ordered to sleep without clothing", The Washington Post, March 5, 2011.
- For a sleep garment having been supplied, see Nakashima, Ellen. "WikiLeaks suspect's treatment 'stupid,' U.S. official says", The Washington Post, March 12, 2011.
- For a description of the smock, see "Editorial; The Abuse of Private Manning", The New York Times, March 15, 2011.
- For the UN, see Zetter, Kim. "UN Torture Chief: Bradley Manning Treatment Was Cruel, Inhuman", Wired, March 12, 2012.
- For Amnesty, see "Letter from Amnesty International to Robert M. Gates", Amnesty International, London, January 19, 2011, courtesy of Allvoices.com. Retrieved February 15, 2011.
- For Manning's view of his nationality, see Coombs, David E. "Clarification Regarding PFC Manning's Citizenship", Law Offices of David E. Coombs, February 2, 2011: "There has been some discussion regarding PFC Bradley Manning's citizenship. PFC Manning does not hold a British passport, nor does he consider himself a British citizen. He is an American, and is proud to be serving in the United States Army. His current confinement conditions are troubling to many both here in the United States and abroad. This concern, however, is not a citizenship issue."
- Nakashima, Ellen. "WikiLeaks suspect's treatment 'stupid,' U.S. official says", The Washington Post, March 12, 2011.
- Tapper, Jake and Radia, Kirit. "Comments on Prisoner Treatment Cause State Department Spokesman to Lose His Job", ABC News, March 13, 2011.
- They argued that it was a violation of the Eighth Amendment's prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment, and the Fifth Amendment's guarantee against punishment without trial. See Ackerman, Bruce and Benkler, Yochai. "Private Manning’s Humiliation", The New York Review of Books. Retrieved April 10, 2011.
- Pilkington, Ed. "Bradley Manning's jail conditions improve dramatically after protest campaign", The Guardian, May 4, 2011.
- For the new jail, see "Joint Regional Correction Facility", www.defense.gov. Retrieved May 10, 2012.
- "Panel Says WikiLeaks Suspect Is Competent to Stand Trial", Associated Press, April 29, 2011.
- Rizzo, Jennifer "Bradley Manning charged", CNN, February 23, 2012.
- Rath, Arun. "What Happened At Bradley Manning’s Hearing This Week?", PBS Frontline, December 22, 2011.
- For the army investigators' testimony, see Zetter, December 19, 2011.
- For more from the army investigators, including the reference to Eric Schmiedl, see Dishneau, David and Jelinek, Pauline. "Witness: Manning said leak would lift 'fog of war'", Associated Press, December 19, 2011.
- Also see "Investigators link WikiLeaks suspect to Assange", Agence France-Presse, December 20, 2011.
- Nicks 2012, pp. 137–138; also see Zetter, December 19, 2011.
- For the government overcharging Manning, see Zetter, Kim. "Army Piles on Evidence in Final Arguments in WikiLeaks Hearing", Wired, December 22, 2011.
- For the gender issues, see Radia, Kirit and Martinez, Luis. "Bradley Manning Defense Reveals Alter Ego Named 'Breanna Manning'", ABC News, December 17, 2011.
- Pone, Alyssa. "Bradley Manning Offers Guilty Pleas", ABC News, November 8, 2012.
- Tate, Julie and Nakashima, Ellen. "Judge refuses to dismiss charges against WikiLeaks suspect Bradley Manning", The Washington Post, January 8, 2013.
- O'Brien, Alexa. "Bradley Manning's full statement", Salon, March 1, 2013.
- Brooke 2011, p. 223.
- For the quote from Nicks, see Nicks 2012, pp. 3, 196–197.
- For Michael Mullen, see Jaffe, Greg and Partlow, Joshua. "Mullen says leak put troops and Afghans in danger; WikiLeaks documents include names of informants helping U.S.", The Washington Post, July 30, 2010.
- For Glenn Greenwald, see Fishman, July 3, 2011, p. 8.
- For the Washington Post editorial, see "The right response to WikiLeaks", The Washington Post, editorial, November 30, 2010.
- For Denver Nicks and his discussion of gays in the military, see Nicks 2012, pp. 3, 196–197.
- For example, see Horne, Nigel. "Tunisia: WikiLeaks had a part in Ben Ali's downfall", The Week, January 15, 2011, and Rosenbach, Marcel and Schmitz, Gregor Peter. "US Determined to Punish Bradley Manning", Der Spiegel, December 15, 2011.
- For the ice-cream from Saint-Tropez, see Brooke 2011, p. 225.
- For the ice-cream and the WikiLeaks connection, also see Horne, Nigel. "Tunisia: WikiLeaks had a part in Ben Ali's downfall", The Week, January 15, 2011.
- For the cable mentioning the ice-cream, see "A Selection From the Cache of Diplomatic Dispatches", The New York Times.
- For the approximate date of the ice-cream cable's first publication, and Tunisia's blocking of a Lebanese website covering it, see Black, Ian. "WikiLeaks cables: Tunisia blocks site reporting 'hatred' of first lady", The Guardian, December 7, 2010.
- For the cables and WikiLeaks as catalysts, see Malinowski, Tom. "Whispering at Autocrats", Foreign Policy, January 25, 2011.
- For WikiLeaks and the newspapers that published the material as catalysts, see Walker, Peter. "Amnesty International hails WikiLeaks and Guardian as Arab spring 'catalysts'", The Guardian, May 13, 2011.
- For the same view, see "Introduction", Annual Report 2011, Amnesty International. Retrieved April 7, 2012.
- Also see Rosenbach, Marcel and Schmitz, Gregor Peter. "US Determined to Punish Bradley Manning", Der Spiegel, December 15, 2011.
- For more on Manning and the protests, see "In the year of the protester, Bradley Manning is the great dissenter", The Irish Times, December 24, 2011.
- For analysis of Manning's impact, see Nicks 2012, pp. 212–216.
- For Time, see "Time's Person of the Year: the Protester", Time magazine, December 14, 2011.
- For WikiLeaks coming under pressure, see Brooke 2011, p. 223.
- For how the support network was formed, see Nicks 2012, pp. 222–223.
- For Mike Gogulski and the Courage to Resist, see Savage, Michael W. "Army analyst linked to WikiLeaks hailed as antiwar hero", The Washington Post, August 14, 2010.
- For the $15,100 from WikiLeaks, see "WikiLeaks contributes to Manning defense, support group says", CNN, January 15, 2011; for other donations, see "The Bradley Manning Defense Fund", Courage to Resist.
- Brooke, Heather. The Revolution Will Be Digitised. William Heinemann, 2011.
- Domscheit-Berg, Daniel. Inside WikiLeaks. Doubleday, 2011.
- Fowler, Andrew. The Most Dangerous Man in the World. Skyhorse Publishing, 2011.
- Leigh, David and Harding, Luke. WikiLeaks: Inside Julian Assange's War on Secrecy. Guardian Books, 2011.
- Nicks, Denver. Private: Bradley Manning, WikiLeaks, and the Biggest Exposure of Official Secrets in American History. Chicago Review Press, 2012.
- Key articles
- Caesar, Ed. "Bradley Manning: Wikileaker", The Sunday Times, December 19, 2010; archived from the original on April 7, 2012.
- Fishman, Steve. "Bradley Manning’s Army of One", New York Magazine, July 3, 2011.
- Greenwald, Glenn. "The strange and consequential case of Bradley Manning, Adrian Lamo and WikiLeaks", Salon, June 18, 2010.
- Last, Jonathan V. "The Left's Canonization of St. Bradley Manning", CBS News, January 11, 2011.
- Manning, Bradley. "Memorandum", released by David Coombs, March 10, 2011; archived from the original on April 6, 2012.
- Nakashima, Ellen. "Bradley Manning is at the center of the WikiLeaks controversy. But who is he?", The Washington Post, May 4, 2011; archived from the original on April 7, 2012.
- Nicks, Denver. "Private Manning and the Making of Wikileaks", This Land, September 23, 2010.
- PBS Frontline. "Bradley Manning's Facebook Page", March 2011; archived from the original on April 7, 2011.
- Thompson, Ginger. "Early Struggles of Soldier Charged in Leak Case", The New York Times, August 8, 2010.
- Zetter, Kim. "Jolt in WikiLeaks Case: Feds Found Manning-Assange Chat Logs on Laptop", Wired, December 19, 2011.
- Key articles regarding the Lamo-Manning chat log, in order of publication
- Poulsen, Kevin. "Ex-Hacker Adrian Lamo Institutionalized for Asperger’s", Wired magazine, May 20, 2010.
- Poulsen, Kevin and Zetter, Kim. "U.S. Intelligence Analyst Arrested in WikiLeaks Video Probe", Wired magazine, June 6, 2010.
- Poulsen, Kevin and Zetter, Kim. 'I Can't Believe What I'm Confessing to You': The WikiLeaks Chats", Wired magazine, June 10, 2010.
- Nakashima, Ellen. "Messages from alleged leaker Bradley Manning portray him as despondent soldier", The Washington Post, June 10, 2010.
- Greenwald, Glenn. Email exchange between Glenn Greenwald and Kevin Poulsen, June 14–17, 2010.
- Poulsen, Kevin and Zetter, Kim. "Three Weeks After Arrest, Still No Charges in WikiLeaks Probe", Wired magazine, June 16, 2010.
- Xeni, Jardin. "WikiLeaks: a somewhat less redacted version of the Lamo/Manning logs", Boing Boing, June 19, 2010.
- Greenwald, Glenn. "The worsening journalistic disgrace at Wired", Salon, December 27, 2010.
- Hansen, Evan and Poulsen, Kevin. "Putting the Record Straight on the Lamo-Manning Chat Logs", Wired magazine, December 28, 2010.
- Greenwald, Glenn. "Wired's refusal to release or comment on the Manning chat logs", Salon, December 29, 2010.
- Firedoglake. "Manning/WikiLeaks timeline", published as a complete version of the released excerpts. Retrieved March 14, 2011; archived from the original on March 28, 2012.
- Hansen, Evan. "Manning-Lamo Chat Logs Revealed", Wired magazine, July 13, 2011; archived from the original on March 28, 2012.
- Smith, Martin. "The Private Life of Bradley Manning", PBS Frontline, March 7, 2011.
- Smith, Teresa et al. "The madness of Bradley Manning?", The Guardian, May 27, 2011.
Further reading 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Bradley Manning|
- Khatchadourian, Raffi. "No Secrets", The New Yorker, June 7, 2010.
- The Guardian. "Afghanistan: The War Logs". Retrieved May 9, 2012.
- The Guardian. "Iraq: The War Logs". Retrieved May 9, 2012.
- The New York Times. "The War Logs. Retrieved May 9, 2012.
- Wired. "Bradley Manning". Retrieved May 8, 2012.
- Assange, Julian and O'Hagan, Andrew. Julian Assange: The Unauthorised Autobiography. Canongate, 2011.
- Madar, Chase. The Passion of Bradley Manning. OR Books, 2012.
- Mitchell, Greg and Gosztola, Kevin. Truth and Consequences: The U.S. vs. Bradley Manning. Sinclair Books, 2012.
- Price, Tim. The Radicalisation of Bradley Manning. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2012 (play).
- Broom, Kyle. "Prevention of Injury (POI)", a short dramatization of the account given by Manning in his letter to the army (Manning, March 10, 2011); also see ImDb. Retrieved April 8, 2012.
- Democracy Now. Bradley Manning video archive, 2011–present.
- Gonzales, Juan and Goodman, Amy. "Glenn Greenwald on the Assange Extradition Ruling, the Jailing of Bradley Manning ...", Democracy Now!, February 24, 2011.
- Miller, Michelle. "Private", CBS News, April 26, 2012, interview with Denver Nicks, author of Private (2012), Manning's biography.
- Nicks, Denver. "Private Manning Speaks", This Land, September 22, 2010.
- Price, Tim and McGrath, John. "The Radicalisation of Bradley Manning", National Theatre Wales, April 12–28, 2012.
- Legal documents
- "U.S. v Bradley Manning", scribd.com. Retrieved April 7, 2012.