Brahma Kumaris World Spiritual University

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Brahma Kumaris World Spiritual University
Formation 1930s
Type Spiritual Organisation
Headquarters Mount Abu, Rajasthan, India
Official language Hindi, English
Founder Lekhraj Kripalani (1884–1969), known as "Brahma Baba"
Key people Janki Kripalani, Hirdaya Mohini
Website International, India

The Brahma Kumaris World Spiritual University (Prajapita Brahma Kumaris Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya) is a millenarian new religious movement linked to the Hindu tradition [1] whose teachings have been derived from mediumship and spirit possession.[2][3][4]

The Brahma Kumari movement (Hindi: ब्रह्माकुमारी, abbreviated BK) was founded by Lekhraj Kripalani in the Sind in the 1930s.[5] It is noted for its female leadership.[5][6] Kripalani later took the name Brahma Baba.[5]

It teaches a form of meditation they call Raja Yoga.[7] In 2008, the movement claimed to have more than 825,000 followers in over 100 countries.[5]

Early history[edit]

Om Mandali[edit]

The Brahma Kumaris was originally called Om Mandali. The group started in Hyderabad, Sindh in north-west India.[8] It received this name because they would chant "Om" together. The original discourses were closely connected to the Bhagavad Gita[8] The founder, Lekhraj Khubchand Kripilani (1884 – 1969) was a wealthy jeweler [9] who had a series of visions and other transcendental experiences as did many of those who attended the gatherings.[8] The majority of those who came were women and children from the Bhaiband and Amil jatis, [10] a wealthy merchants and their adminstrators, whose menfolk spent considerable periods of time overseas for business.[11]

In response to legal actions from a number of husbands, 22 year old Radhe Pokardas Rajwani was named as its President and a management committee was made up of 8 other women was establish to protect the founder's assets [12] and they allowed people from any caste to attend satsang.[13] Its founder was accused of dividing families, breaching the peace, impropriety with the women and insulting local leaders. In addition, he withdrew his daughter from her husband's family and encourage women to refuse conjugal rights to their husbands. [14] [11]

Anti-Om Mandali Committee picketing satsan - Hyderabad Sind India 1938

On 21 June 1938 a committee headed by a number of highly regarded male members of the Bhaibund community that had been forming in opposition to Om Mandali.[11] The picketing resulted in criminal proceedings being taken against both groups and on 16 August 1938 the local District Magistrate ordered that Om Mandali be restrained from meeting.[12] Om Mandali relocated from Hyderabad to Karachi in the latter half of 1938, approximately 300 members moving with it. On application to the Court of the Judicial Commissioner of Sind orders were made on 21 November 1938 that vindicated Om Mandali, removing the ban and removing them from the criminal proceedings.[12]

Om Mandali group on an outing at Clifton beach Karachi Approximately 1940

On 31 March 1939 the government appointed a Tribunal to inquire into the activities of Om Mandali. The Tribunal had no constitutional basis and was ex parte[12] Om Mandali continued to hold their Satsangs in spite of the ban.[11][13]

Expansion[edit]

A photo of the Brahma Kumaris during their relocation from Karachi to Mount Abu Rajasthan in May 1950

In May 1950 Om Mandli moved to Mount Abu in Rajastan India. In 1952, after a 14-year period of retreat, a more structured form of teaching began to be offered to the public by way of a seven lesson course.[15]

After an unpromising beginning when it almost ran out of funds,[16] from the mid 1950s the Brahma Kumaris began an international expansion program.[17] Since the 1970s, it spread to first London and then the West.[16][18] The most visible manifestation of the religion are its "Spiritual Museums" sited in most major India cities where its teachings are conveyed vividly.[16] The leadership and membership of the BK movement remains primarily female, for example, in the UK only one-third of the 42 centres are run by males [19] and 80% of the membership are women.[20] According to the BKWSU website, there are currently over 4,500 centres in 100 countries, mostly in followers' own homes with a tendency toward middle or upper class membership. Estimates for its worldwide membership ranges from 35,000 in 1993 to 400,000 in 1998[21] to 450,000 in 2000,[22] however, it is reported that many were probably not completely committed to the group's worldview.[23]

Beliefs[edit]

The movement has distinguished itself from its Hindu roots.[6][22][24] It's goal is not enlightenment but perfection but perfection.[25] It claims to believe that all souls are intrinsically good [26] and aspires to establish a heaven on earth for 900,000 BK followers in which life spans will increase to 150 years and sexual reproduction will transpire through yogic power and not sexual union [27] based on what they call "soul-consciousness".[5]

Self[edit]

According to Brahma Kumari belief, human beings are made up two parts; body and soul.[3] The body is the vehicle that the soul acts through. The group teachers that the soul is an infinitesimal point of spiritual light residing in the forehead of the body it occupies [3] and that all souls originally existed with their God in a "Soul World", a world of infinite light, peace and silence they call Paramdham. Here, they claim souls are in a state of complete rest and beyond experience before entering bodies to take birth in order to experience life and give expression to their personality. Unlike other Eastern traditions, the human soul is not thought to transmigrate into other species.[3]

God[edit]

Brahma Kumaris believe God to be an incorporeal point of light

Brahma Kumaris follower use the words 'Supreme Soul' to refer to their God. This God, they claim, is incorporeal and eternal, a point of living light like human souls, but without a physical body as he does not enter the cycle of birth, death and rebirth. According to adherents, the difference between human souls and their God is that He is seen as the perfect and constant embodiment of all virtues, powers and values; the unconditionally loving Father of all souls, irrespective of their religion, gender, or culture. [3] The Brahma Kumaris believe their God's purpose to be the spiritually re-awakening of humanity and the removal of all sorrow, evil and negativity. They do regard him as the creator of matter as they consider it to be eternal.[3]

Until 1955, the religion considered their founder to be God.[28] They now claim their founder was only the medium for a separate spiritual being who possessed him and called it Shiva Baba [29] after the Hindu god Shiva.

Cycle of time[edit]

The BKs believe time to be an identically repeating 5,000 year cycle, composed of four ages (yugas): the Golden Age (Sat Yuga), the Silver Age (Treta Yuga), the Copper Age (Dwapar Yuga), the Iron Age (Kali Yuga) and each represents 1250 years of the cycle.[30] The present era[when?]is sometimes described as a fifth age or "Confluence age" as it's considered to be the junction between the Iron and Golden ages. [30]

The first half of the cycle (the Golden and Silver ages) is considered to be heaven on earthy, their version of the Garden of Eden when human beings are fully virtuous, complete, self-realised beings who lived in complete harmony with the natural environment. The second half to be hell, a period of increasing impurity and ignorance until it reaches it lowest point in the 1930s following which it will be destroyed by civil and global conflicts, natural calamities and ultimately a Nuclear war which will kill off the rest of humanity. It is believed there will always be a human population on Earth and the cataclysmic events the BKs call "Destruction" form part of a natural and cathartic cyclic process.[31]

Karma[edit]

The Brahma Kumaris believe that every action performed by a soul will create a return accordingly, and that the destiny of the soul’s next body depends on how it acts and behaves in this life. Through meditation, by transforming thinking patterns and eventually actions, the Brahma Kumaris believe that people can purify their "karmic account" and lead a better life in the present and next birth.[citation needed]

Practices[edit]

Meditation[edit]

The Brahma Kumaris teaches a form of open eyed meditation they call Raja Yoga [3][32] but which differs from the ancient Raja Yoga described by Patanjali,[6] sitting in front of a picture of Lehkraj Kirpalani. They believe it purifies them and brings them success in business. [33]

Beliefs[edit]

Dadi Gulzar - the leading Brahma Kumari medium who they God speak through.

Brahma Kumaris' scripture, based on channeled messages they believe are from god, is called the "murli" after the Hindi word the flute played by god Krishna. It is read to the members each morning in most BK centres on the world.

There are two types of murli:[34]

  1. Sakar Murlis refer to the original orations that BKs believe to be the Supreme Soul speaking through Lekhraj Kirpalani.
  2. Avyakt Murlis, are spoken by "BapDada" who BKs believe is the combined form of their God and the soul of their deceased founder. BapDada comes and speaks to the BKs through a senior BK medium called Dadi Gulzar.[35]

Avyakt murlis are still being spoken at the BKs headquarters in India. Students must complete the Brahma Kumaris foundation course and start by attending morning Murli class before visiting the headquarters.[36]

Lifestyle[edit]

Brahma Kumaris recommend a specific lifestyle[11][37] in order achieve greater control over physical senses. This includes;

  • Complete celibacy [38][39] in or out of marriage[39][40]
  • Sattvic vegetarianism, a strict lacto-vegetarian diet[41] (excluding eggs, onions, garlic and/or spicy food) cooked only by the self or other members of the BKWSU.[38][42]
  • Abstaining from alcohol, tobacco and non-prescription drugs.[38][41]
  • Daily early morning meditation at 4:00[38] to 4:45 am, called 'Amrit Vela'.
  • Daily morning class at approximately 6:30 am.[43][44]
  • Men and women traditionally sit on separate sides of the room at the centres during classes.[38]
  • Wearing white clothes to symbolise purity.[45][46][47]
  • Keeping the company of other BK followers as opposed to "bhogis" (non-BKs given over to worldly pleasures).[38]

Activities[edit]

BK Sister Shivani Verma presenting an Awakening with Brahmakumaris program in Bangkok.

The Brahma Kumaris teach an induction course consisting of seven one-hour-long sessions. These sessions include introductions to their open-eyed meditation technique and philosophy. The organisation also offers courses in positive thinking, leadership, and values.[48] They also have a number of voluntary outreach programs in prisons [49] and operate retreat centres.[50]

The United Nations[edit]

The BKWSU is an international non-governmental organisation (NGO) in general consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations[51] and UNICEF.[52] It is associated with the UN Department of Public Information.[53]

It was granted International Peace Messenger Initiative status by the U.N. for the Global Co-operation for a Better World campaign,[54] and rents a small office space in New York for their work at the United Nations.[34][55]

Environmental[edit]

A large solar generator at the Brahma Kumaris HQ

In 2000, the BKs were funded by the German and Indian governments [56] to develop the then world's largest solar cooker.[57] A few followers do organic farming.[58][59]

Healthcare[edit]

In more recent years the Brahma Kumaris have started to manage hospitals funded by third party charities for their own and local use, e.g. the Global Hospital and Research Centre (1991), funded by the J. Wattammull Memorial Trust, and the G.V. Mody Rural Health Care Centre & Eye Hospital (2004), located at the base of Mount Abu.[60]

Achievements and recognition[edit]

The Brahma Kumaris was awarded 7 UN Peace Messenger Awards 1987 for its co-ordination of the "Million Minutes of Peace" project.[61] The group were praised for its promotion of UNESCO's International Year for the Culture of Peace in 2000.[62]

Controversies and criticism[edit]

  • For most of its history, the organisation placed emphasis on the annihilation of modern civilization and a forthcoming genocide of the rest of humanity by nuclear war which they called Destruction based on Kirpalani's cataclysmic visions.[34] Latterly, members refer to Destruction as "Transformation".[63] The group had also made many failed predictions of the violent destruction of the world.[15][64] Ideas relating to Destruction tends to be hidden from the general public.[65] The Brahma Kumaris have been criticised for hiding or down playing the significance of Destruction from non-members,[66] particularly as BKs still believe it will happen "soon". However the BKs maintain their primary purpose is to teach meditation and peace of mind, not to push their views about the different challenges the world is facing on non-members who have usually just come to about learn meditation or values based living.[67]
  • Lekhraj Kirpalani was accused of forming a cult and controlling his community through the art of hypnotism.[12]
  • Pratibha Patil, the UPA-Left candidate and former president of India said on camera during the Indian presidential election, 2007, that she spoke to "Baba" (a term the BKs use for God)[68] of the Brahma Kumaris World Spiritual University at their headquarters in Mount Abu, Rajasthan.[69] Patil stated that when she meet Baba He had indicated great responsibility was coming her way.[68][70][71] She had gone to seek the blessings of Hirday Mohini, also known as Dadi Gulzar or Dadiji.[72]
  • In the Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Howell reported the Brahma Kumaris protected itself from the practice of families 'dumping' their daughters with the organisation by requiring a payment from the families of those wishing to dedicate their daughters to the work and services of the organisation. The payment was to cover the living expenses incurred during the trial period.[73]
  • Dr. John Wallis wrote a book examining the status of tradition in the contemporary world which used the religion as a case-study,[74] focusing on recruitment methods, the issue of celibacy, reinterpretation of religious history. He reports about the re-writing of the revelatory messages (Murlis) by the BKWSU leaders and anger and aggression towards the Adhyatmik Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya. (The Adhyatmik Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya or Advance Party).[75][76]
  • The Brahma Kumaris have been accused of breaking up marriages.[77][78]
  • The Brahma Kumaris used a commercial enterprise to introduce Brahma Kumari meditation practice and philosophy to the Government of Mexico through the "Self Management Leadership" (SML). Its influence reach a high level of government.[79]

See also[edit]

Associated concepts
General

References[edit]

Citations
  1. ^ Encyclopedia of New Religious Movements. Peter Clarke. Routledge, 2006, ISBN 0-203-59897-0 (Adobe e-reader format)
  2. ^ Musselwhite, Richard (Sep 2009). Possessing knowledge: organizational boundaries among the Brahma Kumaris (pdf). University of North Carolina. pp. 51–52. "The most recognizable religious feature of the Brahma Kumaris institution is spirit-possession. Ever since God possessed the body of Dada Lekhraj for the first time in 1935, God has continued to descend and possess the body of a Brahma Kumaris host in order to speak to them." "Far from seeking to undermine or protest the world’s hegemonic orders, the Brahma Kumaris practise of spirit-possession seeks to quicken it in preparation for the end of days. One could argue that the Brahma Kumaris’ ultimate aims are subversive (because they anticipate the end of the world), but the Brahma Kumaris never seek to undermine global order." 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Ramsay, Tamasin (Sep 2010). "8: Spirit Possession and Purity in Orissa". Custodians of Purity An Ethnography of the Brahma Kumaris (PhD). Monash University. pp. 277–278, 281. "However Brahma Kumaris women become core members by being fully 'surrendered,’ and their prominence derives from their mediumistic capacities, channelling murlis (sermons) from their dead founder. As a result, their power is veiled...through the device of possession... Hence, the importance of spirit possession, where women are the instruments or mouthpieces of a male spirit. (p277-278, citing Puttick 2003)
    Possession in the Brahma Kumaris is supported by solid cultural logic that sits in a receptacle of history and tradition. (p281)"
     
  4. ^ Ramsay, Tamasin. Spirit possession and purity: A case study of a Brahma Kumaris ascetic. Paper presented at the conference on Medical Anthropology at the Intersections: Celebrating 50 Years of Interdisciplinarity, Yale University, New Haven, USA, September 24‐27 2009.
  5. ^ a b c d e Religions of the World. A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices. J Gordon Melton and Martin Baumann. ABC-CLEO, LLC 2010, ISBN 978-1-57884-203-6
  6. ^ a b c Reender Kranenborg (1999). "Brahma Kumaris: A New Religion?". Center for Studies on New Religions. Retrieved 2007-07-27. "A preliminary version of a paper presented at CESNUR 99" 
  7. ^ Religions of the World. A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices. J Gordon Melton and Martin Baumann. Facts on File Inc, 2007, ISBN 0-8160-5458-4
  8. ^ a b c "4. Brahma Kumaris: Purity and the Globalization of Faith". Flows of Faith: Religious Reach and Community in Asia and Pacific. Springer Science + Business Media. 2012. p. 51. ISBN 978-94-007-2931-5. 
  9. ^ "4. Brahma Kumaris: Purity and the Globalization of Faith". Flows of Faith: Religious Reach and Community in Asia and Pacific. Springer Science + Business Media. 2012. p. 52. ISBN 978-94-007-2931-5. 
  10. ^ Babb, Lawrence (1984). "Indigenous feminism in a modern Hindu sect, Signs:". Journal of Women in Culture and Society 9 (3): 399–416. doi:10.1086/494068. 
  11. ^ a b c d e Hodgkinson, Liz (2002). Peace and Purity: The Story of the Brahma Kumaris a Spiritual Revolution. HCI. p. 19. ISBN 1-55874-962-4. 
  12. ^ a b c d e Pokardas, Om Radhe (1939). Is this Justice? Being an account of the founding of Om Mandali and Om Nivas and their suppression under the Criminal Laws Amendment Act 1908. Om Mandali, Pharmacy Printing Press, Bunder Road Karachi. 
  13. ^ a b Chander, B. K Jagdish (1981). Adi Dev: The first man. B.K. Raja Yoga Center for the Brahma Kumaris World Spiritual University. 
  14. ^ Anti Om Mandli Committee (1940). Om Mandli : a true authenticated story about its activities being a reply to "Is This Justice" (pdf). Hyderabad, Sind: Anti Om Mandli Committee. "transcription published by www.brahmakumaris.info" 
  15. ^ a b Walliss, John (2002). From World-Rejection to Ambivalence. Ashgate Publishing. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-7546-0951-3. "Lekhraj was born in Sindh in 1876 into the Kriplani family who were devotees of the Valabhacharya sect." 
  16. ^ a b c A Reader in New Religious Movements: Readings in the Study of New Religious Movements. George D. Chryssides, Margaret Wilkins, Margaret Z. Wilkins. Continuum, 2006. ISBN 0-8264-6168-9
  17. ^ Howell (1998)[page needed]
  18. ^ Religion & globalization: world religions in historical perspective. Esposito, John L. Fasching, Darrell J. Lewis, Todd Thornton. Oxford University Press, 2002 - P. 340
  19. ^ Howell (1998)[page needed]
  20. ^ 'Why are Women More Religious Than Men?' Trzebiatowska, Marta. Bruce, Steve. Oxford University Press, 2012. ISBN 0-19-960810-5,
  21. ^ "Adherent Statistic Citations". Adherents.com. Retrieved 2007-08-20. "Worldwide, this path has 4000 centres and approximately 400,000 members." 
  22. ^ a b Julia Day Howell (2006), "Brahma Kumaris (Daughters of Brahma)" (pp. 71–72). In: Clarke, Peter B. (2006). Encyclopedia of new religious movements. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-48433-3. Retrieved 26 March 2011. 
  23. ^ Howell (2006) p72" Since the [Brahma Kumaris] University spread to Western societies it has increasingly accommodated people with little interest in its theodicy but attracted to the practical applications of BK spiritual practises. The community service programmes of the 1980s and 1990s stimulated creative renderings of BK meditation as a tool for psychological healing and eclectic spiritual exploration. The casual participants whom the BKs have attracted in this way probably made up the vast majority of the 450,000 people on the University's records at the turn of the 20th to 21st century".
  24. ^ Howell (2006) p71
  25. ^ Encyclopedia of New Religious Movements. Peter Clarke. Routledge, 2006, ISBN 0-203-59897-0 (Adobe e-reader format)
  26. ^ Religions of the World. A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices. J Gordon Melton and Martin Baumann. Facts on File Inc, 2007, ISBN 0-8160-5458-4
  27. ^ Satyug is as Sure as Death [1]
  28. ^ "The world philanthropist God Brahma, devoted all his wealth to finance this institution which was significantly named as 'Rajasva Asvamedh Avinashi Gyan Yagya'. Author World Religion Congress, Shimizu City, Japan Contributor Ananai-Kyo Published 1954 Original from the University of Michigan Digitized 29 March 2006
  29. ^ Peace & Purity: the Story of the Brahma Kumaris, Liz Hodgkinson. Page 58
  30. ^ a b Barrett, David V (2001). The New Believers. Cassell & Co. p. 265. ISBN 0-304-35592-5. "Time is cyclical with each 5,000-year cycle consisting of a perfect Golden Age, a slightly degraded Silver age, a decadent Copper Age, and an Iron Age which is characterised by violence, greed, and lust. Each of these lasts for exactly 1,250 years. Our current Iron Age will shortly come to an end, after which the cycle will begin again." 
  31. ^ "Brahma Kumaris: Conquering A Callous World with Purity". Hinduism Today. Retrieved 2007-07-18. 
  32. ^ Bartholomeusz, Tessa J.; Clayton, John; Collins (1994). Women under the Bo Tree: Buddhist nuns in Sri Lanka. Cambridge Studies in Religious Traditions. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-46129-0. 
  33. ^ Chryssides, George (2011). Historical Dictionary of New Religious Movements. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-7967-0. "Members are encouraged to purify their minds by the practise of Raja Yoga. This can entail sitting tranquilly, in front of a screen which Dada Lehkraj's picture projected, then making a number of "affirmations", regarding the eternal nature of the soul (atma), the original purity of one's nature, and the nature of God (paramatmā Shiva). The Brahma Kumaris believe that practise of Raja Yoga enables spiritual progress as well as having pragmatic benefits, for example, business success. Brahma Kumaris frequently organise seminars on business management and on developing personal life skills" 
  34. ^ a b c Whaling, Frank (2012). Understanding the Brahma Kumaris. Dunedin Academic Press Ltd. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-903765-51-7. 
  35. ^ "Brahma Kumaris: Landmarks in History". BKWSU. Retrieved 2007-07-18. 
  36. ^ "On celibate marriages: the Polish Catholics' encounter with Hindu spirituality". Glancing: Visual Interaction in Hinduism", Journal of Anthropological Research. 1998. "in order to progress to the next stage of membership – the visit to the University's headquarters in Rajasthan during the period where its deceased founder communicates via trance-medium – they have to not only demonstrate their commitment by following the recommended lifestyle but also, more importantly, be seen to be doing so by the university. this is instrinsicly linked with the second technique, the utilisation and negotiation of different metaphors or readings of the university's theodicy at the different events and in different types of literature in relation to its intended (core or periphery) audience" ... "amongst committed, core members "...the tradition is lived [and expressed] without apology, translation or dilution"." 
  37. ^ Lochtefeld, PhD, James G. (2002). "Brahma Kumaris". The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism I. New York: Rosen. ISBN 0-8239-3179-X. 
  38. ^ a b c d e f Babb, Lawrence A. (1987). Redemptive Encounters: Three Modern Styles in the Hindu Tradition. Comparative Studies in Religion and Society. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-7069-2563-7. 
  39. ^ a b Wilson, Bryan; Eileen Barker; James Beckford; Anthony Bradney; Colin Campbell; George Chryssies; Peter Clarke; Paul Heelas; Massimo Introvigne; Lawrence Lilliston; Gordon Melton; Elizabeth Puttick; Gary Sherpherd; Colin Slee; Frank Usarski (1999). Wilson, Bryan, ed. New Religious Movements: Challenge and Response. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-20049-3. 
  40. ^ Milner, Murray (1994). Status and sacredness: a general theory of status relations and an analysis of Indian culture. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-508489-4. 
  41. ^ a b Bartholomeusz, Tessa J. (1994). Women Under the Bo Tree: Buddhist Nuns in Sri Lanka. Cambridge Studies in Religious Traditions. New York: Rosen. ISBN 0-521-46129-4. "series edited by John Clayton (University of Lancaster), Steven Collins (University of Chicago) and Nicholas de Lange (University of Cambridge)" 
  42. ^ "Brahma Kumaris: Conquering A Callous World with Purity". Hinduism Today. Retrieved 2007-07-28. "The most strict will not eat food which is not prepared by a Brahma Kumaris. While traveling they abstain from public fare and carry their own utensils for cooking." 
  43. ^ Whaling, Prof Frank (2004). Partridge, Christopher; Melton, Gorden, eds. Encyclopedia of New Religions; New Religious Movements, Sects and Alternative Spiritualities. New York: Rosen. ISBN 0-7459-5073-6. 
  44. ^ Liz Hodgkinson, Peace & Purity: the story of the Brahma Kumaris, 2002, p. 96.
  45. ^ Hinnells, John (1997). The Penguin Dictionary of Religions. Extract by Eileen Barker. Rosen, New York. ISBN 0-14-051261-6. 
  46. ^ Barker, Eileen (1989). New Religious Movement: A Practical Introduction. London: HMSO. pp. 168–70. ISBN 0-14-051261-6. 
  47. ^ Melton, J. Gordon (1993). The Encyclopedia of American Religions (4th ed.). Detroit: Gale. pp. 909–10. 
  48. ^ Nesbitt, Eleanor; A. Henderson (April 2003). "Religious Organisations in the UK and Values Education Programmes for Schools". Journal of Beliefs and Values, 24 (1): 75–88. doi:10.1080/1361767032000053015. 
  49. ^ Bedi, Kiran (2007). It's Always Possible : One Woman's Transformation of India's Prison System. Himalayan Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-89389-258-6. 
  50. ^ Housden, Roger (1995). Retreat. Thorsons. pp. 62–63. ISBN 1-85538-490-6.
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  52. ^ "List of UN NGO and respective status within UNICEF". UNO. Retrieved 2007-07-22. 
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  60. ^ "Brahma Kumaris: Global Hospital". BKWSU. Retrieved 2007-07-23. 
  61. ^ Walliss, John (September 1999). When Prophecy Fails: The Brahma Kumaris and the Pursuit of the Millennium(s). p. 5. "...The Million Minutes of Peace which raised over one billion 'minutes of peace' people in 88 countries participating in prayer, meditation and positive thoughts. For this the University was awarded one International and six UN National 'Peace Messenger' Awards." 
  62. ^ Joshua, Anita (30 November 2000). "Youngsters sign up for peace culture". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 2000-11-30. 
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  64. ^ Jain, Chandra Mohan (1983). Guida Spirituale. Rajneesh Foundation International. pp. 98–99. ISBN 0-88050-575-3. "The other is these Brahma Kumaris, they have not reached the whole world, they have remained confined to India. They talk utter nonsense, and they talk with authority. And they go on saying everything. This date that you mention that in 1987 this world will end... This date has changed many times in thirty years, and it will change again.." 
  65. ^ Miller, Sam (2010). Delhi: Adventures in a Megacity. Penguin India. ISBN 0-09-952674-3. "The movement's very strong millenarian belief are underplayed" 
  66. ^ Beit-Hallahmi, Benjaminin (August 2003). "Apocalyptic Dreams and Religious Ideologies: Losing and Saving Self and World". The Psychoanalytical Review 90 (4): 403–439. doi:10.1521/prev.90.4.403.23912. ISBN 0-304-35592-5. "A case study of Brahma Kumaris, a contemporary group characterised by an apocalyptic vision." 
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  73. ^ Howell (1998)[page needed]
  74. ^ Walliss, John (2002). The Brahma Kumaris As a Reflexive Tradition: Responding to Late Modernity.
  75. ^ Walliss, John (Sep 1999). "When Prophecy Fails: The Brahma Kumaris and the Pursuit of the Millennium(s)". British Association for the Advancement of Science, Sheffield. "In addition, they accuse the University hierarchy of actively censoring or altering murlis that could potentially undermine their privileged position or which 'don't suit their philosophy'. The 'Special instruments' (senior members are, they allege 'constantly revising Murlis" to the extent that, for example, a passage from a 1969 murli referring to Shiva being unable to 'mount a virgin' was altered in the 1990 revised edition before being removed completely in the 1993 revision..." Dr. Walliss also notes that while the BKWSU was, "originally a reclusive, world-rejecting organization, over the last 30 years the Brahma Kumaris have begun a campaign of active proselytizing and international growth. Thus, whilst still retaining its original millenarianism, currently within the West the organization promotes itself as part of the New Age movement and emphasizes ideas around the issues of self-development, empowerment and personal success." Finally, Dr. Wallis disputes BKWSU's belief that Raja Yoga is the precursor to all world religions, including those that historically predate it. Specifically, "This is part of a lengthy answer to the question of how the University could claim that Raja Yoga is the precursor to and influence of world religions that historically predate it often by a few thousand years. Again, 'Baba' is cited as the source of ultimate authority."" 
  76. ^ Adhyatmik Ishwariya Vishwa Vidyalaya [God Fatherly Spiritual University]. Pbks.info. Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
  77. ^ Smith, Dr Wendy A. (Autumn 2007). "Asian New Religious Movements as global cultural systems". International Institute for Asian Studies 45: 16–17. "Conversion involves members changing their daily lifestyles and even leaving long term relationships...Married converts have often had to forgo their marriage partnerships." 
  78. ^ Kościańska, Agnieszka Z (15–17 May 2003). "On celibate marriages: the Polish Catholics' encounter with Hindu spirituality". On the Margins of Religion, Institute of Ethnology and Cultural Anthropology, Warsaw University. 
  79. ^ Musselwhite (2009), pp. 141, 163–164, 174. "The problem was that up until that time, my relationship with him had been through the Brahma Kumaris; but now he was President, and he wanted to use...not only Self Management Leadership, but the whole strategic focusing thing, and his party was the centre-right, Catholic party. They're sufficiently fundamentalist for them to have a fit about Brahma Kumaris" "So we went there, but it had to be done within the context of a commercial enterprise. So, we set up a branch of a consulting company there. But the fact of the matter is, most of his senior people have...been to Oxford for the Brahma Kumaris program. Many have been here to Madhuban.... So the Brahma Kumaris have had a huge influence in the reform process there [in Mexico].... We have trained 90 facilitators from the government who are running these programs, 25,000 people, all the top level of government throughout the entire country have been through the course.", " a management training program called Self Management Leadership, which has become the backbone of Brahma Kumaris management philosophy"
Bibliography

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