From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Brahmins)
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the social caste. For other uses, see Brahmin (disambiguation).

Brahmin (/ˈbrɑːmɪn/; also called Brahmana; from the Sanskrit brāhmaṇa ब्राह्मण) are traditional Hindu societies of India, Nepal and the Far East.[citation needed]

Brahman, Brahmin, and Brahma have different meanings. Brahman refers to the Supreme Self. Brahmin (or Brahmana) refers to an individual belonging to the Hindu priest, artists, teachers, technicians class (varna or pillar of the society) and also to an individual belonging to the Brahmin tribe/caste into which an individual is born; while the word Brahma refers to the creative aspect of the universal consciousness or God. Because the priest / Acharya is knowledgeable about Brahma (the God), and is responsible for religious rituals in temples and homes and is a person authorized after rigorous training in vedas (sacred texts of knowledge) and religious rituals to provide advice and impart knowledge of God to members of the society and assist in attainment of moksha, the liberation from life cycle; the priest / Acharya class is called "Brahmin varna." The English word brahmin is an anglicized form of the Sanskrit word Brāhmana.

According to ancient Indian philosophers and scholars, the human society comprises four pillars or classes called varnas or colors. In the ancient Indian texts such as Smritis, vedas, upanishads, puranas, etc., these four "varnas" or classes or pillars of the society are: the priests / Acharya (Brahmins), the rulers and military (Kshatriyas), the merchants and agriculturists(Vaishyas), and the Assistants (Shudras).

Brahmin priests / Acharya were engaged in attaining the highest spiritual knowledge (brahmavidya) of Brahman (God) and adhered to different branches (shakhas) of Vedas. Brahmin priest is responsible for religious rituals in temples and homes of Hindus and is a person authorized after rigorous training in vedas and sacred rituals, and as a liaison between humans and the God. In general, as family vocations and businesses are inherited, priesthood used to be inherited among Brahmin priest families, as it requires years of practice of vedas from childhood after proper introduction to student life through a religious initiation called upanayana at the age of about five.

Individuals from the Brahmin castes/tribes have taken on many professions such as priests, ascetics and scholars to warriors and business people, according to 12th century poet Kalhana, in Rajatarangini.[1] According to Valmiki, a hunter and Sanskrit poet, in Ramayana history, Brahmin sage Parashurama is an Avatar (divine incarnate representation) of Lord Vishnu, who takes up arms against kings to deliver justice. Sage Parashurama is portrayed as a powerful warrior who defeated the Haiheya kshatriyas twenty one times, was an expert in martial arts and the use of weapons, and trained others to fight without weapons.[2]

Krishna Dwaipayana Vyasa, son of a Brahmin sage Parashara and a fisher woman Satyavathi, in his Mahabharata, describes several warriors belonging to Brahmin caste/tribe, such as Dronacharya, Kripacharya, Parashurama etc., who were professors in the schools of martial arts and the art of war.


Main article: History of Hinduism

According to the myth of Purusha Sukta, a Rigveda hymn, Brahmins were born from the mouth of Purusha, being the part of the body from which words emerge.[3][4]

Most sampradayas (sects) of modern Brahmins claim to take inspiration from the Vedas. According to orthodox Hindu tradition, the Vedas are apauruṣeya and anādi (beginning-less), and are revealed truths of eternal validity. The Vedas are considered Śruti ("that which is heard") and are the paramount source on which Brahmin tradition claims to be based. Śruti texts include the four Vedas (the Rigveda, the Yajurveda, the Samaveda and the Atharvaveda), and their respective Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads.

Apart from clerical positions, Brahmins have also historically been ministers (known as Sachivas or Amatyas) in dynasties.

Clerical positions

  1. Swami (Priest) - Purohita (performer for domestic ceremonies) and Rtvij (performer of seasonal ceremonies)
  2. Acarya or Upadhyaya (Spiritual teacher)
  3. Yogin
  4. Tapasvin - Mendicant

Myths about "being brahmins and illustration by Buddha"

In Sonadanda Sutta [Buddha scripture with details of conversation between Sonadanda (a brahmin) and Buddha], Sonadanda describes five requirements for being Brahmin:[5]

  1. Varna (ubhato sujato hoti) or Brahmin status on both sides of the family
  2. Jati (avikkitto anupakutto jativadena)
  3. Mantra (ajjhayako hoti mantradharo)
  4. Sila or virtue
  5. Panditya or learned

Buddha argues that brahmin women conceive and give birth as same as other varnas and across borders varna system does not exist. Thus, there is no question of superiority of one varna over the other. Buddha further argues that moral and spiritual attainment of men is independent of the accident of the birth.[5]


Brahmins, basically adhere to the principles of the Vedas, related to the texts of the Śruti and Smriti which are some the foundations of Hinduism, and practice Sanatana Dharma. Vedic Brāhmaṇas have six occupational duties, of which three are compulsory — studying the Vedas, performing Vedic rituals and practicing dharma. By teaching the insights of the Vedic literature which deals with all aspects of life including spirituality, philosophy, yoga, religion, rituals, temples, arts and culture, music, dance, grammar, pronunciation, metre, astrology, astronomy, logic, law, medicine, surgery, technology, martial arts, military strategy, etc. By spreading its philosophy, and by accepting back from the community, the Brahmins receive the necessities of life.[citation needed]

Male members of all Brahmin sects wear the Yagnopaveetham (Hindi:जनेऊ or sacred thread) that is a symbol of initiation to the Gayatri recital. This ritual is often referred to as Upanayana. This marks the learning of the Gayatri hymn. Brahmin sects also generally identify themselves as belonging to a particular Gotra, a classification based on patrilineal descent, which is specific for each family and indicates their origin.[citation needed]

Brahmin communities

The Brahmin castes may be broadly divided into two regional groups: Pancha-Gauda Brahmins from the Northern part of India (considered to be the region north of the Vindhya mountains) and Pancha-Dravida Brahmins from the region south of the Vindhya mountains as per the shloka of Kalhana.

  • Saraswat, Kanyakubja, Gaud, Utkala and Mithila form the Pancha Guada
  • Karnataka, Telangaa, Dravida, Maharashtra and Gurjarat form the Pancha Dravida


Adi Guru Shri Gauḍapādāchārya, the grand guru of Shri Adi Shankaracharya and the first historical proponent of Advaita Vedanta, also believed to be the founder of Shri Gaudapadacharya Math.
Main article: Pancha-Gauda

The Brahmins from Sārasvata, Kanyakubja, Gauda, Mithila and Utkala, who with passage of time spread to North East, East and West, were called Pancha Gauda. This group is originally from Uttarapatha (Āryāvarta). Pancha Gauda Brahmins are divided into five main categories:

Sarasvat Brahmins

Kanyakubja Brahmins

Gauda Brahmins

Mithila Brahmins

The Maithil Brahmiṇs are a group of Brahmins typically originating from and living in and around Mithila, which is part of North Bihar. They are a community of highly cohesive, traditional Brahmins who strive to follow rites and rituals according to ancient Hindu canons.[citation needed] They have a reputation for orthodoxy and interest in learning.[citation needed] A large number of Maithil Brahmins migrated a few centuries ago to adjoining areas of South-east Bihar and Jharkhand, as well as to adjoining Terai regions of Nepal. Most of the Maithil Brahmins are Śāktas (worshippers of Śakti) . However, it is also not uncommon to find Vaishnavites among the Maithil Brahmins. Some surnames of Brahmins in Bihar include Shukla, Sharma, Mishra, Kissoon, Bhardwaj, Bhagwan, Choudhary, Jha, Bhatt, Kanojia, Kaileyas, Bhaglani, Pingal, and Lakhlani, amongst others. Maithili is their mother tongue, though many use Angika (a south-eastern dialect of Maithili) as their mother tongue.

Utkala Brahmins

The Sanskrit text Brāhmaṇotpatti-Mārtaṇḍa by Pt. Harikrishna Śāstri mentions that a king named Utkala invited Brahmins from the Gangetic Valley to perform a yajna in Jagannath-Puri in Odisha. When the yajna ended, these Brahmins laid the foundation of Lord Jagannath there and settled around Odisha, Jharkhand and Medinipur. The Utkala Brahmins are of three classes 1) Shrautiya (vaidika), 2) Sevayata and 3) Halua Brahmins.


कर्णाटकाश्च तैलंगा द्राविडा महाराष्ट्रकाः, गुर्जराश्चेति पञ्चैव द्राविडा विन्ध्यदक्षिणे || (Karnatakaashcha Telangaa Dravidaa Maharashtrakaaha, Gurjarashcheti panchaiva dravidaa vindhyadakshine)
Brahmins who live in south of Vidhya mountains are called Pancha-Dravida Brahmins and they are divided into following groups. Drava means Water in sanskrit. Peninsular area in India surrounded by water is "Dravida".

  • Karnataka
  • Telugu
  • Dravida (Tamil Nadu & Kerala)
  • Maharashtra
  • Parts of Gujarat

Andhra Pradesh

Brahmins of Andhra Pradesh known as Telugu Brahmins are broadly classified into five groups: Vaidiki Brahmins, Niyogi, Dravida Brahmins, Vishwabrahmins, and Vaikhānasa.[6] [7]

Niyogis are further divided into the following subcategories: Nandavarika Niyogi, Prathama Shakha Niyogi, Aaru Vela Niyogulu, Karanaalu, Sistukaranalu, Karana kamma vyaparlu, Karanakammulu.[8]


They include the following : Chitpavan Konkanastha Brahmins, Daivadnya Brahmins, Deshastha Brahmins, Gaud Saraswat Brahmins, Karhade Brahmins and Devrukhe Brahmins. During the days of Maratha India, these Marathi/Konkani Brahmins primarily served as prime ministers or Peshwas,[9] apart from taking up military jobs and converged into the sovereign or the Chhatrapati of Satara. One of the notable Peshwa families is the Bhat family, who happen to be Chitpavan Konkanastha Brahmins.[10] They took up military jobs[11] and ended up being the de facto head[12] of the Maratha Dynasty.[13] Originally the Chitpavan held a low rank in the social hierarchy amongst Marathi Brahmins, however in modern times they enjoy the same social ranking with Deshastha and Karhade Brahmins, inter-marriages between these three communities is now very common.


Kannada Brāhmans(ಕನ್ನಡ ಬ್ರಾಹ್ಮಣ): The Brāhmans of the Carnatic, or the Canarese country. The Canarese area comprises Mysore State, and the British Districts of Canara, Dharwar and Belgaum.[14]

Tamil Nadu


Kerala Brahmins are called the Namboothris.


Due to the diversity in religious and cultural traditions and practices, and the Vedic schools to which they belong, Brahmins are further divided into various subcastes. During the sutra period, roughly between 1000 BCE to 200 BCE, Brahmins became divided into various Shakhas (branches), based on the adoption of different Vedas and different rescension Vedas. Sects for different denominations of the same branch of the Vedas were formed, under the leadership of distinguished teachers among the Brahmins.[citation needed]


108 feet giant statue of Basava at Basavakalyan near Bidar

The three sampradayas (sects) of Brahmins, mostly in South India are the Smarta sampradaya, the Srivaishnava sampradaya and the Madhvacharya (Swami Ananda-Teertha) Madhva sampradaya. Aadi Shakaracharya contributed towards the revival of Vedic Religion at a time when Buddhism was most popular. He toured through out India and re-established the faith in Vedas and Hindu GODs. He composed countless verses (stotras) praising all the principle forms of GODS and GODDESSES like Shiva, Vishnu, Durga, Lakshmi, Saraswati etc., at various pilgrim centers. In the later times Ramanujacharya and Madhvaacharya gave new definitions and reviewd Vedas according to the then Social and religious circumstances and established other Sampradayas viz Shri-Vaishnav and Madhva. While the two sampradayas were more confined in their strict form mostly to South India, Madhva Sampradaya flourished in a new way in the form of ISKON. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu who was the founder of ISKON was a deciple of another Madhva-Saint and Philosopher, Swami Vyasa-Teertha who came after Madhvacharya.


Smartism (or Smarta Sampradaya, Smarta Tradition, as it is termed in Sanskrit) is a liberal or nonsectarian denomination of the Hindu religion. This tradition is based on the Advaithic teachings of Adi Sankaracharya. He united various sects of Hinduism under on umbrella by accepting all the major Hindu deities as forms of the one Brahman. He implored the Smarthas to have an Ishta devatha in the form of Siva, Sakthi, Vishnu, Ganesha, Murugan (Subrahmanya) or Sun. The term Smarta refers to adherents who follow the Vedas and Shastras.[citation needed]


One form of Vaishnavism is Madhwa (Dwaita Sampradaya or Madhva Sampradaya), and the other is Sri Vaishnava (Vishishtadvaita sampradaya). Madhwa Brahmins are mainly located in the Carnatic plains and some of them are seen in Andhra, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. They follow the teachings of Sri Madhvacharya, who was born in South Canara district of Karnataka in the 12th Century. He preached Dvaita, which says that God and atma (soul) are different entities, which is contradictory to the teachings of Sri Adi Sankaracharya, who preached Advaita vedanta (non-duality). In South India, Sri Vaishnava sampradayam was propagated by Srimad Ramanujacharya.


Shaivism (sometimes called Shivaism) is a belief system where Lord Shiva is worshipped as the Supreme Lord. It is a derivative faith of the core Vedic tradition.[citation needed] Saiva sects contains many subsects, such as Asdisaivas, Rudrasaivas, Veerasiavas, Paramasaivas, etc. Ravana, the ruler of Lanka in the Hindu epic Ramayana, was a staunch Siva devotee, who was the grandson of creator Brahma.


Although the orthodox Brahmin and Sramana communities were typically opponents, Buddha admired the Brahminical attributes , as compiled in the forty one verses in Brahmanvaggo in the Dhammapada.[16]

In Buddha's time there were two major types of wandering ascetics, the Paribbajakas and Sramanas. Paribbajakas were exclusively Brahmins.[17]

There were some Buddhist Brahmins that contributed much to the Brahmin communities or to Brahmin ascetic communities. Gautamiputra Satakarni, the Satavahana king, declares himself to be the sole protector of the Brahmins.[18]

Brahmins were treated as equals to all the rest, in the eyes of the Buddha and there are countless references to Brahmins throughout the Buddhist scriptures also. Buddha rejected the notion of gradation along caste lines and of the legitimacy of the higher social status, as well as the notion of ritual purity as claimed by the Brahmins compared to others.[19] Many of the major Buddhist followers and teachers were from Brahmins. They include Sariputra, Maudgalyayana, Mahakashyapa, Nagarjuna, Asvaghosha, Padmasambhava, Shantarakshita, Nagasena, Kumarajiva and Shantideva, all of whom were referred by their titles devoid of their caste as Arahats etc. The word Brahmin, meaning "priest class", was redefined by the Buddha and it continued to be used alongside Arahat in their relevant contexts.[20] Max Muller points out that in the Dhamapada, Buddha etymologizes the word "Bahama", the Prakrit form of "Brahmana", by playing off the Sanskrit/Prakrit etymon -bra.

In the Ambattha Sutra, we find the Buddha debated many Brahmins who were clearly not Arahats. Also in many important dharanis, Brahmins are mentioned in an entirely different capacity from Arahats, and therefore there is a marked difference depending on the context. The Buddha insisted that Brahmins had to live up to seek the truth, hence reach liberation(Nirvana) through the Dhamma, and this could not be by ascriptive factor of birth alone. In the Dhammapada, the Buddha mentions Brahmins and Arahats in very different capacities and dedicates an entire chapter to what it means to be a real Brahmin called the Brahmana-vagga as well.[21]

The Buddha did not believe in caste discrimination but he did endorse a fair division of labour based on merit and equality, while condemning pathological division of labour through slavery, forced labour, superstition etc. According to him, Brahmins were not to discriminate against lower castes and those of their own who joined the sangha, through the notion of purity and superior social status, which according to the buddha was false.[19][20] but were to serve them wholeheartedly. Many sutras indicate that the Buddha himself was a Brahmin in a previous life and, due to his good merit as in the previous lives, was reborn as the Buddha.[22]

The notion of ritual purity provided a conceptual foundation for the caste system, by identifying occupations and duties associated with impure or taboo objects as being themselves impure. Regulations imposing such a system of ritual purity and taboos are absent from the Buddhist monastic code, and not generally regarded as being part of Buddhist teachings[23] On the contrary, the early Buddhist scriptures defined purity as determined by one's state of mind, and refer to anyone who behaves unethically, of whatever caste, as "rotting within", or "a rubbish heap of impurity".[24]

There are many places in which the Buddha explains his use of the word brahman. At Sutta Nipata 1.7, Vasala Sutta, verse 12, he states: "Not by birth is one an outcast; not by birth is one a brahman. By deed one becomes an outcast, by deed one becomes a brahman."[25]


  • The first disciple of Lord Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism was Indrabhuti (aka Gautamswami) the Brahmin, who headed a group of other Brahmins and converted them to Jainism. He was from the village Gobbar (also called Govarya) near Rajgriha. It is said that the Tapsas, who were competing with Gautama to reach the top of a hill, achieved moksha by seeing Gautama win.[26]
  • Sajjambhava was another born from Rajgriha and was elected the head of the Jain temple. He is famous for his composition of the "Dasavaikalika Sutra."
  • Acharya Bhadrabahu, the last of leader of the undivided sangha.
  • Acharya Haribhadra, the author of Dharmabindu etc.
  • Umasvati was a composer who was so loved by Jains that he is considered by the Digambar sect to be a Dhigambar member and the Svetambara sect to be a Svetambara member.
  • Akalanka of the 8th century is said to the pioneer in the field of Jain logic.[27]
  • Bhattaraka Padmanandi, whose disciples founded several seats.
  • Acharya Vidyanandji is a Brahmin of the Digambar Jain sect and compiled in the Sanskrit language, "Ashta Shahastri" with eight thousand verses.
  • Acharya Sushil Kumar, known better to Jains as "Guruji", was born a Brahmin in the Shakarpur village of the Haryana province. At the age of 15, he took Diksha (became a sanyassin) into the Sthanakvasi, a Swhetambara sub-sect.
  • There is a Brahmin community in South Karnataka which is traditional follower of Jainism and is known as Jain Brahmin. They have a hostel for students in Mysore, known as Jain Brahmin Hostel. This community is different from the Jain priests (Upadhyayas) in Jain temples.

Miscellaneous sects

There are additional sampradayas, which are not as widely followed:

The Mahima Dharma or "Satya Mahima Alekha Dharma" was founded by the Brahmin Mukunda Das of present-day Odisha, popularly known by followers as Mahima Swami according to the Bhima Bhoi text.[28] He was born in the last part of the 18th century, in the former state of Baudh, a son of Ananta Mishra. He was Brahmin by caste as mentioned in Mahima Vinod of Bhima Bhoi in Vol.11. This sampradaya is similar to Vaishnavism. Although the members of this sect do not worship Lord Vishnu as their Ishta-Deva, they believe that the Srimad Bhagavatam is sacred. The founder of this sect was a Vaishnavite before founding the new order.[28] This sampradaya was founded in the latter part of the 18th century.[28]

There is also the Avadhoot Panth, wherein Lord Dattatreya and his forms such as Narasimha Saraswati and Sai Baba of Shirdi are worshiped. Lord Dattatreya is worshiped by many as the Hindu trinity – Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva in one divine entity. Many even worship Dattatreya as an Avatar of Vishnu or of Shiva.

Nepali Brahmins

Bahun is a colloquial Nepali term for a member of the Pahari or "Hill" Brahmin (ब्राह्मण) caste, who are traditionally educators, scholars and priests of Hinduism. They are also known as Barmu in Newari, Bavan in Kham. Brahmins are the second largest caste group in Nepal (12.18% of the population), with the Chhetri (Kshatriya) being the first (16.60%).[citation needed]

Burma (Myanmar)

Manipuri astrologers and Brahmins in Burma, 1900

Historically, Brahmins, known as ponna (ပုဏ္ဏား) in modern-day Burmese, formed an influential group in Burma prior to British colonialism. Until the 1900s, ponna referred to Indians who had arrived prior to colonial rule, distinct from kala, Indians who arrived during British rule. During the Konbaung dynasty, court Brahmins were consulted by kings before moving royal capitals, waging wars, making offerings to Buddhist sites like the Mahamuni Buddha, and for astrology.[29] Burmese Brahmins can be divided into four general groups, depending on their origins:

  • Manipur Brahmins (Burmese: မုနိပူရဗြာဟ္မဏ): Brahmins who were sent to Burma after Manipur became a Burmese vassal state in the 1700s and ambassadors from Manipur
  • Arakanese Brahmins (Burmese: ရခိုင်ဗြာဟ္မဏ): Brahmins brought to Burma from Arakan after it was conquered by the Konbaung king Bodawpaya
  • Sagaing Brahmins: the oldest Brahmins in Burmese society, who consulted the Pyu, Burman[disambiguation needed] and Mon kingdoms prior to the Konbaung dynasty
  • Indian Brahmins: Brahmins who arrived with British colonial rule when Burma became a part of the British Raj

According to Burmese chronicles, Brahmins in Burma were subject to the four-caste system, which included brahmanas (ဗြာဟ္မဏ), kshatriyas (ခတ္တိယ), vaishya (ဝေဿ), and shudra (သုဒ္ဒ). Because the Burmese monarchy enforced the caste system for Indians, Brahmins who broke caste traditions and laws were subject to punishment. In the Arakanese kingdom, punished Brahmins often became kyun ponna (ကျွန်ပုဏ္ဏား), literally 'slave Brahmins', who made flower offerings to Buddha images and performed menial tasks. During the Konbaung dynasty, caste was indicated by the number of salwe (threads) worn; Brahmins wore nine, while the lowest caste wore none. Brahmins are also fundamental in the Nine-God cult, called the Nine Divinities (Phaya Ko Su ဘုရားကိုးစု) which is essentially a Burmese puja (puzaw in Burmese) for appeasing nine divinities, Buddha and the eight arahats, or a group of nine deities, five Hindu gods and four nat spirits.[29] This practice continues to be practiced in modern-day Burma.

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^ Saraswati, Swami Sahajanand (2003). Swami Sahajanand Saraswati Rachnawali in Six volumes (in Volume 1). Delhi: Prakashan Sansthan. pp. 519 (Volume 1). ISBN 81-7714-097-3. 
  3. ^ Thapar, Romila (2004). Early India: From the Origins to AD 1300. University of California Press. p. 125. ISBN 9780520242258. 
  4. ^ Leeming, David Adams; Leeming, Margaret Adams (1994). A Dictionary of Creation Myths. Oxford University Press. pp. 139–144. ISBN 9780195102758. 
  5. ^ a b Govind Chandra Pande (1991-02-28). Foundations of Indian Culture. ISBN 9788120807129. Retrieved 2013-08-15. 
  6. ^ Article on Brahmins of Andhra Pradesh at Vepachedu Educational Foundation
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ Sreenivasarao Vepachedu. "Brahmin, brahmana, caste, tribe, gotra, rishi, ritual, india, hindu, religion, Mana Sanskriti (Our Culture), Issue 69". Retrieved 2013-03-23. 
  9. ^ "Dictionary - Definition of Peshwa". Retrieved 2013-03-23. 
  10. ^ "peshwa (Maratha chief minister) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Retrieved 2013-03-23. 
  11. ^ "Shrimant Bajirao Peshwa : Great warrior and protector of Hindu Dharma - Valiant Hindu Kings | Hindu Janajagruti Samiti". Retrieved 2013-03-23. 
  12. ^ The Satara Raj, 1818-1848: A Study in History, Administration, and Culture - Sumitra Kulkarni - Google Books. Retrieved 2013-03-23. 
  13. ^ "India : Rise of the peshwas - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". 2011-11-08. Retrieved 2013-03-23. 
  14. ^ The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India By R.V. Russell
  15. ^ The Tale of Tuluva Brahmins
  16. ^ [2] Dhammapada verses with annotation
  17. ^ P. 43 The Historical Buddha: The Times, Life, and Teachings of the Founder of Buddhism By H.W. Schumann
  18. ^ P. 104 The Classical Age edited by Raj Pruthi
  19. ^ a b "27th Sutta of Digha Nikaya". Digha Nikaya. columbia university. 
  20. ^ a b "verse 385;verse 386". Dhammapada. Buddhanet. 
  21. ^ "Treasury of Truth (Dhammapada) Chapter 26, The Brahmana". Retrieved 2013-03-23. 
  22. ^ "001.1 – Prophecy of Dipankara Buddha". Jataka Online. 2009-04-12. Retrieved 2013-03-23. 
  23. ^ (Robinson, Johnson & Thanissaro 2005, p. 51)
  24. ^ Sue Hamilton, Early Buddhism: A New Approach: The I of the Beholder. Routledge 2000, pages 47, 49.
  25. ^ Translation by Piyadassi Thera
  26. ^ P.21 Jaina-rūpa-maṇḍana =: Jaina Iconography By Umakant Premanand Shah
  27. ^ P. 374 Buddhist phenomenology: a philosophical investigation of Yogācāra Buddhism By Dan Lusthaus
  28. ^ a b c "Mahima Dharma, Bhima Bhoi and Biswanathbaba"
  29. ^ a b Leider, Jacques P. (2005). "Specialists for Ritual, Magic and Devotion: The Court Brahmins of the Konbaung Kings". The Journal of Burma Studies 10: 159–180. doi:10.1353/jbs.2005.0004. 

Further reading

External links