BrahMos and the launch canister on display at the International Maritime Defence Show, IMDS-2007, St. Petersburg, Russia
|Type||Supersonic Cruise missile|
|Place of origin|| India
|In service||November 2006–present|
|Used by||Indian Army
Indian Airforce (awaiting)
|Unit cost||US$ 2.73 million|
2,500 kg (air-launched)
|Warhead||300 kg Conventional semi-armour-piercing and nuclear|
|Engine||Two-stage integrated Rocket/Ramjet
|Flight altitude||Sea-skimming as low as 3-4 meters|
|Speed||Mach 2.8 - 3.0|
|Ship, submarine, aircraft and land-based mobile launchers.|
BrahMos (Hindi: ब्रह्मोस, Russian: Брамос) is a supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarines, ships, aircraft or land. It is a joint venture between Republic of India's Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Russian Federation's NPO Mashinostroeyenia who have together formed BrahMos Aerospace Private Limited. The name BrahMos is a portmanteau formed from the names of two rivers, the Brahmaputra of India and the Moskva of Russia.
It is the world's fastest cruise missile in operation. The missile travels at speeds of Mach 2.8 to 3.0. The land-launched and ship-launched versions are already in service, with the air and submarine-launched versions currently in the testing phase. An air-launched variant of BrahMos is planned which is expected to come out in 2012 and will make India the only country with supersonic cruise missiles in their army, navy, and air force. A hypersonic version of the missile namely BrahMos-II is also presently under development with speed of Mach 7 to boost aerial fast strike capability. It is expected to be ready for testing by 2017.
Though India had wanted the BrahMos to be based on a mid range cruise missile like P-700 Granit, Russia opted for the shorter range sister of the missile, P-800 Oniks, in order to comply with Missile Technology Control Regime restrictions, to which Russia is a signatory. Its propulsion is based on the Russian missile, and guidance has been developed by BrahMos Aerospace. The missile is expected to reach a total order worth of US$13 billion.
The BrahMos has been developed as a joint venture between the Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) of India and the Federal State Unitary Enterprise NPO Mashinostroyenia (NPOM) of Russia under BrahMos Aerospace. The missile is named after two rivers, the Brahmaputra and the Moskva.
Since late 2004, the missile has undergone several tests from variety of platforms including a land based test from the Pokhran range in the desert, in which the 'S' manueuver at Mach 2.8 was demonstrated for the Indian Army and a launch in which the land attack capability from sea was demonstrated.
Keltec (now known as BrahMos Aerospace Trivandrum Ltd or BATL), an Indian state-owned firm was acquired by BrahMos Corporation in 2008. Approximately 1500 crore (US$274.5 million) will be invested in the facility to make BrahMos components and integrate the missile systems. This was necessitated by the increased order book of the missile system, with orders having been placed by both the Indian Army and Navy. Out of a total share capital of approximately $300 million, India's financial contribution has been 50.5%.
BrahMos has the capability of attacking surface targets by flying as low as 10 metres in altitude. It can gain a speed of Mach 2.8, and has a maximum range of 290 km. The ship-launched and land-based missiles can carry a 200 kg warhead, whereas the aircraft-launched variant (BrahMos A) can carry a 300 kg warhead. It has a two-stage propulsion system, with a solid-propellant rocket for initial acceleration and a liquid-fuelled ramjet responsible for sustained supersonic cruise. Air-breathing ramjet propulsion is much more fuel-efficient than rocket propulsion, giving the BrahMos a longer range than a pure rocket-powered missile would achieve.
The high speed of the BrahMos likely gives it better target-penetration characteristics than lighter subsonic cruise-missiles such as the Tomahawk. Being twice as heavy and almost four times faster than the Tomahawk, the BrahMos has more than 32 times the on-cruise kinetic energy of a Tomahawk missile, although it carries only 3/5 the payload and a fraction of the range despite weighing twice as much, which suggests that the missile was designed with a different tactical role. Its 2.8 mach speed means that it cannot be intercepted by some existing missile defence system and its precision makes it lethal to water targets.
Although BrahMos was primarily an anti-ship missile, the BrahMos Block III can also engage land based targets. It can be launched either in a vertical or inclined position and is capable of covering targets over a 360 degree horizon. The BrahMos missile has an identical configuration for land, sea, and sub-sea platforms. The air-launched version has a smaller booster and additional tail fins for added stability during launch. The BrahMos is currently being configured for aerial deployment with the Su-30MKI as its carrier. On 5 September 2010 BrahMos created a record for the first supersonic steep dive.
Air-launched variant 
The air-launched version for the Indian Air Force was ready for testing in 2008. An expert committee from the DRDO and the Indian Air Force (IAF) had ruled out any structural modifications to the Sukhoi Su-30MKI to carry the missile. On 22 October 2008, A. Sivathanu Pillai, Chief Controller, R&D, DRDO and CEO and managing director of BrahMos Aerospace, announced that trials and tests were to be carried out by 2011, and the IAF would get its own version of BrahMos by 2012.
On 10 January 2009, it was reported that two Indian Air Force Su-30MKI fighter jets were sent to Russia for a retrofit program that would enable them to launch the missile. On 8 August 2009, Alexander Leonov, Director of the Russian Machine Building Research and Production Center, said "we are ready for test launches." He also said that a new takeoff engine for launching of the missile in air and at extreme high altitudes had been developed, and the initial test firing of the missile would be undertaken from the Su-30 MKI, but did not specify the dates. On 26 February 2012, A. Sivathanu Pillai said that the air-launched version of BrahMos is being developed and will be tested by the end of 2012. This version of the BrahMos missile will use air breathing scramjet propulsion technology and would be more fuel efficient than a traditional rocket-powered missile.
The purchase of over 200 air-launched BrahMos supersonic cruise missiles for the IAF was cleared by Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) on 19 October 2012, at the cost of 6000 crore (US$1 billion). This would include funds for the integration and testing of the BrahMos on Su-30MKI of the IAF. As per this plan, the first test of the air-launched version of the missile was to be conducted by December 2012. Two Su-30MKI of the IAF would be modified by the HAL at its Nashik facility where they will also be integrated with the missile's aerial launcher.
A new, smaller variant of the air-launched BrahMos is also under development. This variant would arm the Sukhoi Su-30MKI, Mirage 2000 and future inductions such as the 126 multirole combat aircraft. A model of the new variant was showcased on 20 February 2013, at the 15th anniversary celebrations of BrahMos Corporations. The miniaturized version would also have a range of 290 km, but it will be shorter three metres as compared to the present missile. The Sukhoi SU-30MKI would carry three missiles while other combat aircraft would carry one each.
Surface to surface variant 
BrahMos was first test-fired on 12 June 2001 from the Integrated Test Range (ITR), Chandipur in a vertical launch configuration. On 14 June 2004 another test was conducted at ITR and BrahMos was fired from a mobile launcher. On 5 March 2008, the land attack version of the missile was fired from the destroyer INS Rajput and the missile hit and destroyed the right target among a group of targets. The vertical launch of BrahMos was conducted on 18 December 2008 from INS Ranvir (D54). The BrahMos I Block-I for the army was successfully tested with new capabilities in the deserts of Rajasthan, at a test range near Pokharan in December 2004 and March 2007.
During a user trial on 20 January 2009, BrahMos was tested with a new navigation system but it failed to hit the target. BrahMos Aerospace Corporation's director Dr Sivathanu Pillai said, "The missile performance was absolutely normal until the last phase, but the missile missed the target, though it maintained the direction." and that "The problem was in the software, not hardware". The Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) said that there were "small hitches" in the last stage of the test firing, which was attributed that to the US GPS satellites, which were switched off on that day as Barack Obama was sworn in as the President of the United States. The missile traveled for 112 seconds instead of the slated 84 seconds and fell 7 km away from the target. According to BrahMos Corporation, another test of the new missile was to be conducted within one month, but it was eventually conducted on 4 March 2009 and was deemed successful. BrahMos was test-fired again on 29 March 2009. For the test, the missile had to identify a building among a cluster of buildings in an urban environment. BrahMos successfully hit the intended target in two and a half minutes of launch. According to official sources, "The new seeker is unique and would help us to hit our targets, which are insignificant in terms of size, in a cluster of large buildings. India is now the only nation in the world with this advanced technology" After the third test, Lt Gen Noble Thamburaj, said that the Indian Army wanted the BrahMos to achieve high standards of accuracy and congratulated the scientists on behalf of the Indian Army. The Indian Army confirmed that the test was extremely successful and the army is absolutely satisfied with the missile. This marking the completion of the development phase of BrahMos Block-II, and it was ready for induction.
On 21 March 2010, BrahMos was test-fired and struck a free-floating ship piercing it above the waterline and destroying it completely. The test proved the missile's ability to manoeuvre at supersonic speed before hitting a target, making India the first and only country to have a manoeuvrable supersonic cruise missile.
The 5 September 2010 test of BrahMos created a world record for being the first cruise missile to be tested at supersonic speeds in a steep-dive mode. The missile was test-fired from the integrated test range launching complex-3 (LC-3) at Chandipur around 11.35 am. With this launch, the army's requirement for land attacks with Block-II advanced seeker software with target discriminating capabilities was met. BrahMos became the only supersonic cruise missile possessing advanced capability of selection of a particular land target amongst a group of targets, providing an edge to the user with precise hit.
The Block III version of the missile was successfully test-fired by India on 2 December 2010 from Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Chandipur off the Orissa coast. Block III had advanced guidance and upgraded software, incorporating high manoeuvres at multiple points and steep dive from high altitude. The steep dive capability of the Block III enables it to hit targets hidden behind a mountain range. It will be deployed in Arunachal Pradesh. It can engage ground targets from an altitude as low as 10 meters for surgical strikes with out any collateral damage. It is capable of being launched from multiple platforms like submarines, ships, aircraft and land based Mobile Autonomous Launchers (MAL). On 12 August 2011, it was test-fired by ground forces and met all mission parameters. It was test-fired by an Indian Army unit on 4 March 2012 at the Pokharan range in Jaisalmer to operationalise the second regiment of the weapon system in the army. The test was attended by senior Army officials including Vice Chief Lt. Gen. Shri Krishna Singh and Director General Military Operations (DGMO) Lt. Gen. A K Chaudhary. With this test, the second BrahMos unit of the Indian Army became operational.
Another development test was conducted on 29 July 2012 from ITR. This was the 32nd test of the missile. The test was deemed successful from an experimental point of view, but did not meet all mission parameters. This test was done to evaluate more than 25 sub-systems of the missile which were produced by the Indian industry, like the power systems, materials for air frame components, guidance scheme and various electric systems. The test data was sent for analysis and used for large-scale indigenous production of the missile. The analysis revealed that except for one subsystem, all other subsystems and components had performed as per the requirement. The malfunction of one subsystem resulted in increase in velocity of the missile, which crossed the limit and the mission was aborted. The defect was rectified and further development flight tests were announced to developself-reliance.
On 7 October 2012, the Indian Navy successfully test-fired BrahMos from the guided missile frigate INS Teg. This new highly manoeuvrable version was fitted with advanced satellite navigation systems turning it into a "super-rocket" capable of hitting targets over 300–500 km from sea, land and air launchers, and capable of carrying a nuclear warhead.
- Surface-launched, Block I
- Ship-launched, anti-ship variant (operational)
- Ship-launched, land-attack variant (operational)
- Land-launched, land-attack variant (operational)
- Land-launched, anti-ship variant (In induction, tested on 10 December 2010)
- Surface-launched, upgraded variants
- BrahMos Block II land-attack variant (Operational)
- BrahMos Block III land-variant (being inducted)
- Anti-aircraft carrier variant (tested in March 2012) - the missile gained the capability to attack aircraft carriers using the supersonic vertical dive variant of the missile that could travel up to 290 km.
- Air-launched, anti-ship variant (under development, expected completion in 2012)
- Air-launched, land-attack variant (under development, expected completion in 2012)
- Air-launched, miniaturised variant (under development)
- Submarine-launched, anti-ship variant -Test fired successfully for the first time from a submerged pontoon near Visakhapattanam at the coast of Bay of Bengal on 20th March,2013.
- Submarine-launched, land-attack variant (under development, expected completion in 2011) The chief executive officer and managing director of Aerospace, said on 10 August 2012, that BrahMos family will soon have a submarine version.
Future developments 
- BrahMos-II – scramjet-propelled, hypersonic version. This version will fly at speeds from 5–7 Mach (3750–5250 miles/hour) and would be ready for test flight in 2017.
- UCAV variant - A. P. J. Abdul Kalam asked BrahMos Aerospace to develop an advanced version of the BrahMos cruise missile to maintain India's lead in the field. He stated: He said that a hypersonic version of BrahMos which can be reused is needed, which will be able to deliver its payload and return to base. This would turn BrahMos into a UCAV.
India and Russia intend to make 2,000 BrahMos supersonic cruise missiles over the next ten years through their joint venture company, and nearly 50% of them are expected to be exported to friendly countries.
Brahmos has been inducted in eight warships of the Indian Navy. The following ship classes of the navy are equipped with BrahMos:
- Godavari-class frigate - by 2007
- Brahmaputra-class frigate - by 2007
- Rajput-class destroyers - INS Rajput, INS Ranvir and INS Ranvijay were armed by 2007. The rest were armed by 2009.
- Talwar-class frigate - INS Tabar and INS Trishul were the first to be armed. Other vessels of the class were armed by 2009.
- Delhi-class destroyer - by 2009.
- Shivalik-class frigate - INS Shivalik was the first to be armed. Other vessels of the class were armed by 2010.
- Kolkata-class destroyer - in future.
The submarine-launched version of the missile was test fired successfully for the first time from an underwater pontoon on 20 March 2013.
In addition, the navy's five Il-38 and eight Tupolev Tu-142 maritime patrol bombers are also to be armed with the missile, with an estimated capacity of 6 missiles per aircraft. Mock ups have been displayed with air-launched BrahMos attached to underwing pylons on the Indian Navy aircraft.
Indian Army 
The Brahmos Block I was inducted into the army on 21 June 2007. The Brahmos has been inducted in two regiments of the Indian Army. The army has raised one regiment (numbered 861) of the Mark I and two missile regiments of the BrahMos Mark II, numbered 862 and 863. Each of the two new regiments would have between four and six batteries of three to four Mobile Autonomous Launchers (72 missiles per regiment) that can be connected to a mobile command post. The operational BrahMos regiments are:
- 861 Regiment (BrahMos Block I, deployed in north Rajasthan area)
- 862 Regiment (BrahMos Block II, deployed in south Rajasthan area)
- 863 Regiment (BrahMos Block II, under induction for Punjab area)
- 864 Regiment (BrahMos Block III, ordered for Arunachal Pradesh area)
According to unspecified sources the BrahMos could be fitted to the updated Gorshkov class of frigates which will be entering the Russian Navy soon. The defence ministry reported that due to the size and hull specifications of the BrahMos, few if any of its new ships will be able to accommodate it.
Several countries including Vietnam, South Africa, Egypt, Oman, Brunei have expressed interest in the missile. In February 2010, it was reported that India was in "serious negotiations" with Chile, Brazil, South Africa and Indonesia regarding the purchase of the missile. Malaysia is also reported to be considering the purchase of the missile for use on its Kedah class warships and fighter jets. Informal negotiations are ongoing between India and Vietnam for the sale of BrahMos missiles.
BrahMos II 
BrahMos-II is a stealth hypersonic cruise missile currently under development and is estimated to have a range of 290 km. The range of BrahMos II has been regulated to 290 km as Russia is a signatory of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) which does not allow it to help other countries to develop missiles with ranges above 300 kilometres. With a speed of Mach 7 it will have a speed double the speed of the current BrahMos missile, and it has accordingly been branded as the fastest hypersonic missile in the world.
See also 
- P-800 Oniks
- CVS401 Perseus – A stealth supersonic cruise missile under development by MBDA with the UK and France.
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