Brain mapping is a set of neuroscience techniques predicated on the mapping of (biological) quantities or properties onto spatial representations of the (human or non-human) brain resulting in maps. Brain mapping is further defined as the study of the anatomy and function of the brain and spinal cord through the use of imaging (including intra-operative, microscopic, endoscopic and multi-modality imaging), immunohistochemistry, molecular & optogenetics, stem cell and cellular biology, engineering (material, electrical and biomedical), neurophysiology and nanotechnology.
All neuroimaging can be considered part of brain mapping. Brain mapping can be conceived as a higher form of neuroimaging, producing brain images supplemented by the result of additional (imaging or non-imaging) data processing or analysis, such as maps projecting (measures of) behavior onto brain regions (see fMRI). One such map, called a connectogram, depicts cortical regions around a circle, organized by lobes. Concentric circles within the ring represent various common neurological measurements, such as cortical thickness or curvature. In the center of the circles, lines representing white matter fibers illustrate the connections between cortical regions, weighted by fractional anisotropy and strength of connection.
Brain mapping techniques are constantly evolving, and rely on the development and refinement of image acquisition, representation, analysis, visualization and interpretation techniques. Functional and structural neuroimaging are at the core of the mapping aspect of brain mapping.
In the late 1980s in the United States, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science was commissioned to establish a panel to investigate the value of integrating neuroscientific information across a variety of techniques.
Of specific interest is using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion MRI (dMRI), magnetoencephalography (MEG), electroencephalography (EEG), positron emission tomography (PET), Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and other non-invasive scanning techniques to map anatomy, physiology, perfusion, function and phenotypes of the human brain. Both healthy and diseased brains may be mapped to study memory, learning, aging, and drug effects in various populations such as people with schizophrenia, autism, and clinical depression. This led to the establishment of the Human Brain Project. It may also be crucial to understanding traumatic brain injuries (as in the case of Phineas Gage) and improving brain injury treatment.
On May 5, 2010 the Supreme Court in India (Smt. Selvi vs. State of Karnataka) declared brain mapping, lie detector tests and narcoanalysis to be unconstitutional, violating Article 20 (3) of Fundamental Rights. These techniques cannot be conducted forcefully on any individual and requires consent for the same. When they are conducted with consent, the material so obtained is regarded as evidence during trial of cases according to Section 27 of the Evidence Act.
Current Atlas tools
- Talairach Atlas, 1988
- Harvard Whole Brain Atlas, 1995
- MNI Template, 1998 (The standard template of SPM and International Consortium for Brain Mapping)
- Atlas of the Developing Human Brain, 2012
- Outline of brain mapping
- Outline of the human brain
- Brain Mapping Foundation
- BrainMaps Project
- Center for Computational Biology
- Human Connectome Project
- IEEE P1906.1
- List of neuroscience databases
- Map projection
- Neuroimaging software
- Whole brain emulation
- Topographic map (neuroanatomy)
- Irimia, Andrei; Chambers, Micah C.; Torgerson, Carinna M.; Horn, John D. (2012). "Circular representation of human cortical networks for subject and population-level connectomic visualization". NeuroImage 60 (2): 1340–51. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.01.107. PMC 3594415. PMID 22305988.
- Pechura, Constance M.; Martin, Joseph B. (1991). Mapping the Brain and Its Functions: Integrating Enabling Technologies Into Neuroscience Research. Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on a National Neural Circuitry Database.[page needed]
- Koslow, Stephen H.; Huerta, Michael F. (1997). Neuroinformatics: An Overview of the Human Brain Project.[page needed]
- Van Horn, John Darrell; Irimia, Andrei; Torgerson, Carinna M.; Chambers, Micah C.; Kikinis, Ron; Toga, Arthur W. (2012). Sporns, Olaf, ed. "Mapping Connectivity Damage in the Case of Phineas Gage". PLoS ONE 7 (5): e37454. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037454. PMC 3353935. PMID 22616011.
- Irimia, Andrei; Chambers, Micah C.; Torgerson, Carinna M.; Filippou, Maria; Hovda, David A.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Gerig, Guido; Toga, Arthur W.; Vespa, Paul M.; Kikinis, Ron; Van Horn, John D. (2012). "Patient-Tailored Connectomics Visualization for the Assessment of White Matter Atrophy in Traumatic Brain Injury". Frontiers in Neurology 3. doi:10.3389/fneur.2012.00010. PMC 3275792. PMID 22363313.
- Toga, Arthur W.; Mazziotta, John C., eds. (2002). Brain Mapping: The Methods. ISBN 978-0-12-693019-1.[page needed]
- Harvard Whole Brain Atlas
- Serag, Ahmed; Aljabar, Paul; Ball, Gareth; Counsell, Serena J.; Boardman, James P.; Rutherford, Mary A.; Edwards, A. David; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Rueckert, Daniel (2012). "Construction of a consistent high-definition spatio-temporal atlas of the developing brain using adaptive kernel regression". NeuroImage 59 (3): 2255–65. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.09.062. PMID 21985910.
- Rita Carter (1998). Mapping the Mind.
- F.J. Chen (2006). Brain Mapping And Language
- F.J. Chen (2006). Focus on Brain Mapping Research.
- F.J. Chen (2006). Trends in Brain Mapping Research.
- F.J. Chen (2006). Progress in Brain Mapping Research.
- Koichi Hirata (2002). Recent Advances in Human Brain Mapping: Proceedings of the 12th World Congress of the International Society for Brain Electromagnetic Topography (ISBET 2001).
- Konrad Maurer and Thomas Dierks (1991). Atlas of Brain Mapping: Topographic Mapping of Eeg and Evoked Potentials.
- Konrad Maurer (1989). Topographic Brain Mapping of Eeg and Evoked Potentials.
- Arthur W. Toga and John C. Mazziotta (2002). Brain Mapping: The Methods.
- Tatsuhiko Yuasa, James Prichard and S. Ogawa (1998). Current Progress in Functional Brain Mapping: Science and Applications.
- Epilepsy & Brain Mapping Program
- BrainMapping.org project
- National Centers for Biomedical Computing
- Human Brain Mapping
- National Center for Multi-Scale Study of Cellular Networks
- National Center for Biomedical Ontology
- Physics-based Simulation of Biological Structures
- National Alliance for Medical Imaging Computing
- Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside
- National Center for Integrative Biomedical Informatics
- Elekta Neuromag
- Brain Mapping Foundation
- Interactive Brain Map by InformED
- Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics