Brain mapping is a set of neuroscience techniques predicated on the mapping of (biological) quantities or properties onto spatial representations of the (human or non-human) brain resulting in maps. Brain Mapping is further defined as the study of the anatomy and function of the brain and spinal cord through the use of imaging (including intra-operative, Microscopic, Endoscopic and Multi-Modality imaging), Immunohistochemistry, Molecular & optogenetics, Stem cell and Cellular Biology, Engineering (material, electrical and biomedical), Neurophysiology and Nanotechnology.
All neuroimaging can be considered part of brain mapping. Brain mapping can be conceived as a higher form of neuroimaging, producing brain images supplemented by the result of additional (imaging or non-imaging) data processing or analysis, such as maps projecting (measures of) behavior onto brain regions (see fMRI).
Brain Mapping techniques are constantly evolving, and rely on the development and refinement of image acquisition, representation, analysis, visualization and interpretation techniques. Functional and structural neuroimaging are at the core of the mapping aspect of Brain Mapping.
In the late 1980s in the United States, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Science was commissioned to establish a panel to investigate the value of integrating neuroscientific information across a variety of techniques.
Of specific interest is using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion MRI (dMRI), magnetoencephalography (MEG), electroencephalography (EEG), positron emission tomography (PET), Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and other non-invasive scanning techniques to map anatomy, physiology, perfusion, function and phenotypes of the human brain. Both healthy and diseased brains may be mapped to study memory, learning, aging, and drug effects in various populations such as people with schizophrenia, autism, and clinical depression. This led to the establishment of the Human Brain Project. It may also be crucial to understanding traumatic brain injuries (as in the case of Phineas Gage) and improving brain injury treatment. 
On May 5, 2010 the Supreme Court in India (Smt. Selvi vs. State of Karnataka) declared brain mapping, lie detector tests and narcoanalysis to be unconstitutional, violating Article 20 (3) of Fundamental Rights. These techniques cannot be conducted forcefully on any individual and requires consent for the same. When they are conducted with consent, the material so obtained is regarded as evidence during trial of cases according to Section 27 of the Evidence Act.
Current atlas tools 
- Talairach Atlas, 1988
- Harvard Whole Brain Atlas, 1995
- MNI Template, 1998 (The standard template of SPM and International Consortium for Brain Mapping)
- Atlas of the Developing Human Brain, 2012 
See also 
- BrainMaps Project
- Center for Computational Biology
- Map projection
- Neuroimaging software
- List of topics related to brain mapping
- List of neuroscience databases
- Whole brain emulation
- Human Connectome Project
- Constance M. Pechura, Joseph B. Martin (1991). Mapping the Brain and Its Functions: Integrating Enabling Technologies Into Neuroscience Research. Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on a National Neural Circuitry Database.
- Stephen H. Koslow and Michael F. Huerta (1997). Neuroinformatics: An Overview of the Human Brain Project.
- Van Horn, John D.; Irimia, A., Torgerson, C.M., Chambers, M.C., Kikinis, R., Toga, A.W. (2012). "Mapping connectivity damage in the case of Phineas Gage". PLoS One 7 (7). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037454. PMID 22616011.
- Irimia, Andrei; Chambers, M.C., Torgerson, C.M., Filippou, M., Hovda, D.A., Alger, J.R., Gerig, G., Toga, A.W., Vespa, P.M., Kikinis, R., Van Horn, J.D. (06). "Patient-tailored connectomics visualization for the assessment of white matter atrophy in traumatic brain injury". Frontiers in Neurotrauma. doi:10.3389/fneur.2012.00010. PMID 22363313.
- Mazziotta and Toga, 1995
- Harvard Whole Brain Atlas
- A. Serag, P. Aljabar, G. Ball, S.J. Counsell, J.P. Boardman, M.A. Rutherford, A.D. Edwards, J.V. Hajnal, D. Rueckert. "Construction of a consistent high-definition spatio-temporal atlas of the developing brain using adaptive kernel regression". NeuroImage, 59 (3), 2255-2265, 2012.
Further reading 
- Rita Carter (1998). Mapping the Mind.
- F.J. Chen (2006). Brain Mapping And Language
- F.J. Chen (2006). Focus on Brain Mapping Research.
- F.J. Chen (2006). Trends in Brain Mapping Research.
- F.J. Chen (2006). Progress in Brain Mapping Research.
- Koichi Hirata (2002). Recent Advances in Human Brain Mapping: Proceedings of the 12th World Congress of the International Society for Brain Electromagnetic Topography (ISBET 2001).
- Konrad Maurer and Thomas Dierks (1991). Atlas of Brain Mapping: Topographic Mapping of Eeg and Evoked Potentials.
- Konrad Maurer (1989). Topographic Brain Mapping of Eeg and Evoked Potentials.
- Arthur W. Toga and John C. Mazziotta (2002). Brain Mapping: The Methods.
- Tatsuhiko Yuasa, James Prichard and S. Ogawa (1998). Current Progress in Functional Brain Mapping: Science and Applications.
- Epilepsy & Brain Mapping Program
- BrainMapping.org project
- National Centers for Biomedical Computing
- Human Brain Mapping
- National Center for Multi-Scale Study of Cellular Networks
- National Center for Biomedical Ontology
- Physics-based Simulation of Biological Structures
- National Alliance for Medical Imaging Computing
- Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside
- National Center for Integrative Biomedical Informatics
- Elekta Neuromag