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|ब्रज भाषा • ਬ੍ਰਜ ਭਾਸ਼ਾ|
|Region||Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Delhi|
|570,000 (2001 census)
Census results conflate some speakers with Hindi.
Braj Bhasha (Devanagari: ब्रज भाषा) (Gurmukhi: ਬ੍ਰਜ ਭਾਸ਼ਾ), also called Brij Bhasha (बृज भाषा, ਬ੍ਰਿਜ ਭਾਸ਼ਾ), Braj Bhakha (ब्रज भाखा, ਬ੍ਰਜ ਭਾਖਾ), or Dehaati Zabaan (देहाती ज़बान, ਦੇਹਾਤੀ ਜ਼ਬਾਨ, 'country tongue'), is a Western Hindi language closely related to Hindustani. In fact, it is usually considered to be a dialect of Western Hindi, and along with Awadhi (a variety of Eastern Hindi) was one of the two predominant literary languages of North-Central India before the switch to Hindustani (Khariboli) in the 19th century.
Braj Bhasha is spoken by people in the nebulously defined region of Vraja Bhoomi, which was a political state in the era of the Mahabharata wars. According to ancient Hindu texts such as the Bhagavata Purana, the kingdom of King Kamsa is described as spreading through the Braj (also known as Vrija or Vraja), where the incarnation of Krishna was born and spent his childhood days. This region lies in the Agra-Mathura area, and stretches as far as the environs of Delhi. In modern India, this area lies mostly in northwestern Uttar Pradesh, the eastern extremities of Rajasthan i.e. Bharatpur & Dholpur and the southern extremities of Haryana. Northern regions of Madhya Pradesh like Morena is also included. Today Braj Bhoomi can be seen as a cultural-geographical entity rather than a proper state. It is the vernacular of the region and boasts a rich culture and literature by famous poets like Surdas, Bhai Gurdas and Amir Khusro. Brij Bhasha is very close to Avadhi, spoken in neighbouring Avadh region.
Much of the Hindi literature was developed in Brij in the medieval period. However, today Khariboli dialect has taken its place as the predominant standard dialect of Hindi.
In modern India, Braj Bhasha exists as an unofficial dialect spoken colloquially by natives of the region of Braj Bhoomi, with great cultural and religious significance. Much of Hindi poetry, especially that of 'Bhakti' or devotional poetry is in this language. Some devotional poems for Krishna are also composed in Braj Bhasha. The pioneering Hindi poet Aamir Khusro, also spoke and composed poetry in this language. Famous Braj Bhasha folk songs or poems include Chhaap Tilak Sab Chheeni by Amir Khusro, and the popular devotional song, Main Naahin Maakhan Khaayo by Surdas. Braj Bhasha is also the main language of Hindustani classical music compositions. Braj Bhasha is not to be confused with Brajabuli, an artificial literary language developed by Bengali medieval poets under the influence of Maithili love poems of Radha and Krishna by the poet Vidyapati. Rabindranath Tagore wrote his first substantial poems titled Bhanusimha Thakurer Padabali in Brajabuli under the pseudonym Bhānusiṃha ("Sun Lion") at age sixteen. Similarly, Braj Bhasha is distinct from the Brajavali dialect of Assamese which is also related to Maithili.
Braj Bhasha is mainly a rural tongue currently, predominant in the nebulous Braj region centred on Mathura & Agra in Uttar Pradesh and Bharatpur & Dholpur in Rajasthan. It is the predominant language in the central stretch of the Ganges-Yamuna Doab in the following districts:
Besides Uttar Pradesh, it is spoken in the bordering areas of Rajasthan, mainly in the following districts:
It is also spoken in the areas of Haryana south of Delhi, mainly in Faridabad district and eastern areas of Gurgaon and Mewat districts. in Madhya Pradesh it is spoken in the districts of Bhind, Morena, Gwalior, and Shivpuri. It is spoken in several villages of Delhi, specially in Kotla Mubarakpur, Khanpur, and all other villages belongs to Gurjars along with Rajput Thakurs
Most Braj Bhasha literature is of a mystical nature, related to the spiritual union of people with God, because almost all of the Braj Bhasha poets were considered God-realised saints and their words are thus considered as directly emanating from a divine source. Much of the traditional Northern Indian literature shares this trait. All traditional Punjabi literature is similarly written by saints and is of a metaphysical and philosophical nature.
Another peculiar feature of Northern Indian literature is that the literature is mostly written from a female point of view, even by male poets. This is because the saints were in a state of transcendental, spiritual love, where they were metaphorically women reuniting with their beloved. (In its inversion of the conventional genders of worshipper and worshippee, Maulana Da’ud's Chandayan departs from this tradition.)
Important works in Braj Bhasha are:
- Yugala Shataka by Swami Sri Sribhatta Devacarya; known as the first 'Vani' book in Vraja Bhasha composed in the 14th Century AD as a part of Nimbarka Sampradaya tradition of Radha Krishna worship.
- Vinaya Patrika by Tulsidas
- Sur Sagar by Surdas
- Buddha Charit by Acharya Ram Chandra Shukla
- Sufi poetry by Amir Khusro
- Eulogies by Kavi Bhushan
- Vrind Satsai by Vrind (1643 - 1723), court poet of ruler of Kishangarh
- Braj Bhasa at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Braj". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Hindi Literature
- Sujit Mukherjee (1998). A Dictionary of Indian Literature: Beginnings-1850. Orient Blackswan. pp. 425–. ISBN 978-81-250-1453-9.
- Rupert Snell, The Hindi Classical Tradition: A Braj Bhasa Reader 0728601753