Brand management

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Brand management is a communication function in marketing that includes analysis and planning on how that brand is positioned in the market. Developing a good relationship with the target market is essential for brand management. Tangible elements of brand management include the product itself; look, price, the packaging, etc. The intangible elements are the experience that the consumer takes away from the brand, and also the relationship that they have with that brand. A brand manager would oversee all of these things.

Definitions[edit]

In 2001 Hislop defined branding as "the process of creating a relationship or a connection between a company's product and emotional perception of the customer for the purpose of generating segregation among competition and building loyalty among customers." In 2004 and 2008, Kapferer and Keller respectively defined it as a fulfillment in customer expectations and consistent customer satisfaction.[1]

History[edit]

The origin of branding can be traced to ancient times, when specialists often put individual trademarks on hand-crafted goods. The branding of farm animals in Egypt in 2700 BC to avoid theft may be considered the earliest form of branding, as in its literal sense. As somewhat more than half of companies older than 200 years old are in Japan, (see: List of oldest companies), many Japanese businesses' "mon" or seal is an East Asian form of brand or trademark. In the West, Staffelter Hof dates to 862 or earlier and still produces wine under its name today. By 1266, English bakers were required by law to put a specific symbol on each product they sold. Branding became more widely used in the 19th century, through the industrial revolution and the development of new professional fields like marketing, manufacturing and business management.[2] Branding is a way of differentiating product from mere commodities, and therefore usage of branding expanded with each advance in transportation, communication, and trade.

The modern discipline of brand management is considered to have been started by a famous memo at Procter & Gamble[3] by Neil H. McElroy.[4]

Interbrand's 2012 top-10 global brands are Coca-Cola, Apple, IBM, Google, Microsoft, GE, McDonald's, Intel, Samsung, and Toyota.[5] The split between commodities/food services and technology is not a matter of chance: both industrial sectors rely heavily on sales to the individual consumer who must be able to rely on cleanliness/quality or reliability/value, respectively. For this reason, industries such as agricultural (which sells to other companies in the food sector), student loans (which have a relationship with universities/schools rather than the individual loan-taker), and electricity (which is generally a controlled monopoly) have less prominent and less recognized branding. Brand value, moreover, is not simply a fuzzy feeling of "consumer appeal," but an actual quantitative value of good will under Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. Companies will rigorously defend their brand name, including prosecution of trademark infringement. Occasionally trademarks may differ across countries.[6]

Among the most highly visible and recognizable brands is the red Coca-Cola can. Despite numerous blind tests indicating that Coke's flavor is not preferred, Coca-Cola continues to enjoy a dominant share of the cola market. Coca-Cola's history is so replete with uncertainty that a folklore has sprung up around the brand, including the (refuted) myth that Coca-Cola invented the red-dressed Santa-Claus[7] which is used to gain market entry in less capitalistic regions in the world such as the former Soviet Union and China, and such brand-management stories as "Coca-Cola's first entry into the Chinese market resulted in their brand being translated as 'bite the wax tadpole').[8] Brand management science is replete with such stories, including the Chevrolet 'Nova' or "it doesn't go" in Spanish, and proper cultural translation is useful to countries entering new markets.

Modern brand management also intersects with legal issues such as 'genericization of trademark.' The 'Xerox' Company continues to fight heavily in media whenever a reporter or other writer uses 'xerox' as simply a synonym for 'photocopy.'[9] Should usage of 'xerox' be accepted as the standard English term for 'photocopy,' then Xerox's competitors could successfully argue in court that they are permitted to create 'xerox' machines as well. Yet, in a sense, reaching this stage of market domination is itself a triumph of brand management, in that becoming so dominant typically involves strong profit.

Brand orientation[edit]

Brand orientation refers to "the degree to which the organization values brands and its practices are oriented towards building brand capabilities” (Bridson & Evans, 2004). It is a deliberate approach to working with brands, both internally and externally. The most important driving force behind this increased interest in strong brands is the accelerating pace of globalization. This has resulted in an ever-tougher competitive situation on many markets. A product’s superiority is in itself no longer sufficient to guarantee its success. The fast pace of technological development and the increased speed with which imitations turn up on the market have dramatically shortened product lifecycles. The consequence is that product-related competitive advantages soon risk being transformed into competitive prerequisites. For this reason, increasing numbers of companies are looking for other, more enduring, competitive tools – such as brands.

Justification[edit]

Brand management aims to create an emotional connection between products, companies and their customers and constituents. Brand managers may try to control the brand image.[10]

Approaches[edit]

"By Appointment to His Royal Majesty" was a registered and limited list of approved brands suitable for supply to the Royal British family.

Some believe brand managers can be counter-productive, due to their short-term focus.[11]

On the other end of the extreme, luxury and high-end premium brands may create advertisements or sponsor teams merely for the "overall feeling" or goodwill generated. A typical "no-brand" advertisement might simply put up the price (and indeed, brand managers may patrol retail outlets for using their name in discount/clearance sales), whereas on the other end of the extreme a perfume brand might be created that does not show the actual use of the perfume or Breitling may sponsor an aerobatics team purely for the "image" created by such sponsorship. Space travel and brand management for this reason also enjoys a special relationship.

"Nation branding" is a modern term conflating foreign relations and the idea of a brand.[12] An example is "Cool Britannia" of the 1970s.

Social Media[edit]

Even though social media has changed the tactics of marketing brands, its primary goals remain the same; to attract and retain customers. [13] However, companies have now experienced a new challenge with the introduction of social media. This change is finding the right balance between empowering customers to spread the word about the brand through viral platforms, while still controlling the company’s own core strategic marketing goals. [14] Word-of-mouth marketing via social media, falls under the category of viral marketing, which broadly describes any strategy that encourages individuals to propagate a message, thus, creating the potential for exponential growth in the message’s exposure and influence. [15]Basic forms of this are seen when a customer makes a statement about a product or company or endorses a brand. This marketing technique allows users to spread the word on the brand which creates exposure for the company. Because of this brands have become interested in exploring or using social media for commercial benefit.

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • No logo. Naomi Klein. Picador USA, 2009.
  • The Brands Handbook. Wally Olins.Thames & Hudson, 2008.
  • Wally Olins on B®and. Thames & Hudson, 2005.

References[edit]

  • Bridson, K., and Evans, J. (2004) ‘The secret to a fashion advantage is brand orientation’, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 32(8): 403-11
  1. ^ Shamoon, Sumaira, and Saiqa Tehseen. "Brand Management: What Next?" Interdisciplinary Journal Of Contemporary Research In Business 2.12 (2011): 435–441. Business Source Complete. Web. October 20, 2012.
  2. ^ Shamoon, Sumaira, and Saiqa Tehseen. "Brand Management: What Next?" Interdisciplinary Journal Of Contemporary Research In Business 2.12 (2011): 435–441. Business Source Complete. Web. October 20, 2012.
  3. ^ "Neil McElroy's Epiphany". P&G Changing the Face of Consumer Marketing. Harvard Business School. May 2, 2000. Retrieved March 9, 2011. 
  4. ^ Aaker, David A.; Erich Joachimsthaler (2000). Brand Leadership. New York: The Free Press. pp. 1–6. ISBN 0-684-83924-5. 
  5. ^ "Previous Years - Best Global Brands - Interbrand". interbrand.com. Retrieved December 14, 2014. 
  6. ^ "Arvic Search Services Inc.". arvic.com. Retrieved December 14, 2014. 
  7. ^ http://www.snopes.com/holidays/christmas/santa/cocacola.asp
  8. ^ http://www.snopes.com/cokelore/tadpole.asp
  9. ^ "41 Brand Names People Use as Generic Terms". Mental Floss. Retrieved December 14, 2014. 
  10. ^ Shamoon, Sumaira, and Saiqa Tehseen. "Brand Management: What Next?" Interdisciplinary Journal Of Contemporary Research In Business 2.12 (2011): 435–441. Business Source Complete. Web. October 20, 2012.
  11. ^ Shamoon, Sumaira, and Saiqa Tehseen. "Brand Management: What Next?" Interdisciplinary Journal Of Contemporary Research In Business 2.12 (2011): 435–441. Business Source Complete. Web. October 20, 2012.
  12. ^ True, Jacqui (2006). "Globalisation and Identity". In Raymond Miller. Globalisation and Identity. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-19-558492-9. 
  13. ^ Weber, L. (2009). Marketing to the social web: How digital customer communities build your business. London: Wiley.
  14. ^ Wolny, J., & Mueller, C. (2013). Analysis of fashion consumers’ motives to engage in electronic word-of-mouth communication through social media platforms. Journal Of Marketing Management, 29(5/6), 562-583. doi:10.1080/0267257X.2013.778324
  15. ^ Bampo, M., Ewing, M. T., Mather, D. R., Stewart, D., & Wallace, M. (2008). The effect of the social structure of digital networks on viral marketing performance. Information Systems Research, 19(3), 273–290. doi: 10.1287/isre.1070.0152