Azure (color)

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This article is about the color. For the heraldic tincture, see Azure (heraldry). For other meanings, see Azure.
Main article: Blue

Azure #007FFF

AzureHow to read this color infobox
Judea 2 by David Shankbone.jpg
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #007FFF
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 127, 255)
HSV       (h, s, v) (210°, 100%, 100%)
Source On the RGB color wheel, Azure is defined by definition as the color halfway between blue and cyan. The color halfway between blue and cyan on the RGB color wheel has a hex code of 007FFF.[1]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

Azure is a variation of blue that is often described as the color of the sky on a clear summer's day. Its dominant wavelength is about 488 nm.

On the RGB color wheel, "azure" (color #007FFF) is defined as the color at 210 degrees, i.e., the hue halfway between blue and cyan. In the RGB color model, used to create all the colors on a television or computer screen, azure is created by adding a little green light to blue light. The complementary color of azure is orange.

In the X11 color system which became a standard for early web colors, azure is depicted as a pale cyan color.

Etymology[edit]

A slab of lapis lazuli, the mineral from which azure took its name

The color azure takes its name from the intense blue mineral lapis lazuli. Lapis is the Latin word for "stone" and lazuli is the genitive form of the Medieval Latin lazulum, which is taken from the Arabic لازورد lāzaward, itself from the Persian لاژورد lāžaward, which is the name of the stone in Persian[2] and also of a place where lapis lazuli was mined.[3][4]

The name of the stone came to be associated with its color. The French azur, the Italian azzurro, the Polish lazur, Romanian azur and azuriu, and the Portuguese and Spanish azul, Hungarian azúr all come from the name and color of lapis lazuli.

The word was adopted into English from the French, and the first recorded use of it as a color name in English was in 1374 in Geoffrey Chaucer's work Troilus and Criseyde, where he refers to "a broche, gold and asure" (a broach, gold and azure).[5][6][7]

In Russian, "голубой" (goluboj, azure or cyan) and "синий" (sinij, blue or navy blue) are not two shades of the same color, but distinguished in the way red and pink are distinct colors in English. A similar distinction exists between "azzurro" (azure, but used to indicate shades of light blue) and "blu" (blue) in Italian and "ฟ้า (fah, sky blue) and น้ำเงิน (nam ngoen, blue) in Thai.[citation needed]

Azure also describes the color of the mineral azurite, both in its natural form and as a pigment in various paint formulations. In order to preserve its deep color, azurite was ground coarsely. Fine-ground azurite produces a lighter, washed-out color. Traditionally, the pigment was considered unstable in oil paints, and was sometimes isolated from other colors and not mixed. Modern investigation of old paintings, however, shows that the pigment is very stable unless exposed to sulfur fumes.[8]

The use of the term spread through the practice of heraldry, where “azure” represents a blue color in the system of tinctures. In engravings, it is represented as a region of parallel horizontal lines, or by the abbreviation az. or b. In practice, azure has been represented by any number of shades of blue. In later heraldic practice a lighter blue, called bleu celeste (“sky blue”), is sometimes specified.

Distinction between indigo, azure, and cyan[edit]

All of the colors shown below in the section variations of azure are referenced as having a hue code of between 195 and 225 (the hue code is the h code in the HSV color space), signifying that these colors are tones of azure. The only exception, as noted below, is the web color azure which, with a color code of 180, is actually a tone of cyan.

Strictly speaking, according to the mathematical logic of the RGB color wheel, indigo colors are those colors with hue codes of between 255 and 225, azure colors are those colors with hue codes of between 195 and 225, and cyan colors are those colors with hue codes of between 165 and 195.

Variations of azure[edit]

Azure (web color)[edit]

Azure (web color)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #f0ffff
sRGBB  (rgb) (240, 255, 255)
HSV       (h, s, v) (180°, 6%, 100%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

Displayed at right is the web color called azure; in actuality it is a pale pastel tint of cyan, as can be ascertained by noting its hue angle of 180 degrees (cyan).

In an artistic context, this color would be called azure mist.

Alice blue[edit]

Main article: Alice blue
Alice BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #F0F8FF
sRGBB  (rgb) (240, 248, 255)
HSV       (h, s, v) (208°, 6%, 100%)
Source X11[9]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

The web color Alice blue is a pale tint of azure.

Light sky blue[edit]

Light Sky BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #87CEFA
sRGBB  (rgb) (135, 206, 250)
HSV       (h, s, v) (203°, 46%, 98%)
Source X11 color names
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

Displayed at right is the web color light sky blue.

Baby blue[edit]

Main article: Baby blue
Baby BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #89CFF0
sRGBB  (rgb) (137, 207, 240)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (43, 14, 0, 6)
HSV       (h, s, v) (199°, 43%, 94%)
Source Maerz and Paul[10]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Baby blue is known as one of the pastel colors.

This color is associated with baby boys in Western culture.

The first recorded use of baby blue as a color name in English was in 1892.[11]

Sky blue[edit]

Main article: Sky blue
Sky BlueHow to read this color infobox
Common connotations
boys, daylight, water, air, paleness
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #87CEEB
sRGBB  (rgb) (135, 206, 235)
HSV       (h, s, v) (197°, 43%, 92%)
Source X11 color names
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

Displayed at right is the web color sky blue.

The first recorded use of sky blue as a color name in English was in 1728 in the Cyclopædia of Ephraim Chambers.[12] Prior to the Chambers reference, the color had first been used in 1585 in a book by Nicolas De Nicolay where he stated "the tulbant of the merchant must be skie coloured".[13][14]

Deep sky blue[edit]

Deep Sky BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #00BFFF
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 191, 255)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (100, 25, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (195°, 100%, 50%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Deep sky blue is an azure-cyan color associated with deep sky blue.

Deep sky blue is a web color.

This colour is on the color wheel (RGB/HSV color wheel) halfway between azure and cyan.

The traditional name for this color is Capri.[15]

The first use of Capri as a color name in English was in 1920.[16]

The color Capri in general is named for the azure-cyan color of the Mediterranean sea around the island of Capri off Italy, the site of several villas belonging to the Roman Emperor Tiberius, including his Imperial residence in his later years, the Villa Jovis. Specifically, the color Capri is named after the color of the Blue Grotto on the island of Capri.[17] as it appears on a bright sunny day. Today the island of Capri is a resort island popular with tourists.

The name deep sky blue for this color did not come into use until the promulgation of the X11 color list in 1987.

The name Capri is still used for this color as well as the name deep sky blue.

Maya blue[edit]

Main article: Maya Blue
Maya BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #73C2FB
sRGBB  (rgb) (115, 194, 251)
Source [Unsourced]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

Maya blue was a pigment widely used by the Mayan civilization.

Jordy blue[edit]

Jordy BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #8AB9F1
sRGBB  (rgb) (138, 185, 241)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (43, 23, 0, 6)
HSV       (h, s, v) (213°, 40%, 74%)
Source Xona.com Color List
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the color jordy blue.

The color name jordy blue for has been in use since 2001, when this color was promulgated as one of the colors on the Xona.com Color List.


Columbia blue[edit]

Main article: Columbia Blue
Columbia BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #75B2DD
sRGBB  (rgb) (117, 178, 221)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (47n, 20, 0, 13)
HSV       (h, s, v) (205°, 47%, 87%)
Source [1]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Columbia blue is a medium light tone of azure named after Columbia University. The typical Columbia blue is defined by Pantone Columbia Blue 3 (PANTONE 292).[18]

Picton blue[edit]

Picton BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #45B1E8
sRGBB  (rgb) (69, 177, 232)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (70, 24, 0, 9)
HSV       (h, s, v) (200°, 70%, 91%)
Source Resene Paints color list
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the color picton blue.

The color name picton blue dates back to at least 2001, and came into wider use when the Resene Paints colors were used as one of the sources for the Xona Games Color List.[19]


United Nations blue[edit]

United Nations BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #4B92DB
sRGBB  (rgb) (75, 146, 219)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (65, 33, 0, 14)
HSV       (h, s, v) (210°, 66%, 86%)
Source Vexillological
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the color United Nations blue.

Cornflower blue[edit]

Main article: Cornflower blue
Cornflower BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #6495ED
sRGBB  (rgb) (100, 149, 237)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (59, 37, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (219°, 58%, 93%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the web color cornflower blue.


Bleu de France[edit]

Bleu de FranceHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #318CE7
sRGBB  (rgb) (49, 140, 231)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (79, 39, 0, 9)
HSV       (h, s, v) (210°, 79%, 91%)
Source Pourpre.com
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color bleu de France is displayed at right.

Bleu de France is a color that has been associated in heraldry with the Kings of France since the 12th century.


Dodger blue[edit]

Main article: Dodger blue
Dodger BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #1E90FF
sRGBB  (rgb) (30, 144, 255)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (88, 44, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (210°, 88%, 100%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the color Dodger blue.

Brandeis blue[edit]

Brandeis BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #0070FF
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 112, 255)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (100, 56, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (214°, 100%, 100%)
Source Internet
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Brandeis blue is the tone of azure used in association with Brandeis University.

The university administration defines Brandeis Blue as corresponding to the Pantone color of 293 or the process color of 100c 56m 0y 0k.[20]

True blue[edit]

Main article: True Blue (color)
True BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #0073CF
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 115, 207)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (100, 44, 0, 19)
HSV       (h, s, v) (207°, 100%, 81%)
Source Internet
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color true blue is a deep tone of azure that is the color of the uniforms of the sports teams of UCLA.


Royal blue (web color)[edit]

Main article: Royal blue
Royal Blue (web color)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #4169E1
sRGBB  (rgb) (65, 105, 225)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (71, 53, 0, 12)
HSV       (h, s, v) (225°, 71%, 88%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The web color royal blue is a rich tone of azure.


Celestial blue[edit]

Celestial BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #4997D0
sRGBB  (rgb) (73, 151, 208)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (65, 27, 0, 18)
HSV       (h, s, v) (205°, 65%, 81%)
Source Plochere
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the color celestial blue.

The first recorded use of celestial blue as a color name in English was in 1535.[21]

The source of this color is the Plochere Color System, a color system formulated in 1948 that is widely used by interior designers.[22]


Vista blue[edit]

Vista BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #7C9ED9
sRGBB  (rgb) (124, 158, 217)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (43, 27, 0, 15)
HSV       (h, s, v) (218°, 43%, 85[23]%)
Source Pantone TPX[24]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the color vista blue.

The source of this color is the "Pantone Textile Paper eXtended (TPX)" color list, color #15-3930 TPX—Vista Blue.[25]


Silver Lake blue[edit]

Silver Lake BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #5D89BA
sRGBB  (rgb) (93, 137, 186)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (50, 26, 0, 27)
HSV       (h, s, v) (212°, 50%, 73%)
Source Pantone TPX[26]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the color Silver Lake blue.

The source of this color is the "Pantone Textile Paper eXtended (TPX)" color list, color #17-4030 TPX—Silver Lake Blue.[27]


Tufts blue[edit]

Main article: Tufts Blue
Tufts BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #417DC1
sRGBB  (rgb) (72, 145, 206)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (66, 35, 0, 24)
HSV       (h, s, v) (212°, 45%, 66%)
Source Internet
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Tufts blue is the tone of azure used in association with Tufts University.

Honolulu blue[edit]

Main article: Detroit Lions
Honolulu BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #006DB0
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 109, 176)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (100, 38, 0, 31)
HSV       (h, s, v) (203°, 100%, 69%)
Source Logographical
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Honolulu blue is the tone of azure used in association with the Detroit Lions football team.

Cerulean[edit]

CeruleanHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #007BA7
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 123, 167)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (100, 26, 0, 35)
HSV       (h, s, v) (196°, 100%, 65%)
Source [Unsourced]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
Main article: Cerulean

The first recorded use of cerulean as a color name in English was in 1590.[28]

The word is probably derived from the Latin word caeruleus, "dark blue, blue or blue-green", which in turn probably derives from caelulum, diminutive of caelum, "heaven, sky".[29]


Air Force blue[edit]

Main article: Air Force blue
Air Force BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #5D8AA8
sRGBB  (rgb) (93, 138, 168)
HSV       (h, s, v) (204°, 45%, 66%)
Source Vexillological:[30]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

Displayed at right is the color air force blue, also known as RAF blue. This is the tone of air force blue used by the Royal Air Force, the first air force to choose an "air force blue" color by which to identify itself, in 1920.

The color "air force blue" is a medium tone of azure since it has a hue code of 204 which is a hue code between 195 and 225, signifying a tone of azure.


Steel blue[edit]

Main article: Steel blue
Steel BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #4682B4
sRGBB  (rgb) (70, 130, 180)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (61, 28, 0, 29)
HSV       (h, s, v) (207°, 61%, 71%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Steel blue is a grayish tone of azure that resembles the color blue steel, i.e., steel which has been subjected to bluing in order to protect it from rust.

The first recorded use of steel blue as a color name in English was in 1817.[31]

French blue[edit]

French BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #0072BB
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 114, 187)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (100, 39, 0, 27)
HSV       (h, s, v) (203°, 100%, 73%)
Source Maerz and Paul
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

French blue.[32] is a deep azure color commonly[citation needed] used in quality men's dress shirts.

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first use of French Blue in English was in The Times of 1802.[33]


Lapis lazuli[edit]

Rough and polished Lapis lazuli.
Lapis LazuliHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #26619C
sRGBB  (rgb) (38, 97, 156)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (76, 38, 0, 39)
HSV       (h, s, v) (210°, 76%, 61%)
Source Pourpre.com
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color lapis lazuli is displayed at left.

Lapis Lazuli is a color that is a representation of the most common color of lapis lazuli.


Royal blue (traditional)[edit]

Main article: Royal blue
Royal blue (traditional)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #002366
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 35, 102)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (100, 66, 0, 60)
HSV       (h, s, v) (219°, 100%, 40%)
Source John C. Foster "color names starting with ROSE through RUST" Texas Precancel Club
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The traditional color called royal blue is a dark shade of azure.

Azure in nature[edit]

Astronomy
  • The planet Neptune is a deep azure color because of the abundance of methane in its atmosphere.
Insects
  • Appalachian Azure (Celastrina neglectamajor), butterfly in the gossamer wings family, Lycaenidae
  • Azure Damselfly (Coenagrion puella), damselfly found in Europe
  • Azure Hawker (Aeshna caerulea), dragonfly in the family Aeshnidae
Birds

Azure in human culture[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ On color plate 33 (page 89) of the 1930 book A Dictionary of Color by Maerz and Paul, the colors on the right side of color plate 33 from top to bottom represent the most highly saturated colors on the color wheel from cyan to azure, and the colors on the bottom of color plate 33 from right to left represent the most highly saturated colors on the color wheel from azure to blue. The color sample that represents azure is color sample L12 on Plate 33 on Page 89. See reference to Azure on Page 190 in the index. See also discussion of the color azure, Page 149.
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  3. ^ Senning, Alexander (2007). "lapis lazuli (lazurite)". Elsevier's Dictionary of Chemoetymology. Amsterdam: Elsevier. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-444-52239-9. 
  4. ^ Weekley, Ernest (1967). "azure". An Etymological Dictionary of Modern English. New York: Dover Publications. p. 97. 
  5. ^ "azure, n. and adj.". Oxford English Dictionary. OUP. Retrieved 21 April 2011. 
  6. ^ Chaucer, Geoffrey. "The Project Gutenberg EBook of Troilus and Criseyde". Troilus and Criseyde. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 21 April 2011. 
  7. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 190. Also Azure @ Dictionary.Reference.com. Also Azur @ CNRTL.fr (in french).
  8. ^ Rutherford J. Gettens and George L. Stout (1942) Painting Materials: A Short Encyclopedia, New York: Van Nostrand
  9. ^ W3C TR CSS3 Color Module, SVG color keywords
  10. ^ The color displayed in the color box above matches the color called baby blue in the 1930 book by Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill; the color baby blue is displayed on page 93, Plate 35, Color Sample E2.
  11. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 190; Color Sample of Baby Blue: Page 93 Plate 35 Color Sample E2
  12. ^ "sky-blue, n. and adj.". Oxford English Dictionary. OUP. Retrieved 21 April 2011. 
  13. ^ "sky-coloured | sky-colored, adj.". Oxford English Dictionary. OUP. Retrieved 21 April 2011. 
  14. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 204; Color Sample of Sky Blue: Page 89 Plate 33 Color Sample E6
  15. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Color Sample of Capri: Page 93 Plate 35 Color Sample L7; The color Capri is shown as lying halfway between Cyan and Azure.
  16. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 191
  17. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 152 Discussion of the color Capri
  18. ^ http://www.colourlovers.com/color/76B3DF/pantone_292
  19. ^ Doucette, Matthew. "Color List". Xona Games, Inc. Retrieved 2014-02-11. 
  20. ^ Brandeis University Visual Identity Manual
  21. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 192; Color Sample of Celestial blue: Page 93 Plate 35 Color Sample D3
  22. ^ Plochere Color System:
  23. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #7C9ED9 (Vista Blue):
  24. ^ Type the words "Vista Blue" into the indicated window on the Pantone Color Finder and the color will appear.
  25. ^ Pantone TPX Pantone Color Finder--Type the words "Vista Blue" into the indicated window on the Pantone Color Finder and the color will appear:
  26. ^ Type the words "Silver Lake Blue" into the indicated window on the Pantone Color Finder and the color will appear.
  27. ^ Pantone TPX Pantone Color Finder--Type the words "Silver Lake Blue" into the indicated window on the Pantone Color Finder and the color will appear:
  28. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 190; Color Sample of Cerulean: Page 89 Plate 33 Color Sample E6
  29. ^ Cerulean, Online Etymology Dictionary
  30. ^ History of the RAF, Chapter 7 – Cultural & Organizational Heritage, p. 370]
  31. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 205
  32. ^ Color Sample of French Blue on ISCC-NBS color chart (color sample #178):
  33. ^ "French, adj. and n.". Oxford English Dictionary. OUP. Retrieved 21 April 2011. (subscription required (help)). 
  34. ^ Kleiner, Fred S. Art Through the Ages: The Western Perspective Boston:2010 Wadsworth/Cengage Pages 374 (color plate of the interior of the Arena Chapel) and 381
  35. ^ Microsoft to Launch Azure Cloud Service in 2010:New York Times 17 November 2009
  36. ^ Norman, Ernst and Ruth The Voice of Venus 1954 Unarius Academy of Science