Brandywine order of battle

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Painting showing a line of somewhat tattered but determined American soldiers marching into battle, led by an officer on foot
Nation Makers by Howard Pyle depicts the Battle of Brandywine.

The Battle of Brandywine on September 11, 1777 saw a colonial American army led by General George Washington fight a British-Hessian army commanded by General William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe. Washington drew up his troops in a defensive position behind Brandywine Creek. Howe sent Lieutenant General Wilhelm von Knyphausen's 5,000 troops to demonstrate against the American front at Chadd's Ford. Meanwhile, Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis took 10,000 troops on a wide flank march that crossed the creek and got in the rear of the American right wing under Major General John Sullivan. The Americans changed front but Howe's attack broke through.[1]

As Howe's wing made progress, Knyphausen converted his feint into a frontal attack on the American center. Washington's army was driven to the rear in disarray, but was saved from rout by Major General Nathanael Greene's rear guard action. Washington's army retreated to Chester, Pennsylvania while Howe occupied Wilmington, Delaware. The engagement took place in Chadds Ford Township, Delaware County, Pennsylvania.[1]

British Army order of battle[edit]

Black and white print of Sir William Howe in military uniform and three-cornered hat
Sir William Howe

General Sir William Howe (18,000)[2]
Quartermaster General: Brigadier General Sir William Erskine, 1st Baronet

Note: Each brigade had two or four 3-pound or 4-pound cannons attached.

Left Wing[edit]

Lieutenant General Lord Cornwallis[3]

  • Unbrigaded:
    • 16th Light Dragoons (200)
    • Hessian and Anspach Jägers: Lieutenant Colonel Ludwig von Wurmb (500)
    • Mounted Jäger company, Captain Richard Lorey (100)
    • Artillery: 3rd Brigade
      • Four 12-pound cannons & six 6-pound cannons
Thomas Gainsborough painting of Lord Charles Cornwallis in a red military uniform
Lord Cornwallis
Robert Abercromby
  • Light Infantry: (1,300)[9]
  • Grenadiers: (1,400)[10]
    • 1st Grenadier Battalion, Lieutenant Colonel William Medows
      • 16 grenadier companies of the line
    • 2nd Grenadier Battalion, Colonel Henry Monckton
      • 15 grenadier companies of the line
Black and white print of Charles Grey in late 18th century military uniform
Charles Grey

Right Wing[edit]

Black and white print of a bewigged Wilhelm von Knyphausen wearing a metal cuirass
Wilhelm Knyphausen

Lieutenant General Wilhelm von Knyphausen[14]

American Army order of battle[edit]

Color painting of a white-haired George Washington in a dark blue military uniform with gold epaulettes and white collar
George Washington

General and Commander in Chief George Washington (12,000 regulars, 3,000 militia)[19]

Main Body[edit]

Color painting of gray-haired Nathanael Greene in 1783 by Charles Willson Peale. Greene wears his general's uniform with a dark blue coat, a buff vest and turnbacks, and brass buttons.
Nathanael Greene
Print of Anthony Wayne in tricorne hat with a large cockade
Anthony Wayne

Sullivan's Wing[edit]

Black and white print of a dark-haired John Sullivan in a dark military uniform and lighter colored turnbacks
John Sullivan
Painting of a balding man in a dark blue military coat with buff lapels cradling a sword
Charles Scott
Black and white print of Lord Stirling in a military uniform
Lord Stirling

Notes[edit]

Footnotes
  1. ^ Maxwell led the Light Infantry Corps and the sources did not list who led the New Jersey Brigade.
Citations
  1. ^ a b Eggenberger, 59
  2. ^ McGuire (2006), 172. The author gave British total strength.
  3. ^ McGuire (2006), 183. The author listed the organization and strengths of the major units of Howe's left wing.
  4. ^ McGuire (2006), 33. This brigade was drawn by lottery from the three foot guard regiments.
  5. ^ McGuire (2006), 379. The author gave the Guards company organization and strength for September 12, 1777.
  6. ^ McGuire (2006), 6. The author named the company commander Osborn.
  7. ^ McGuire (2007), 234. Captain Thomas Twistleton led the light company but missed most of the campaign.
  8. ^ McGuire (2006), 205. Osborn led both flank companies at Brandywine.
  9. ^ McGuire (2006), 205. The author gave the light infantry organization and commanders at Brandywine.
  10. ^ McGuire (2006), 205. The author gave the grenadier organization and commanders at Brandywine.
  11. ^ McGuire (2006), 138 & 153. The maps show the 3rd Brigade's composition.
  12. ^ McGuire (2006), 174. The map shows the 4th Brigade's composition.
  13. ^ McGuire (2007), 154. The author listed the three grenadier battalions that fought at Red Bank.
  14. ^ McGuire (2006), 173-175. The author listed all details of Knyphausen's wing except Stirn's brigade and the 71st Foot.
  15. ^ McGuire (2006), 244
  16. ^ McGuire (2006), 244. The author listed Stirn's strength as 2,000 with 4 regiments.
  17. ^ Johnson, 70. The author listed Erbprinz and Donop at Germantown.
  18. ^ McGuire (2007), 154. Mirbach fought at Red Bank. The fourth regiment is unknown.
  19. ^ McGuire (2006), 169. The author gave the army's total numbers.
  20. ^ McGuire (2006), 170. The author listed the commanding officer and the types of guns.
  21. ^ McGuire (2006), 171. The author gives the strength only.
  22. ^ Wright, 108. In July 1777 the nine regiments of the North Carolina Brigade numbered 131 officers and 963 rank and file. McGuire's listed strength of 1,500 was not used.
  23. ^ McGuire (2006), 171. The author gives the militia's strength and leaders.
  24. ^ McGuire (2006), 170. The author listed Greene's brigade commanders and total strength.
  25. ^ McGuire (2007), 56. The author listed the regiments in the 1st and 2nd Virginia Brigades at Germantown.
  26. ^ Wright (1989), 320
  27. ^ McGuire (2006), 170. The author listed Wayne's brigade numbers and total strength.
  28. ^ McGuire (2006), 248-249. The author lists the two brigades' commanders and regiments.
  29. ^ McGuire (2006), 171. The author listed the numbers of the detached 1st Delaware and 2nd Canadian, while giving the remainder of Sullivan's division only 1,100.
  30. ^ McGuire (2007), 69. The author listed the organization of the two brigades at Germantown.
  31. ^ McGuire (2006), 222. De Borre led the 2nd Maryland Brigade at Brandywine.
  32. ^ McGuire (2006), 170. The author lists Stephen's brigade commanders.
  33. ^ McGuire (2006), 197. The author counts the strength of Stephen's two brigades.
  34. ^ Wright, 283-298. The author gave the lineage of the Virginia regiments.
  35. ^ Wright (1989), 322
  36. ^ Wright (1989), 323
  37. ^ McGuire (2006), 170. The author listed Stirling's brigade commanders.
  38. ^ McGuire (2006), 197. The author counts the strength of Stirling's two brigades.
  39. ^ McGuire (2007), 89. The author listed the brigade's organization at Germantown.
  40. ^ Wright, 255-258. The author gave the lineage of the New Jersey Regiments.
  41. ^ McGuire (2007), 65. The author listed the regiments in Conway's brigade at Germantown.
  42. ^ Wright (1989), 324-325

References[edit]

  • Eggenberger, David (1985). An Encyclopedia of Battles. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-24913-1. 
  • Johnson, Curt (1975). Battles of the American Revolution. London: Rand McNally & Company. ISBN 0-528-81022-7. 
  • McGuire, Thomas J. (2006). The Philadelphia Campaign, Volume I. Mechanicsburg, Penn.: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-0178-6. 
  • McGuire, Thomas J. (2007). The Philadelphia Campaign, Volume II. Mechanicsburg, Penn.: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-0206-5. 
  • Wright, Robert K. Jr. (1989). The Continental Army. Washington, D.C.: US Army Center of Military History. CMH Pub 60-4. 
  • Wright, Robert K. Jr. (1983). The Continental Army. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. ISBN 0-16-001931-1. 

External references[edit]