Braniff International Airways

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Braniff International Airways
Braniff International Airways logo
IATA
BN
ICAO
BNF
Callsign
BRANIFF
Founded May, 1928, November 3, 1930
Commenced operations June 20, 1928, November 13, 1930
Ceased operations May 12-13, 1982
Hubs
Focus cities
Frequent-flyer program Braniff Travel Bonus Bonanza
Airport lounge Braniff International Council
Subsidiaries Braniff Education Systems, Inc., Braniff Realty, Inc., Braniff International Hotels Corporation, Braniff Guardian Services, Inc.
Fleet size 82 (as of December 1981)
Destinations 54 (as of April 25, 1982)
Company slogan Braniff The Airline With Texas Class
Parent company Braniff Airways, Inc. until 1964, Greatamerica Corporation until 1967, Ling Temco Vought, Inc. until 1971, Braniff International Corporation, from 1973-1983
Headquarters Braniff Place World Headquarters DFW Airport, Texas, U.S
Dallas, Texas, U.S
Key people Paul Revere Braniff (First CEO)
Thomas Elmer Braniff
Charles Edmund Beard
Harding Lawrence
John J. Casey (CEO)
Howard D. Putnam (Final CEO)

Braniff Airways, Inc. d/b/a Braniff International Airways was an American airline that operated from 1930 until 1982, primarily in the midwestern and southwestern United States, Mexico, Central America, South America, and in the late 1970s, Asia and Europe. The airline ceased operations on May 12 and 13, 1982 due to both high fuel prices and competition after implementation of the Airline Deregulation Act in December 1978.[1] Two attempts were made to resurrect the fabled Texas based glamour airline: the Hyatt Hotels-backed Braniff, Inc., which operated from 1984 to 1989, and Braniff International Airlines, Inc., which operated from 1991 to 1992.

History[edit]

Tulsa-Oklahoma City Airways[edit]

First Braniff Airlines logo, ca. 1928-30

In 1928, insurance magnate Thomas Elmer Braniff financed and founded an aviation company named Paul R. Braniff, Inc. with his brother Paul Revere Braniff. The airline was initially named Tulsa-Oklahoma City Airways. Service began from Oklahoma City to Tulsa using a 5 passenger Stinson Detroiter single engine aircraft on June 20, 1928; passenger service between larger cities in Oklahoma followed. The original Braniff brothers remained a part of the company even as the ownership was repeatedly transferred, until the airline was purchased by the Aviation Corporation (AVCO) holding company, whose other holdings included the predecessors of American Airlines.[2]

Braniff Airways, Inc.[edit]

Braniff pilots standing outside a "B-Liner" Lockheed Model 10 Electra, Houston Hobby Airport, 1940. In the background is a Lockheed Model 12 Electra Junior.

The Braniff brothers started a new airline in November, 1930, named Braniff Airways, Inc. Braniff Airways began service between Oklahoma City, Tulsa, and Wichita Falls, Texas with Lockheed Vega aircraft.[3] Braniff's long-term survival was assured when Paul Braniff, then general manager, flew to Washington, D.C. to petition for the Chicago-Dallas airmail route. The United States Post Office granted Braniff its first airmail route in the wake of the 1934 Air Mail scandal. In 1935 Braniff became the first airline to fly from Chicago to the U.S.-Mexico border. Paul Braniff left the airline in 1935 to pursue other interests and tour South America for Braniff's eventual service to the region, but Tom Braniff retained control of the carrier and hired Charles Edmund Beard to run day-to-day operations. Beard became President and CEO of Braniff in 1954, and Fred Jones of Oklahoma City remained as Chairman of the Board.[1]

Midwestern Expansion[edit]

Braniff acquired Long and Harmon Airlines in January, 1935, which extended the airline's network to multiple cities in Texas, including Brownsville and Dallas.[4] Braniff purchased new Douglas DC-2 and Douglas DC-3 aircraft to service this extended network, which remained largely in the American Midwest.

Braniff Airways acquired Bowen Airlines, which was headquartered at Fort Worth's Meacham Field Airport, in late 1935. Bowen flew from Chicago to Houston via St. Louis, Springfield, Tulsa and Dallas; from Dallas to San Antonio with intermediate stops in Ft. Worth and Austin, Texas; and from Ft. Worth to Houston with an intermediate stop in Dallas. Bowen did not have any of the coveted Air Mail Contracts, and its consequent reliance on passenger revenue caused severe financial strain which created the necessity for the merger with Braniff. Bowen's slogan was "From the Great Lakes to the Gulf", which became the Braniff moniker after the merger was completed. Bowen operated a fleet of Vultee V-1As, Lockheed Vegas, and exclusive Lockheed Orions that were built to Bowen's own specifications.[4]

Mexico and South America[edit]

During World War II the airline leased aircraft to the United States military, and its facilities at Dallas Love Field was a training site for pilots and mechanics.[4]

After World War II the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) awarded Braniff routes to the Caribbean, Central and South America, competing with Pan American-Grace Airways (Panagra). Braniff also created a Mexican airline division, Aerovias Braniff, which operated from Laredo, Texas, to Monterrey and Mexico City. In May, 1946 the CAB awarded Braniff a 7719 statute mile route from Dallas to Houston to Havana, Panama, Guayaquil, Lima, La Paz, Asuncion, and finally Buenos Aires, Argentina. Service started on June 4, 1948; the two year delay was needed to build infrastructure in the remote regions of Central and South America. Two weeks later the route was extended to Lima, in February, 1949 to La Paz and in March, 1949, to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Douglas DC-4s and Douglas DC-6s were used to South America.

South American service was extended in March 1950 from LaPaz to Asuncion, Paraguay, and in May 1950 to Buenos Aires, Argentina. Argentine President Juan Perón and his famed wife Evita Peron participated in the festivities at Casa Rosada at Buenos Aires.

Mid-Continent Airlines Merger[edit]

After years of negotiations, Braniff acquired Mid-Continent Airlines on August 16, 1952. The merger added numerous destinations, including Minneapolis/St. Paul, Sioux City, and Sioux Falls in the North; Des Moines, Omaha, and St. Louis in the Midwest; and Tulsa, Shreveport, and New Orleans in the South. The acquisition of the Minneapolis/St. Paul to Kansas City, Missouri route (with stops in Des Moines, Iowa and Rochester, Minnesota) was of particular interest to Braniff, as Mid-Continent had been awarded this route instead of Braniff in 1939.[4] As a result of the merger, Braniff would operate a total of 75 aircraft and engage over 4000 employees, including 400 pilots. Among all air carriers with US certification, Braniff ranked 7th in Revenue Passengers Carried and 8th in both Revenue Passenger Miles and Express Ton Miles.[4]

Death of Thomas and Paul Braniff[edit]

On January 10, 1954, Braniff founder Thomas Elmer Braniff died when a flying boat owned by United Gas crash-landed on the shore of Wallace Lake, 15 miles outside of Shreveport, Louisiana due to icing. According to information from Captain George A. Stevens: Mr Braniff was on a hunting expedition with a group of important citizens of Louisiana. They were departing from a small duck hunting lake out of Shreveport in a Grumman Mallard aircraft with no deicing system. The wings iced up and they attempted to land. One of the wings hit cypress stumps and the plane crashed against the shore. It caught fire and all 12 lives aboard were lost.[1] Charles Edmund Beard became the first non-Braniff family member to assume the role of President of the airline after Tom Braniff's untimely death.

Paul R. Braniff died later that year of cancer.[5] Tom Braniff's wife, Bess Braniff, also died in 1954. Tom's son Thurman Braniff was killed in a training plane crash at Oklahoma City in 1938, and his daughter Jeanne Braniff Terrell died in 1948 from complications of childbirth.[1]

New Equipment and Facilities[edit]

Beard led Braniff into the jet age, and was instrumental in transitioning Braniff from a piston powered carrier into a mainly jet powered carrier by 1965, less than a decade after the 1959 introduction of Braniff's first jet, the Boeing 707-227.[6] Braniff took delivery of four 707-227s; one crashed while on the delivery test flight and was still owned by Boeing. Braniff was the only airline to order the B707-227; in 1971 it sold them to BWIA. Boeing 720s were added in the early 1960s. By 1965 Braniff's fleet was 95 percent jets, mainly Boeing 707s, Douglas DC-8s, and BAC One-Elevens.

Braniff opened a new headquarters building at Exchange Park, a high-rise office development within sight of Dallas Love Field, in February 1958. The airline also dedicated a state-of-the-art Maintenance and Operations Base on the east side of Dallas Love Field, at 7701 Lemmon Avenue. The facility contained over 433,000 square feet and was equipped to handle the demands of the jet age. (The airline would occupy the facility until the late 1980s, with the Braniff, Inc. (Braniff II) holding company, Dalfort, remaining in the building until 2001.)

Supersonic Transport Orders[edit]

In April 1964, Braniff President Charles E. Beard officially made deposits for two US-made Supersonic Transport (SST) Aircraft, in the amount of 100,000 USD for each aircraft. This would officially give Braniff slots number 38 and 44 when the SST aircraft began production.[7] President Beard noted that the two SST aircraft would be used on the carrier's long range US to Latin America services, where the sleek new Boeing 707 was already performing quite satisfactorily.[8] At the time this deposit was made, the SST program was being financed by the US government, under an edict from President Kennedy.[9] Unfortunately, the program would be cancelled under the auspices of the Nixon Administration in the early 1970s.

Greatamerica Purchases Braniff[edit]

In 1964, Troy Post, Chairman of Greatamerica Corporation, an insurance holding company based in Dallas, Texas, purchased Braniff and National Car Rental as part of an expansion of holdings and growth outside the insurance business. Both Braniff and National were chosen after Greatamerica CFO C. Edward Acker identified them as under-utilized and under-managed companies. Acker had stated in a 1964 study that Braniff's conservative management was hampering the growth that the "jet age" required, in part by purchasing planes instead of financing them, diverting working capital from growth initiatives. As part of the acquisition, Acker became Executive Vice President and CFO of Braniff.[1]

Troy Post then hired Harding Lawrence, who was the Executive Vice President of Continental Airlines, as the new president of Braniff International.[1] Harding Lawrence was determined to give Braniff a glossy, modern, and attention-getting image. Over the next 15 years, Lawrence's aggressive expansion into new markets - combined with ideas unorthodox for the airline industry - led Braniff to record financial and operating performance, expanding its earnings tenfold despite typical passenger load factors around 50 percent.[1]

"The End of the Plain Plane"[edit]

Boeing 707 of Braniff International at Honolulu Airport in 1971
Braniff International Douglas DC-8-62 landing at Miami International Airport in 1971

To overhaul the Braniff image, Lawrence hired Jack Tinker and Partners, who assigned advertising executive Mary Wells — later known as Mary Wells Lawrence after her 1967 marriage to Harding Lawrence in Paris — as account leader. First on the agenda was to overhaul Braniff's public image — including the red, white, and blue "El Dorado Super Jet" livery which Wells perceived as "staid" (though it had been introduced in 1959). New Mexico architect Alexander Girard, Italian fashion designer Emilio Pucci, and shoe designer Beth Levine were hired, and with this new creative talent, Braniff began the revolutionary "End of the Plain Plane" campaign.[1]

At Girard's recommendation, the old livery was dropped in favor of planes painted in a single color, selected from a wide palette of bright hues. Girard wanted the planes painted from tail to nose in colors like "Chocolate Brown" and "Metallic Purple." He also favored a small "BI" distinctive logo and small titles. Braniff engineering and Braniff's advertising department modified Girard's colors, enlarged the "BI" logo, and added white wings and tails. This, ironically, was based on the 1930s Braniff "Vega" Schemes, which also carried colorful aircraft paint with white wings and tails. The new "jelly bean" fleet consisted of such bold colors as beige, ochre, orange, turquoise, baby blue, medium blue, lemon yellow, and lavender. Lavender was dropped after only one month, due to the similarity in coloration to the Witch Moth (Ascalapha odorata), a sign of bad luck in Mexican mythology. Fifteen colors were used by Braniff for plane exteriors during the 1960s (Harper & George modified Girard's original seven colors in 1967), in combination with 57 different variations of Herman Miller fabrics. Many of the color schemes were applied to aircraft interiors, gate lounges, ticket offices, and even the corporate headquarters. Art to complement the color schemes was flown in from Mexico, Latin America, and South America. Girard also designed an extensive line of furniture for Braniff's ticket offices and customer lounges. This furniture was made available to the public by Herman Miller, but only in 1967.[1]

Pucci used a series of nautical themes in overhauling the crew's uniforms. For the "hostesses" (stewardesses in Braniff terminology), Pucci used "space age" themes, including plastic Space Helmets and Bolas (as dubbed by Pucci). These clear plastic bubbles, which resembled Captain Video helmets and which Braniff termed "Rain Domes", were to be worn between the terminal and the plane to prevent hairstyles from being disturbed by outside elements. However, the "Rain Domes" were dropped after about a month because the helmets cracked easily, there was no place to store them on the aircraft, and jetways at many airports made them unnecessary. For the footwear, Beth Levine created plastic boots and designed two-tone calfskin boots and shoes. Later uniforms and accessories were composed of interchangeable parts, which could be removed and added as needed. In 1969, Pucci designed "Pucci IV" for the intro of "747 Braniff Place" (1971). The collection was debuted at the Dallas Hilton by Pucci himself, in 1970. Today, all of the vintage Pucci attire designed for Braniff is valuable.[1]

Panagra Merger and MAC Charters[edit]

In 1967 Braniff purchased Pan American-Grace Airways (Panagra), buying it from shareholders of Pan American World Airways and W.R. Grace. The purchase increased Braniff's presence in South America. In 1966, Braniff investor Troy V. Post, by now a regular at the Johnson White House, obtained a government contract to transport military personnel from Vietnam to Hawaii for their R&R furloughs during the Vietnam War. The Military Air Command routes were expanded in the Pacific and added to the Atlantic side in 1966.[1]

Revenue Passenger-Miles (Millions) (Sched Service Only)
Braniff Panagra Mid-Continent
1951 332 126 9
1955 680 161 (merged 1952)
1960 1181 198
1965 1804 278
1970 4262 (merged 1967)
1975 6290


"When You Got It — Flaunt It!" Campaign[edit]

Under the leadership of George Lois and his advertising firm, Braniff expanded an advertising campaign that showed the likenesses of Andy Warhol, Sonny Liston, Salvador Dalí, Whitey Ford, the Playboy Bunny, and other celebrities of the time flying Braniff. After the Plain Plane Campaign, it became one of the most celebrated marketing efforts Madison Avenue had ever produced, blending style and arrogance. One advertising slogan was "When you got it — flaunt it!"[10] Although management considered the campaign a success, some of Braniff's customers thought the campaign exhibited grandiose behavior and bragging when service levels were (at times) not where they should have been. However, Braniff reported an 80 percent increase in business during the time the campaign was in use.[11]

Terminal of the Future[edit]

Braniff opened the "Terminal of the Future" at its home base at Dallas Love Field in late 1968. The airline also operated Jetrail at Dallas Love Field from 1970 to 1974. Jetrail was the world's first fully automated monorail system, taking passengers from remote parking lots at Dallas Love Field to the Braniff Terminal. Braniff was a key partner in the planning of Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport and contributed many innovations to the airline industry during this time.[1]

Remaking The Braniff Jet Fleet[edit]

Though Braniff had been the US launch customer in 1964 for the British-built BAC One-Eleven, Lawrence executed an order in 1965 for twelve new US-built Boeing 727 aircraft and then cancelled most of the remaining BAC One-Eleven orders. The 727s had already been selected before Lawrence's arrival, but no orders had been placed. These planes were the C model, which came with a large freight loading door at the front of the aircraft. This allowed Braniff to begin late-night cargo service, while regular passenger service was operated with the aircraft during the day. This new service doubled the 727 utilization rate and allowed Braniff to open a new cargo business, AirGo. The new 727s could also be outfitted in a unique cargo/passenger configuration, if needed.

In 1970 Braniff accepted delivery of the 100th Boeing 747 built—a 747-127, N601BN—and began "jumbo jet" flights from Dallas to Hawaii on January 15, 1971. This plane, dubbed "747 Braniff Place" and "The Most Exclusive Address In The Sky", was Braniff's flagship, and it flew an unprecedented 15 hours per day with a 99 percent dispatch reliability rate. [1] In 1978 N601BN flew the first flight from Dallas/Fort Worth to London.[1] The Braniff 747 livery of bright orange led to the aircraft being popularly nicknamed "The Great Pumpkin".[12][13] The popularity of "The Great Pumpkin" led to extensive publicity, and even the marketing of a scale model by the Airfix model company.[14]

The 727 would become the backbone of the Braniff Fleet and the key aircraft in the 1971 Fleet Standardization Plan, which called for only three aircraft types: the Boeing 727 on domestic service, the Boeing 747 for Hawaii, and the Douglas DC-8 for South America. This Lawrence plan allowed for reduction in costs associated with operating multiple types of aircraft; when Lawrence took office in May 1965, Braniff operated thirteen different aircraft types. Braniff eventually ordered several variants of the 727 including the "quick change" cargo/passenger variant, the stretched B727-200, and later the 727-200 Advanced. Lawrence also increased daily utilization of its aircraft, which allowed Braniff to fly as though it had added aircraft to the fleet.

By April, 1969, the Lockheed L-188 Electra turboprops had all been retired, making Braniff "all jet". By the mid-1970s, Braniff's fleet of Boeing 727s showed the efficiencies that a single type of aircraft could produce; in 1975 Braniff had one (1) B747, eleven (11) DC-8s, and seventy (70) B727s.[1] The Douglas DC-8s were aging, and there was speculation whether new McDonnell Douglas MD-80s, Boeing 757s, or Boeing 767s would replace the DC-8-62s (which flew Braniff's South American routes).[1]

Alexander Calder's Flying Artworks[edit]

In 1973 Alexander Calder was commissioned by Braniff to paint an aircraft. Calder was introduced to Harding Lawrence by veteran advertising executive George Gordon, who would eventually take over the Braniff advertising account.[15] Calder's contribution was a Douglas DC-8 known simply as "Flying Colors of South America." In 1975 it was showcased at the Paris Air Show in Paris, France. Its designs reflected the bright colors and simple designs of South America and Latin America, and was used mainly on South American flights. Later in 1975 he debuted "Flying Colors of the United States" to commemorate the Bicentennial of the United States. This time, the aircraft was a Boeing 727-200. First Lady Betty Ford dedicated "Flying Colors of the United States" in Washington, D.C. on November 17, 1975. Calder died in November 1976 as he was finalizing a third livery, termed "Flying Colors of Mexico" or "Salute To Mexico". Consequently, this livery was not used on any Braniff aircraft.[15]

Halston and the Elegance Campaign[edit]

In 1977, Braniff commissioned American couturier Halston to bring an elegant and refined feel to Braniff. The new Ultrasuede uniforms and leather aircraft interiors were dubbed the Ultra Look by Halston, who had used the term to describe his elegant fashions. The Ultra Look was applied to all uniforms and the entire Braniff fleet (including the two Calder aircraft). The Ultra Look was an integral part of Braniff's new Elegance Campaign, which was designed to show the maturing of Braniff, as well as the look and feel of opulence throughout the airline's operation. Halston's uniforms and simple designs were praised by critics and passengers.[16]

Concorde SST[edit]

In 1978, Braniff Chair Harding L. Lawrence would negotiate a unique interchange operation to operate Concorde over American soil. Concorde service began in 1979 between Dallas-Fort Worth and Washington, D.C., with service to Paris and London on interchange flights with Air France and British Airways. Flights between Dallas-Fort Worth and Washington Dulles airports were commanded by Braniff cockpit and cabin crews, while British or French crews would take over for the remaining segment to Europe. Transfer of ownership took place in Washington each time Concorde flew in the United States. Braniff actually owned the planes while on U.S. domestic service, and the planes were re-registered with temporary tape. Ownership was then re-transferred to Air France or British Airways on the trans-Atlantic leg. Over American soil, Concorde was limited to Mach 0.95, though crews often flew just above Mach 1; the planes flew at Mach 2 over open water.[1]

Concorde service proved a loss leader for Braniff. Though Braniff charged only a 10% premium over standard first-class fare to fly Concorde - and later removed the surcharge altogether - the 100-seat plane often flew with no more than 15 passengers. Meanwhile, Boeing 727s flying the same route were filled routinely. Concorde service ended after little more than a year. However, the notoriety that Braniff received from operating Concorde was advertising that could not be readily bought, and operating Concorde service further burnished the carrier's "cutting edge" reputation.[1]

Although many postcards show a Braniff painted Concorde, the Braniff livery was never applied to the left side of any Concorde, and the aircraft remained in the colors of British Airways and Air France throughout the operation. Braniff ceased Concorde operations at the end of May, 1980.[1]

Deregulation and Global Expansion[edit]

Up to 1980, Braniff was one of the fastest-growing and most-profitable airlines in the United States. But deregulation of the airline industry was introduced in December 1978, and Braniff — as well as many of the United States' major air carriers — misjudged this unprecedented change in airline business.[1]

Lawrence believed that the answer to deregulation was to expand Braniff's route system dramatically or face an immediate erosion of Braniff's highly profitable routes as a result of unbridled competition caused by new low cost carriers. He therefore enlarged the domestic network by 50% on December 15, 1978, adding 16 new cities and 32 new routes, which Braniff said was the "largest single-day increase by any airline in history". This historical expansion was successful both operationally and financially.[17] [18] International hubs were created in Boston and Los Angeles to handle expected increases in travel outside North America. This would have included flights to Tokyo, as well as an "oil run" between Dallas-Fort Worth, Houston, and Dubai; these routes never commenced.[1] More 747s and 747SPs were acquired for flights to Asia and Europe.

Fuel costs became the main impediment to Braniff's post-deregulation expansion. These costs increased an unprecedented 94 percent in 1979 alone.[1] Some of the expected new business never materialized; 747 service from the new Boston hub did poorly, with the huge planes flying nearly empty. The expense of the new equipment and the new hubs increased Braniff's debt tremendously. More debt was incurred in shifting Braniff's main base of flight operations from Love Field in Dallas to Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW). (However, this was required by a 1968 agreement signed by Braniff and other airlines then operating at Dallas Love Field.) Simultaneous with the move to a new airport, Braniff moved to a sprawling new world headquarters, Braniff Place, just inside the western grounds of the airport.[19] Braniff's sub-par load factors — which were especially intolerable on the expensive-to-run 747s — combined with record-breaking fuel cost escalations, large debts, and a national recession, producing massive financial shortfalls. These shortfalls led to creditors requesting the retirement of Harding Lawrence in December 1980.[20]

John J. Casey Becomes President[edit]

On January 7, 1981, the Braniff Board of Directors elected John J. Casey as President, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of Braniff Airways, Inc. and Braniff International Corporation as a replacement to the outgoing and retiring Harding Lawrence. Former Braniff President Russ Thayer was elected as Vice Chairman of the Board, William Huskins as Executive Vice President, Neal J. Robinson as Executive Vice President of Marketing, and Edson "Ted" Beckwith as Executive Vice President of Finance.[4]

John Casey expanded Braniff's capacity during the summer of 1981 in an effort to take advantage of the traditional summer increase in air traffic. However, an unforeseen strike by the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (PATCO) caused airline delays and a decrease in traffic that created large losses for Braniff. Casey then implemented the Braniff Strikes Back Campaign in the fall of 1981, which involved streamlining the carrier's air fare structure into a simplified two-tier fare system. As part of this campaign, select Boeing 727s were divided into Braniff Premier Service, which featured traditional First Class service, and Coach Class. The remainder of the 727 fleet featured an all-Coach Class configuration with highly-reduced fares. The campaign was not successful and created the unintended effect of pushing Braniff's bread-and-butter business travelers over to traditional airlines with First Class seating on all flights.

Howard Putnam Becomes Final President of Braniff[edit]

In the fall of 1981, Braniff Chairman John Casey was told by the Braniff Board that a new President needed to be found to try and curb Braniff's rapidly-mounting losses. Casey met with Southwest Airlines President Howard A. Putnam and offered him the Braniff executive position. Putnam accepted the offer, but he required that his own financial manager from Southwest Airlines, Phillip Guthrie, be allowed to follow him to Braniff.

Howard Putnam implemented a one-fare-structure plan called the Texas Class Campaign. Texas Class created a one-fare, one-service airline domestically and removed First Class from all Braniff aircraft. Only the international services to South America and London, as well as service to Hawaii, would offer full First Class services. In the program's first month in operation, December 1981, Braniff's revenues immediately dropped from slightly over 100 million USD per month to 80 million USD. Braniff no longer had the revenue structure to maintain its cash requirements. Competition throughout the Braniff system, coupled with the onslaught of increased services at Braniff's main hub (Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport) by American and Delta Airlines, caused a further erosion in the airline's revenue production.

Cessation of Operations[edit]

On May 11, 1982, Howard Putnam left a courtroom at the Federal Courthouse in Brooklyn, New York City, after he failed to gain a court injunction to stop a threatened pilot strike. However, Putnam was successful in obtaining an extension of time from Braniff's principal creditors until October 1982. The next day, on May 12, 1982, Braniff Airways ceased all operations, thus ending 54 years of service in the American airline industry. Braniff flights at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport that morning were suddenly grounded, and passengers on the jets were forced to disembark, being told that Braniff now ceased to exist. An afternoon thunderstorm provided the perfect cover to cancel many afternoon flights that day, although Braniff Flight 501 to Honolulu departed as scheduled, with the crew subsequently refusing to divert the flight to Los Angeles International Airport.[21]

In the days that followed, all the Braniff jets based at Dallas-Fort Worth sat idle on the apron by Terminal 2W.[1]

With the demise of Braniff, Braniff Place World Headquarters on the West side of DFW Airport eventually became GTE Place, and then Verizon Place.[19][22]

Successor Organizations[edit]

Three airlines were formed following the shutdown of Braniff.

Former Braniff employees founded Minnesota-based Sun Country Airlines in 1983. It flew a fleet of Boeing 727-200s and DC-10s until 2001. It reorganized and currently flies a modern fleet of Boeing 737-800 series aircraft.

Two airlines were formed from the assets of Braniff:

The book "Deregulation Knockouts, Round 2" documents at least two attempts to use the Braniff name in operations subsequent to the above attempts. One plan would have based the company again at Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, utilizing Boeing 757 aircraft. Another planned operation would have been based at Wichita Mid-Continent Airport and would have offered discounted fares to members of a "Braniff Club".[23]

The remains of the original Braniff — including Braniff Airways' original Tax ID number (FEIN) — are retained by a company named "Asworth" in Dallas. Asworth was formed out of the old "Dalfort" corporation and is responsible for paying pilot pensions according to the Braniff Retired Pilots Group, B.I.S.E.

Incidents and Accidents[edit]

  • 23 December 1936 - A Braniff Lockheed Model 10 Electra airliner, registration number NC-14905, suffered an engine failure during a go-around while conducting a non-scheduled test flight at Dallas Love Field, Dallas, Texas; the pilot tried to turn back towards the airfield but lost control, causing the craft to spin into the northern shore of Bachman Lake. The six occupants of the Electra, all Braniff employees, died in the crash and ensuing fire.[24]
  • 26 March 1939 – Braniff Trip 1, operating from Chicago to Brownsville, Texas, crashed on takeoff from Oklahoma City Municipal Air Terminal, today known as Will Rogers World Airport. Early that March morning, the aircraft, a Douglas DC-2, tail number NC13727, suffered an explosion in the left engine that, in turn, caused the engine's cowling to open up, creating serious drag on the left wing. The flight's captain, Claude Seaton, struggled to keep the aircraft stable while turning back for an emergency landing at Oklahoma City. The aircraft's compromised wing hit an embankment on the section line road forming the airport's western boundary and cartwheeled across the ground. Seaton ordered the aircraft's fuel to be cut off, but in vain, as, when the plane came to rest on the ground, fuel came in contact with the still-hot engines and caught fire. Seaton and First Officer Malcolm Wallace were thrown free on impact and survived with serious injuries, which ended the flying career of the captain. Flight attendant Louise Zarr and seven passengers died in the post-crash fire.
  • 15 May 1953 - A Braniff International Airways Douglas DC-4 carrying 48 passengers and five crew slid off the end of Runway 36, crossed Lemmon Avenue, and plowed into an embankment. Despite reportedly heavy automobile traffic on the busy street, no vehicles were struck, and nobody aboard the airliner was seriously injured. The crash was attributed to poor braking action on the rain-slicked runway.
  • 29 September 1959 - Braniff Flight 542 crashed in Buffalo, Texas while en route from Houston to Dallas, and the crash resulted in the deaths of twenty-nine passengers and five crew members. The plane, registration number N9705C, was an 11-day-old Lockheed L-188 Electra. The Civil Aeronautics Board blamed the crash on metal fatigue due to the "whirl-mode" prop theory.
  • 19 October 1959 - A Braniff Boeing 707 crashed in Arlington, Washington. Although the aircraft was not officially a Braniff aircraft, it was due for delivery the very next day and was already wearing the Braniff logo and colors. The aircraft, a Boeing 707-227, registration number N7071, was on an orientation flight with two Boeing test pilots, and two Braniff Captains on board. The Braniff pilot performed a series of Dutch Rolls; however, one of the rolls was executed beyond the maximum bank angle restrictions, resulting in a loss of control. The aircraft recovered from the maneuver, but, during the recovery, three of the engines (number 1, 2 and 4) were torn off. The aircraft crashed along the Stillaguamish River northeast of Arlington. The two pilots in the cockpit did not survive the emergency landing, the other two pilots who were sitting in the tail section did. A bare patch in the trees along the north bank of the river still exists today.
  • 14 September 1960 - An airline maintenance inspector lost control of a Braniff International Airways Douglas DC-7 during a taxi test and crashed into the Braniff Operations and Maintenance Base hangar at high speed. The inspector died and five of the six mechanics aboard were injured. The aircraft brakes were set to bypass mode and braking action was not available when it was needed.
  • 6 August 1966 - Braniff Flight 250 crashed in Falls City, Nebraska, en route to Omaha, Nebraska, from Kansas City, Missouri. Thirty-eight passengers and four crew members were killed in the crash. The plane was a BAC One-Eleven 203, registration number N1553.
  • 3 May 1968 - Braniff Flight 352 crashed in Dawson, Texas. Like Flight 542 nine years earlier, it was en route to Dallas, from Houston. Seventy-nine passengers and five crew members were killed in the crash. The plane was a Lockheed Electra II, registration number N9707C. Two other Braniff employees, a cargo secretary, and a Braniff construction engineer were among the dead.
  • 2 July 1971 - Braniff Flight 14, a Boeing 707 flying from Acapulco to New York with 102 passengers and a crew of eight was hijacked on approach to a refueling stop in San Antonio, Texas. The ordeal lasted 43 hours across Texas, Mexico, Peru, Brazil and ended happily in Argentina. After a refueling stop in Monterrey, the hijackers released flight attendants Jeanette Eatman Crepps, Iris Kay Williams and Anita Bankert Mayer and all of the passengers. The remaining crew of Captain Dale Bessant, Bill Wallace, Phillip Wray and flight attendants Ernestina Garcia and Margaret Susan Harris flew on to Lima. The hijackers, a U.S. Navy deserter named Robert Jackson and his Guatemalan lady friend, demanded and got a ransom of $100,000 and wanted to go to Algeria. The Bessant crew was released, one by one, and replaced by a volunteer crew of Captain Al Schroeder, Bill Mizell, Bob Williams and Navigater Ken McWhorter. Two Lima based employees, Delia Arizola and Clorinda Ortoneda volunteered to board the flight. Arizola had been retired 6 months but still offered her services. The 707 left for Rio and planned to refuel but the hijacker forced them on to Buenos Aires. The long flight and fatigue took its toll and the hijackers gave up. It was a record for long distance hijacking, over 7,500 miles.
  • 12 January 1972 - Braniff Flight 38, a Boeing 727, was hijacked as it departed Houston bound for Dallas. The lone armed hijacker, Billy Gene Hurst, Jr., allowed all 94 passengers to deplane after landing at Dallas Love Field but continued to hold the seven crew members hostage, demanding to fly to South America and asking for US$2 million, parachutes, and jungle survival gear, among other items. After a six-hour standoff, the entire crew secretly fled while Hurst was distracted examining the contents of a package delivered by Dallas police. Police officers stormed the craft shortly afterwards and arrested Hurst without serious incident.

In Popular Culture[edit]

  • Braniff Productions, Trey Parker and Matt Stone's production company that produced South Park, was named after the airline; the company used a 5-second segment from a Braniff commercial as their production logo at the end of each episode from 1997 to 2006. The logo said "Braniff, Believe It!" The company would be renamed "Parker-Stone Studios" in 2007.
  • In the highly acclaimed film Wall Street, Bud Fox (Charlie Sheen) warns his father Carl (Martin Sheen), who is employed by an airline that his son wants to control about how the fictional "Blue Star Airlines" will "go right down the tubes just like Braniff!"

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Nance, John J. (1984). Splash of Colors The Self Destruction of Braniff International. New York: William Morrow and Company. pp. 80–83. ISBN 0-688-03586-8. 
  2. ^ F. Robert Van der Linden. Airlines and air mail: the post office and the birth of the commercial. p. 112. 
  3. ^ Perez, Joan Jenkins. "Thomas Elmer Braniff". Texas State Historical Association. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Cearley, Jr., George W. (1986). "The Building of a Major International Airline". Braniff International Airways 1928-1965: 19. 
  5. ^ "Paul and Tom Braniff". Dallas Historical Society. Dallas Historical Society. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  6. ^ Moore, Matthew Douglas. "Charles Edmund Beard". Texas State Historical Association. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  7. ^ "BNF Puts Money Down On Supersonic Jets". Braniff B Liner Employee Newsletter: 1. May 1964. 
  8. ^ "BNF Puts Money Down On Supersonic Jets". Braniff B Liner Employee Newsletter: 1. May 1964. 
  9. ^ "BNF Puts Money Down On Supersonic Jets". Braniff B Liner Employee Newsletter: 1. May 1964. 
  10. ^ Lois, George (1977). The Art of Advertising. New York: Harry N. Abrams. pp. Introduction by Bill Pitts. ISBN 9780810903739. 
  11. ^ Heller, Steven. "Reputation: George Lois". Eye Magazine. www.eyemagazine.com. Retrieved 17 July 2013. 
  12. ^ The Jet Age website is one of many examples of this reference.
  13. ^ See also the Airchive reference to "The Great Pumpkin", later known as "Fat Albert" and "Big Orange".
  14. ^ The Airfix model is cited and illustrated at the Airfix archive.
  15. ^ a b Goodman, Lawrence. "My Pal, Alexander Calder". Brown Alumni Magazine. Brown Alumni Magazine. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  16. ^ "Halston". Braniff History. Dallas Historical Society. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  17. ^ Beth Ellyn Rosenthal and Bruce Selcraig, "Bad Times at Braniff: Harding Lawrence’s grandiose flight plan took Braniff to dizzying heights, but it ultimately put the airline into a tailspin." D Magazine, February 1981.
  18. ^ "Airline expanding", Associated Press in The Victoria Advocate, November 19, 1978.
  19. ^ a b Miller, Robert. "THEIR INSPIRATION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP WINS HONORS." The Dallas Morning News. November 8, 1985. Retrieved on August 17, 2009.
  20. ^ New York Times (January 12, 2002). "Harding Lawrence, 81, Airline Chief, Dies". 
  21. ^ Nance, John. Splash of Colors. 
  22. ^ "Resorts for rent: Once mainly for top executives, some private conference and training centers with high amenities now welcome outside business as their owners seek ways to break even." Fort Worth Star-Telegram. February 13, 2006. Retrieved on August 17, 2009.
  23. ^ Norwood, Tom. Deregulation Knockouts: Round 2. 
  24. ^ Staff writers (1942-10-17). "Braniff Airways Plane Crashes, Burning Six to Death; Ship Falls on Shore of Bachman's Lake as Motors Fail". The Dallas Morning News. 
  25. ^ "Braniff Airways - Wikisimpsons the Simpsons Wiki", Retrieved on 19 August 2012.

External links[edit]