Braslav, Duke of Lower Pannonia

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Braslav
Duke of Lower Pannonia
Gesta hungarorum map.jpg
Principality of Braslav according to Hungarian historian Dr. Márki Sándor
Duke of Lower Pannonia fl. 882–896
Occupation Frankish vassal

Braslav (fl. 882–896) was an East Frankish Slavic nobleman, the ruler of the Duchy of Pannonia between 884 and 907. His duchy initially included Lower Pannonia, between the Drava and Sava, and he served Arnulf of Carinthia. He participated in the Frankish–Moravian War, and in 896 he was handed the rule of all Pannonia by Arnulf, in order to secure the Frankish frontier against the Hungarians.

Background[edit]

In 882–84, a bloody war was fought between Arnulf of Carinthia and Svatopluk I of Moravia, during which Pannonia and the Danube suffered the most. Svatopluk is said to have "slaughtered" and "destroyed much with fire and sword".[1] The two agreed on peace in 884.

Life[edit]

A Slavic prince[1][2] and ardent Frankish loyalist,[1] according to the Frankish Annals, Braslav was the "Duke of Lower Pannonia" (Pannonia inferior cum duce Braslao ad officium rediit).[3] He ruled a province from the Drava to the Sava (modern-day Slavonia).[1] He took part in the 884 Frankish–Moravian peace treaty reached at Tulln.[1]

Sometime during 891, according to the Annals of Fulda, Arnulf sent an embassy led by margrave Arbo to Moravia in order to renew the peace.[4] A letter written by the margrave soon announced that the legates were returning from Svatopluk and the Moravians who had agreed "to give themselves in friendship".[4] Svatopluk, however, broke his pledges, thus Arnulf decided to invade Moravia in 891.[5] First Arnulf met with Braslav, the Slavic dux on the river Sava, next raised an army of Franconians, Bavarians and Alamanni, and also recruited Hungarians to join his campaign (for the latter recruitment, Ottonian authors blamed Arnulf for unleashing the Hungarians on Europe).[6] Braslav participated in the 892 campaign.[2]

After Svatopluk's death in 894, the Hungarians ravaged Pannonia, becoming enemies of Arnulf, threatening Frankish Pannonia.[1] The critical situation came after the Hungarians had occupied the Pannonian basin between the Tisza and Danube.[1] Thus, in 895[2] or 896, Arnulf decided to hand over Mosapurc[2] and Pannonia to Braslav,[2][1] thereby strengthening the defense of his southeastern frontier.[1] Arnulf and Braslav could not stop the Hungarians,[1] and Pannonia was subsequently overran by the Hungarians.

Legacy[edit]

Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia, is believed to have been named after him (Brezalauspurc, 907).[1]

In Croatian historiography, he is called a Croat prince.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Oto Luthar (2008). The Land Between: A History of Slovenia. Peter Lang. pp. 104, 110–111. ISBN 978-3-631-57011-1. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Timothy Reuter; Rosamond McKitterick (1999). The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 3, C.900-c.1024. Cambridge University Press. pp. 538–. ISBN 978-0-521-36447-8. 
  3. ^ Jugoslavenska Akademija Znanosti i Umjetnosti (Zagreb) (1871). Rad Jugoslavenske Akademije Znanosti i Umjetnosti 16. Akad. pp. 8–. 
  4. ^ a b Bowlus 1994, p. 223
  5. ^ Bowlus 1994, pp. 224-225
  6. ^ Bowlus 1994, pp. 225-227, 233
  7. ^ Ivo Supičić (1999). Croatia in the early middle ages: a cultural survey. Philip Wilson. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-85667-499-0.