Brazil and the United Nations

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Federative Republic of Brazil
Flag of the United Nations.svg Flag of Brazil.svg
United Nations membership
Membership Full member
Since 1945 (1945)
UNSC seat Non-permanent (2010-2011)
Ambassador Antonio Patriota

Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations and participates in all of its specialized agencies.[1] Brazil is among the twenty top contributors to United Nations peacekeeping operations,[2] and has participated in peacekeeping efforts in the Middle East, the former Belgian Congo, Cyprus, Mozambique, Angola, and more recently East Timor and Haiti.[3] In 2010-2011, Brazil held a non-permanent seat in the Security Council for a two-year mandate. Along with Japan, Brazil has been elected more times to the Council than any other UN Member State.[4]

Activities[edit]

President Dilma Rousseff delivers the opening speech at the 66th Session of the General Assembly on September 21, 2011, marking the first time a woman opens a United Nations session.

General Assembly[edit]

Brazil has traditionally played a relevant role in the United Nations General Assembly. In 1947, foreign minister Oswaldo Aranha chaired the First Special Session of the General Assembly and the Second Session of the General Assembly. Since 1947, Brazil has been the first country to speak at the General Debate.[5] The opening speeches delivered by the Brazilian representatives often present an assessment of the international situation as a backdrop to express the Brazilian point of view on the main issues.[6] On September 21, 2011, President Rousseff became the first woman to open a General Debate since the United Nations was founded.[7]

Security Council[edit]

Brazil has been elected ten times to the United Nations Security Council, and is currently tied with Japan as the country that has served for the most number of years as an elected member.

List of terms as an elected member to the Security Council:

  • 1946-1947
  • 1951-1952
  • 1954-1955
  • 1963-1964
  • 1967-1968
  • 1988-1989
  • 1993-1994
  • 1998-1999
  • 2004-2005
  • 2010-2011

Security Council reform[edit]

Brazil is actively engaged in the reform of the United Nations Security Council and has sought to garner support for a permanent seat with veto power.[8] It formed the G4 alliance with Germany, India, and Japan for the purpose of supporting each other’s bids for permanent seats.[8] Their proposal calls for an enlarged Security Council, expanded in both the permanent and non-permanent categories of membership.[8] The initiative has been supported by a wide coalition of Member States, from all regional groups of the United Nations.[8]

The United States sent strong indications to Brazil that it was willing to support its membership; albeit, without a veto.[9] In June 2011, the Council on Foreign Relations recommended that the US government fully endorse the inclusion of Brazil as a permanent member of the Security Council.[10] Brazil has also received backing from other permanent members: Russia,[11] the United Kingdom[12] and France,[13] and from the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP),[14] Chile,[15] Indonesia[citation needed], Finland,[16] Slovenia,[17] Australia,[18] South Africa,[19] Guatemala,[20] Vietnam,[21] the Philippines,[22] amongst others.

Peacekeeping[edit]

Brazilian peacekeeping soldier in Haiti.

A founding member of the United Nations, Brazil, has a long tradition of contributing to peacekeeping operations. Brazil has participated in 33 United Nations peacekeeping operations and contributed with over 27,000 troops. Currently, Brazil contributes with more than 2,200 troops, military observers and police officers in three continents.[4]

Brazil has led the military component of the United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) since its establishment in 2004.[23] The mission's Force Commander is Major General Fernando Rodrigues Goulart of the Brazilian Army.[24] Brazil is the biggest troop contributing country to MINUSTAH, with 2,200 active military personnel.[25]

Brazil also leads the Maritime Task Force (MTF) of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL).[26] Since February 2011, the UNIFIL MTF is under the command of Rear Admiral Luiz Henrique Caroli of the Brazilian Navy.[26] The Brazilian Niteroi class frigate, União, is the flagship of the fleet comprising vessels from three other countries.[26]

Financial contribution[edit]

Brazil is the tenth largest contributor to the United Nations regular budget, with a net contribution of US$38 million for the 2012 Assessment.[27]

Representation[edit]

New York[edit]

Brazil maintains a permanent mission to the United Nations in New York, which is headed by Ambassador Antonio Patriota.[28] The mission is responsible for Brazil's participation in all United Nations events that concern the country in meetings of the General Assembly, Security Council, and other U.N. agencies headquartered in New York.[29]

Geneva[edit]

Brazil maintains a permanent mission to the United Nations Office at Geneva, headed by Ambassador Maria Nazareth Farani Azevêdo.[30] The delegation is responsible for representing Brazil at the agencies headquartered in Geneva.[29]

Rome[edit]

In Rome, Brazil maintains a delegation to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), led by Ambassador Antonino Marques Porto e Santos.[31]

Paris[edit]

At the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) headquarters in Paris, the Permanent Delegation of Brazil is headed by Ambassador Marcia Donner Abreu.[32] Brazil joined UNESCO in 1946, and has been a member of its Executive Board several times, most recently 2007-2009.[32]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Brazil and the United Nations Ministry of Foreign Relations of Brazil. Retrieved on 2010-12-06.
  2. ^ United Nations Peacekeeping Factsheet United Nations. Retrieved on 2010-12-06.
  3. ^ Missões de Paz - Apresentação Exército Brasileiro. Retrieved on 2010-12-06. (Portuguese).
  4. ^ a b Brazilian Presidency of the Security Council Permanent Mission of Brazil to the United Nations. Retrieved on 2011-02-02.
  5. ^ Brazil’s President Rousseff to be First Woman to Open United Nations FoxNews. Retrieved on 2011-09-20.
  6. ^ United Nations General Assembly Ministry of Foreign Relations of Brazil. Retrieved on 2010-12-06.
  7. ^ Brazilian leader is first-ever woman to open U.N. speeches CNN. Retrieved on 2011-09-21.
  8. ^ a b c d Joint Press Statement: Ministerial Meeting of the G4 countries (Brazil, Germany, India and Japan) in the margins of the 66th Session of the UN General Assembly Permanent Mission of Brazil to the United Nations. Retrieved on 2012-01-26.
  9. ^ "Powell: Brazil Not Developing Nukes" Fox News. Retrieved 2009-06-28.
  10. ^ Global Brazil and U.S.-Brazil Relations, Council on Foreign Relations
  11. ^ "Putin in Brazil", Brazzil. Retrieved 2009-06-28.
  12. ^ "UK backs Brazil as permanent Security Council member", Number10.gov.uk., 27 March 2009, Retrieved 2009-06-28.
  13. ^ "France and Brazil", Ministry of Foreign Affairs of France. Retrieved 2009-06-28.
  14. ^ "Chanceleres lusófonos discutem reforma das Nações Unidas", Uol Notícias. Retrieved 2009-06-28. (Portuguese)
  15. ^ "Presidente do Chile pede ingresso do Brasil no Conselho de Segurança da ONU", Sul21. Retrieved 2011-04-04]
  16. ^ "Brasil e Finlândia farão acordo para disseminação de fontes limpas de energia", Agência Brasil. Retrieved 2009-06-28. (Portuguese)
  17. ^ "Slovenia backs Brazil as permanent member of UNSC", People's Daily. Retrieved January 18, 2009.
  18. ^ "Brazil Gets Australia's Backing for UN Security Council Seat", Brazzil. Retrieved January 18, 2009.
  19. ^ "South Africa to support India, Brazil for Security Council seat", The Hindu. Retrieved 2009-06-28.
  20. ^ "Brasil e Guatemala acertam apoio mútuo para Conselho de Segurança", Yahoo! Brazil. Retrieved 2009-06-28. (Portuguese)
  21. ^ "Presidentes do Brasil e Vietnã realiza 'Comunicado Conjunto' para cooperação para o desenvolvimento econômico e social", Fator Brasil. Retrieved 2009-06-28. (Portuguese)
  22. ^ "PGMA, Brazilian President Lula agree to further strengthen RP-Brazil relations", Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 2009-06-28.
  23. ^ Exército Brasileiro: Haiti Brazilian Army. Retrieved on 2012-01-26. (Portuguese).
  24. ^ MINUSTAH Leadership United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti. Retrieved on 2012-07-26.
  25. ^ MINUSTAH Facts and Figures United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti. Retrieved on 2012-01-26.
  26. ^ a b c Brazilian Flagship for UNIFIL Maritime Task Force, 25 November 2011 United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon. Retrieved on 2012-07-26.
  27. ^ Assessment of Member States’ contributions to the United Nations regular budget for 2012 United Nations. Retrieved on 2012-01-26.
  28. ^ Mission personnel Permanent Mission of Brazil to the United Nations. Retrieved on 2010-12-06.
  29. ^ a b O Brasil na ONU Nações Unidas no Brasil. Retrieved on 2010-12-06. (Portuguese).
  30. ^ Permanent Missions United Nations Office at Geneva. Retrieved on 2010-12-06.
  31. ^ A Representação Representação do Brasil junto à FAO. Retrieved on 2010-12-06. (Portuguese).
  32. ^ a b Brazil UNESCO. Retrieved on 2010-12-06.

External links[edit]