Brazilian Air Force
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (June 2013)|
The Brazilian Air Force (Portuguese: Força Aérea Brasileira, FAB) is the air branch of the Brazilian Armed Forces and one of the three national uniformed services. The FAB was formed when the Army and Navy air branch were merged into a single military force initially called "National Air Forces". Both air branches transferred their equipment, installations and personnel to the new force.
According to the Flight International (Flightglobal.com) and the International Institute for Strategic Studies, the Brazilian Air Force has an active strength of 70,710 military personnel and operates around 758 aircraft. The Brazilian Air Force is the largest air force in the Southern hemisphere and the second in the Americas after the United States Air Force.
- 1 History
- 2 Brazilian Air Force today
- 3 Inventory
- 4 Radar and Air Defence Systems
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 External links
The establishment of the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force in April 1918, and the creation of the Italian Air Force (Regia Aeronautica) and the French Air Force during the 1920s drove the idea of uniting Brazilian air power under the same organization. Together with these events the Brazilian strategists were also influenced by the theories of Giulio Douhet, Billy Mitchell and Hugh Montague Trenchard.
The first public manifest to create an integrated military air service came up in 1928 when an army Major called Lysias Rodrigues wrote an article called "An urgent need: The Ministry of the Air" ("Uma premente necessidade: o Ministério do Ar"). Two years later the French Military Mission, working for the Brazilian Army, made the first steps to organize a national air arm. The idea got more support when a group of Brazilian airmen came from Italy in 1934 and explained the advantages of having a military aviation unified. Also, the Spanish Revolution and the first movements of World War II at the end of the thirties showed the importance of Air power for military strategies.
One of the main supporters of the plan to create an independent air arm was the then-president Getúlio Vargas. He organized a study group early in 1940 and the whole structure of the Ministry of Aeronautics (Ministério da Aeronáutica) was established the end of that year. This new governmental agency was responsible for the all aspects of the civil and military aviation including infrastructure, regulation and organization.
Formally, the Ministry of Aeronautics was founded on January 20, 1941 and so its military branch called "National Air Forces", changed to "Brazilian Air Force" (Força Aérea Brasileira – FAB) on May, 22. The Army ("Aviação Militar") and Navy ("Aviação Naval") air branches were extinguished and all personnel, aircraft, installations and other related equipment were transferred to FAB.
World War II
From mid-1942 until the end of the war, the FAB also patrolled the Atlantic. On 31 July 1943 it claimed the German submarine U-199, which was located on the surface, off Rio de Janeiro, at Coordinates: . Two Brazilian aircraft, a PBY Catalina and a Lockheed Hudson, and an American PBM Mariner attacked the U-boat. The Catalina, named Ärará, was captained by 2º Ten.-Av. (2nd Lt.) Alberto M. Torres, and hit U-199 with depth charges, sinking her. Forty-nine of the crew were killed, although twelve Germans managed to escape, including the captain. This was possible due to the Catalina’s crew, who threw a lifeboat to the survivors.
1º Grupo de Aviação de Caça (1º GAVCA; "1st Fighter Group"), which saw action in Italy, was formed on December 18, 1943. Its commanding Officer was Ten.-Cel.-Av. (Aviation Lieutenant Colonel) Nero Moura.
The group had 350 men, including 43 pilots. The group was divided into four flights: Red ("A"), Yellow ("B"), Blue ("C"), and Green ("D"). The CO of the group and some officers were not attached to any specific flight. Unlike the BEF's Army component, the 1oGAVCA had personnel who were experienced Brazilian Air Force (Portuguese: Força Aérea Brasileira, or FAB) pilots. One of them was Alberto M. Torres, who had piloted a PBY-5A Catalina that had sunk U-199, which was operating off the Brazilian coast.
The group trained for combat in Panama, where 2o Ten.-Av. (Aviation Second Lieutenant) Dante Isidoro Gastaldoni was killed in a training accident. On May 11, 1944, the group was declared operational and became active in the air defense of the Panama Canal Zone. On June 22, the 1oGAVCA traveled to the U.S. to convert to the Republic P-47D Thunderbolt.
On September 19, 1944 the 1oGAVCA left for Italy, arriving at Livorno on October 6. It became part of the 350th Fighter Group of the USAAF, which in turn was part of the 62nd Fighter Wing, XXII Tactical Air Command, of the 12th Air Force.
The Brazilian pilots initially flew from 31 October 1944, as individual elements of flights attached to 350th FG squadrons, at first in affiliation flights and progressively taking part in more dangerous missions. Less than two weeks later, on November 11, the group started its own operations flying from its base at Tarquinia, using its tactical callsign Jambock. Brazilian Air Force stars replaced the white U.S. star in the roundel on the FAB Thunderbolts. The 1oGAVCA started its fighting career as a fighter-bomber unit, its missions being armed reconnaissance and interdiction, in support of the US Fifth Army, to which the FEB was attached.
On April 16, 1945, the U.S. Fifth Army started its offensive along the Po Valley. By then, the strength of the Group had fallen to 25 pilots, some having been killed and others shot down and captured. Some others had been relieved from operations on medical grounds due to combat fatigue. The Group disbanded the Yellow flight and distributed the surviving pilots among the other flights. Each pilot flew on average two missions a day.
On 22 April 1945, the three remaining flights took off at 5-minute intervals, starting at 8:30 AM, to destroy bridges, barges, and motorized vehicles in the San Benedetto region. At 10:00 AM, a flight took off for an armed reconnaissance mission south of Mantua. They destroyed more than 80 tanks, trucks, and vehicles. By the end of the day, the group had flown 44 individual missions and destroyed hundreds of vehicles and barges. On this day the group flew the most sorties of the war; consequently, Brazil commemorates April 22 Brazilian Fighter Arm Day.
In all, the 1oGAVCA flew a total of 445 missions, 2,550 individual sorties, and 5,465 combat flight hours, from 11 November 1944 to 6 May 1945. The XXII Tactical Air Command acknowledged the efficiency of the Group by noting that although it flew only 5% of the total of missions carried out by all squadrons under its control, it accomplished a much higher percentage of the total destruction wrought:
- 85% of the ammunition depots
- 36% of the fuel depots
- 28% of the bridges (19% damaged)
- 15% of motor vehicles (13% damaged)
- 10% of horse-drawn vehicles (10% damaged)
Between 1941 and 1945, the Brazilian Air Force operated the following aircraft:
- Boeing Stearman
- Beechcraft Staggerwing
- Beechcraft Model 18
- Curtiss Falcon
- Curtiss P-36 Hawk
- Curtiss P-40 Warhawk
- Consolidated PBY Catalina
- Douglas B-18 Bolo
- Douglas A-20 Havoc
- Douglas C-47 Skytrain
- Focke-Wulf Fw 58
- Fairchild PT-19
- Lockheed L-18 Lodestar
- Lockheed Hudson
- Lockheed Ventura
- North American B-25 Mitchell
- North American T-6 Texan
- Vought O2U Corsair
- Vultee BT-13 Valiant
- Vultee A-19 (V-11)
- P-47 Thunderbolt
Post World War II
After the war, the FAB began flying the British Gloster Meteor jet fighter. The jets were purchased from the British for 15,000 tons of crude cotton, as Brazil had no foreign currency reserves to spare. The jet was operated by the FAB until the mid-1960s, when it was replaced by the F-80C and TF-33A, which were later replaced by the MB-326, Mirage III and Northrop F-5 jets.
Having been given authority over all national military aircraft since 1941, from her commissioning in 1961 to 1999 the Brazilian Air Force flew the S-2 Trackers of the aircraft carrier Minas Gerais while from 1965 naval aviation flew its own helicopters. Now naval aviation is also authorized to fly its own fixed wing carrier based aircraft.
During the Cold War, the then Brazilian Dictatorship was aligned with the United States and NATO. This meant that the F-5 could be bought cheaply from the United States, who called this jet the "Freedom Fighter". Many other countries, such as Mexico, also benefited from this policy.
The Embraer (Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica, Brazilian Aeronautic Co.) has its origins as an enterprise directly managed and sponsored by the FAB. Working with Italian corporations, it developed the new AMX attack aircraft (known locally as A-1) which makes up the backbone of the FAB's attack force. The successful Tucano T-27 trainer and the new light attack aircraft "A-29", are also Embraer aircraft used extensively by the FAB.
Brazilian Air Force today
In the early 2000s, with renewed economic stability, the FAB underwent an extensive renewal of its inventory through several acquisition programs, the most ambitious of which was the acquisition of 36 new front-line interceptor aircraft to replace its aging Mirage III. Known as F-X Project the program was postponed once again in 2005. The competitors were the French Dassault Rafale, the Swedish SAAB-BAE Gripen, and the American F/A-18 Super Hornet.
On July 15, 2005 one agreement was set with the French government for the transfer of twelve Dassault Mirage 2000s (ten "C" and two "B" versions) second-hand ex-Armée de L'Air. Known as F-2000s in Brazil, the first two aircraft arrived at Anápolis Air Base on September 4, 2006.
On November 4, 2007 the F-X Project underwent a small change. Now known as Project F-X2 and with a bigger budget, the competitors for acquisition were the Eurofighter Typhoon, Sukhoi Su-35, Saab AB Gripen, Dassault Rafale, Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and, although information on Lockheed Martin's F-35 Lightning II was requested, Lockheed Martin presented an F-16 Fighting Falcon variant (designated F-16BR). In October 2008, FAB released a shortlist of 3 aircraft: SAAB Gripen NG, Dassault Rafale and Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet. In February 2009, the three companies provided their final bids. In September 2009, following a surprise French visit to Brazil, Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Nicolas Sarkozy, from France, made a new military cooperation agreement. Lula, on an interview at TV5 Monde, said French Rafale is a step forward, since technology transfer would be effective.
On January 5, 2010, after extreme lobbying by Air Force Officers and Commanders, it was reported in the media that the final evaluation report by the Brazilian Air Force placed the SAAB Gripen NG ahead of the other contenders. The decisive factor was apparently the overall cost of the new fighters, both in terms of unit cost, and operating and maintenance costs, and the personal preference of the test pilots. Rafale was reported to not even be the second choice. It was announced in February 2011 that the decision would be further delayed due to budget cuts. And that July the decision was put off for yet another six-month extension.
However in 2013 yet another six-month delay was announced. In Early June 2013, after a visit from U.S. Vice President Joe Biden with Brazilian President Dilma Rouseff; Biden assoured President Rouseff that the U.S. Congress would approve technology transfer for Boeing's F-18s. In a move apparently following the NSA spying scandal, Russia has also offered Brazil a stake in the development of the Sukhoi PAK-FA 5th generation jet fighter with complete stealth technology transfer.
The Brazilian Air Force is the aerospace branch of the Brazilian armed forces and is managed by the "Aeronautics Command" (Comando da Aeronáutica – COMAer). The COMAer was created in 1999 and replaced the Ministry of Aeronautics. Now, the COMAer is one of the three armed forces assigned to the Ministry of Defense (Ministério da Defesa).
The COMAer is led by the "Aeronautics Commander" (Comandante da Aeronáutica). The Commander is a "Tenente-Brigadeiro-do-Ar" (the most senior Air Force rank), is appointed by the President, and reports directly to the Minister of Defense.
COMAer comprises six major components, four "General Commands" (Comandos-Gerais) and two "Departaments" (Departamentos). The "General Command of Air Operations" (Comando-Geral de Operações Aéreas – COMGAR), with headquarters in Brasília, supervises most of the flying operations. As the main flying element, COMGAR administers several sub-formations in the form of four "Air Forces" (Forças Aéreas) and seven "Regional Air Commands" (Comandos Aéreos Regionais – COMAR).
Besides COMGAR, other major parallel organizations, which also report directly to the COMAer, are the "General Command of Support" (Comando-Geral de Apoio – COMGAP), "General Command of Personnel" (Comando-Geral de Pessoal – COMGEP), "General Command of Aerospatial Technology" (Comando-Geral de Tecnologia Aeroespacial – CTA), "Aeronautics Departament of Teaching" (Departamento de Ensino da Aeronáutica – DEPENS), "Departament of Civil Aviation" (Departamento de Aviação Civil – DAC) and "Departament of Airspace Control" (Departamento de Controle do Espaço Aéreo – DECEA).
A recent operation of the FAB was the bombing of illegal landing sites in the Amazon Forest, used by drug dealers to transport drugs into and out of Brazil (see SIVAM). The operation also had support from the Brazilian Army and Brazilian Federal Police with many drug dealers being arrested as a result. The AMX Bomber/Fighter was the primary plane used.
The FAB is currently working on the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) supporting the United Nations force (a joint Brazilian, Uruguayan, Chilean and Argentine force) deployed there.
In 2010, the FAB worked on the Search & Rescue mission of Air France flight AF447. The Brazilian Air Force has started a search and rescue from the Brazilian archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, sending eight planes to search a stretch bounded by the coastal cities of Recife, Natal and the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha.
In 2011-2013, Operation Agatha marks the start of a new decade of the twenty-first century with the consolidation of the Amazon Surveillance System (SIVAM), an intricate network of radars, meteorological sensors, digital satellite communications, and advanced air-traffic-control software, among other technological advances available to Brazilian Military personnel. The Brazilian Air Force (FAB), which deployed new tactics and methods of fighting using RQ-450 remote-controlled aircraft. Operating in conjunction with sophisticated E-99 Guardian planes, they will locate objectives for A-29 Super Tucano fighters flying in darkness. Northrop F-5EM fighters, responsible for providing air superiority.
The Cruzex air force exercises are the most important of its type in South America. They are hosted every 2 years by the Brazilian Air Force. Issues and participants:
- Cruzex I 2002: South Region - ,,, - (participation of 90 aircraft)
- Cruzex II 2004: Northeast Region - ,,, - (participation of 92 aircraft)
- Cruzex III 2006: Central-West Region - ,,,,, - (participation of 104 aircraft)
- Cruzex IV 2008: Northeast Region - ,,,, - (participation of 100 aircraft)
- Cruzex V 2010: Northeast Region - ,,,, - (participation of 97 aircraft)
- Cruzex VI 2012: Northeast Region - ,,,,,,,,,,, - (personnel only, no aircraft)
- Cruzex Flight 2013: Northeast Region -,,,,,,, - (participation of 96 aircraft)
Air units organization
At unit levels, "Groups" (Grupos) usually consist of one to sixteen consecutively numbered "Squadrons" (Esquadrões), each with varying numbers of aircraft, usually from six to 12. Smaller formations are known as "Flights" (Esquadrilhas). According to its tasks, a group has one of the following designations:
- Air Defense Group: Grupo de Defesa Aérea (GDA): Air defense fighters. (Fighter Jets)
- Transport Group: Grupo de Transporte (GT): Transport, Flight refueling
- Aviation Group: Grupo de Aviação (GAv): Fighter, attack, reconnaissance, SAR, rotary wing
- Fighter Aviation Group: Grupo de Aviação de Caça (GAvCa); Fighter, attack planes
- Troop Transport Group: Grupo de Transporte de Tropas (GTT): Transports, troop carrying, parachutist drop
- Special Flight Inspection Group: Grupo Especial de Inspeção em Vôo (GEIV): Calibration
- Special Test Flights Group: Grupo Especial de Ensaios de Vôo (GEEV): Test flights
- Special Transport Group: Grupo de Transporte Especial (GTE): VIP transport
Common used designations for squadrons are:
- Air Transport Squadron: Esquadrão de Transporte Aéreo (ETA)
- Air Training Squadron: Esquadrão de Instrução Aérea (EIA)
- Demonstration flying team: Esquadrão de Demonstração Aérea (EDA) (also called "Esquadrilha da Fumaça")
The air units are organized as follows:
|COMGAR sub-formation||Air unit||Aircraft type||Air base|
|I FAe||1º/5º GAv||C-95M||Fortaleza|
|II FAe||1º/7º GAv||P-95B, P-3AM||Salvador|
|4º/7º GAv||P-95A||Santa Cruz|
|1º/8º GAv||UH-1H, H-36||Belém|
|2º/8º GAv||AH-2||Porto Velho|
|3º/8º GAv||H-34, UH-55||Afonsos|
|5º/8º GAv||H-60L||Santa Maria|
|2º/10º GAv||UH-1H, SC-95B, SC105A, SC-130H||Campo Grande|
|III FAe||1º/1º GAvCa||F-5EM, AT-27||Santa Cruz|
|2º/1º GAvCa||F-5EM, AT-27||Santa Cruz|
|1º GDA||F-2000, AT-27||Anápolis|
|1º/3º GAv||AT-27, A-29A, A-29B||Boa Vista|
|2º/3º GAv||AT-27, A-29A, A-29B||Porto Velho|
|3º/3º GAv||AT-27, A-29A, A-29B||Campo Grande|
|1º/4º GAv||F-5EM, F-5FM||Manaus|
|1º/6º GAv||R-35A, R-95||Recife|
|2º/6º GAv||E-99, R-99, C-98||Anápolis|
|1º/10º GAv||A-1A, A-1B||Santa Maria|
|3º/10º GAv||RA-1A, RA-1B||Santa Maria|
|1º/14º GAv||F-5EM, F-5FM, AT-27||Canoas|
|1º/12º GAv||RQ-450 (UAV)||Santa Maria|
|1º/16º GAv||A-1A, A-1B||Santa Cruz|
|V FAe||1º GTT||C-130H||Afonsos|
|1º/15º GAv||C-105A, C-98||Campo Grande|
|I COMAR||1º ETA||C-95B, C-98, C-97||Belém|
|II COMAR||2º ETA||C-95A, C-97||Recife|
|III COMAR||3º ETA||C-95B, C-97||Galeão|
|IV COMAR||4º ETA||C-95A, C-97||São Paulo|
|V COMAR||5º ETA||C-95A, C-97||Canoas|
|VI COMAR||6º ETA||C-95C, VU-9, VC-97||Brasília|
|VII COMAR||7º ETA||C-97, C-98||Manaus|
Other air units are:
|Major component||Air unit||Aircraft type||Air base|
|DECEA||GEIV||EC-95B/C,EU-93A||Rio de Janeiro-Santos Dumont|
|CTA||GEEV||A-1,XU-93,T-27,CH-55||São José dos Campos|
|DEPENS||Clube de Vôo a Vela||U-19,Z-15,Z-16,TZ-13||Pirassununga|
|Reporting direct to Air Force cabinet||GTE||1 VC-1A, 2 VC-2, 4 VC-99B, 2 VC-99C, 2 VH-34, 2 VH-55, 2 VH-35, 1 VH-36||Brasília|
|Reporting direct to Air Force cabinet||EDA||T-27||Pirassununga|
The Air Force Bases of the Brazilian Air Force are:
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (June 2013)|
For a list of aircraft currently in service with the Brazilian Air Force see; List of active Brazilian military aircraft.
Missiles, bombs, rockets and torpedo
|Type||Product||On order||Origin||Launch platform (Aircraft)|
|Anti-tank Missile||9M120 Ataka-V||High explosive anti-tank||Russia||AH-2 (Mi-35M4)|
|Anti-tank Missile||9K114 Shturm||High explosive anti-tank||Russia||AH-2 (Mi-35M4)|
|Anti-ship missile||AGM-84 Harpoon||Harpoon Block I air-launched missile||United States||P-3AM|
|Anti-ship missile||MAN-1||It will be an anti-ship missile with a 180 km range.||Brazil||A-1M|
|Anti-radiation missile||MAR-1||Brazilian anti-radiation missile (ARM)||Brazil||A-1M, F-5M|
|Air to air missile||MAA-1A Piranha||Short range Air to Air missile||Brazil||F-5M, A-29, A-1M|
|Air to air missile||MAA-1B Piranha||This new version of the Piranha, fits as a 4th generation missile with "off boresight", about 90°, and a greater range of 50%||Brazil||F-5M, A-1M, A-29, FX-2|
|Air to air missile||A-Darter||5° Generation Air to Air missile||Brazil/ South Africa||F-5M, A-1M, FX-2|
|Air to air missile||Derby||Beyond-visual-range (BVR) air-to-air missile||Israel||F-5M|
|Air to air missile||Python −3 and −4||Short range air-to-air missile||Israel||F-5M|
|Air to air missile||R550 Magic||Short-range||France||Mirage 2000|
|Air to air missile||Super 530||Short-range||France||Mirage 2000|
|Cluster Bomb||BLG-120||Bomb||Brazil||A-1M, A-29, F-5M, AT-27|
|Cluster Bomb||BLG-252||Bomb||Brazil||A-1M, A-29, F-5M, AT-27|
|Incendiary bomb||BINC-300||Bomb||Brazil||A-1M, A-29, F-5M, AT-27|
|Incendiary bomb||BINC-200||Bomb||Brazil||A-1M, A-29, F-5M, AT-27|
|Guided bombs||Elbit Lizard||Laser Guided Bomb||Israel||A-1M, F-5M|
|Guided bombs||FPG-82||INS/GPS Guided Bomb||Brazil||A-1M, F-5M, A-29|
|Guided bombs||SMKB-82||GPS Guided Bomb (known like ACAUAN)||Brazil||A-1M, F-5M, A-29|
|Guided bombs||SMKB-83||GPS Guided Bomb (known like ACAUAN)||Brazil||A-1M, F-5M, A-29|
|General-purpose bomb||Mark 84 bomb||Bomb||Brazil/ United States||A-1M, F-5M|
|General-purpose bomb||Mark 83 bomb||Bomb||Brazil/ United States||A-1M, F-5M|
|General-purpose bomb||Mark 82 bomb||Bomb||Brazil/ United States||A-1M, F-5M, A-29|
|General-purpose bomb||Mark 81 bomb||Bomb||Brazil/ United States||A-1M, F-5M, A-29|
|Anti-runway bomb||BAPI||Anti-runway||Brazil||A-1M, F-5M|
|Rockets||SKYFIRE||Rocket Air-to-Surface||Brazil||A-29, A-1M, H-1H|
|Rockets||SBAT-70||Rocket Air-to-Surface||Brazil||A-1M, AT-27, A-29, P-95, H-1H|
|Rockets||SBAT-127||Rocket Air-to-Surface||Brazil||A-1M, AT-27, A-29, P-95|
|Rockets||S-8 rocket||Rocket Air-to-Surface||Russia||AH-2 (Mi-35M4)|
|Torpedo||Mark 46 torpedo||Light torpedo||United States||P-3AM|
Machine guns and automatic cannon
|Automatic cannon||DEFA cannon||30mm single-barrel||France||Mirage 2000|
|Automatic cannon||Bernardini Mk-164||30mm single-barrel||Brazil||A-1M|
|Automatic cannon||M39 cannon||20mm single-barrel||United States||F-5M|
|Machine Gun||M2 Machine Gun||12,7mm single barrel heavy machine gun||United States||A-29, AT-27, H-1H|
|Machine Gun||Minigun||7,62mm multi-barrel heavy machine gun||United States||H-60L|
|Machine Gun||FN MAG||7.62mm general purpose machine gun||Belgium||H-36, H-34, H-1H, H-60L|
|Machine Gun||M60 machine gun||7.62mm general purpose machine gun||United States||H-1H|
|Automatic cannon||GSh-23L||NPPU-23 movable mounting||Russia||AH-2 (Mi-35M4)|
Infantry Air Force (Pistols, rifles and machine guns)
|HK33||Germany||Assault Rifle||+10,000||Standard rifle. Will be replaced by IMBEL IA2|
|AR-15||United States||Assault Rifle||~400||Used by Para-SAR. Secundary option.|
|SIG SG 551||Switzerland||Assault Rifle||~400||Carbine used by Para-SAR|
|SIG SG 550||Switzerland||Assault Rifle SAW||?||Used by Para-SAR|
|Taurus MT-12||Brazil||Submachinegun||1,300||Copy of Beretta Model 12. Designated as M-972|
|Taurus PT-92||Brazil||Pistol||?||Version of Beretta 92. Designated as M-975|
|IMBEL M973||Brazil||Pistol||?||Version of M1911 in 9mm. Designated as M-973|
|HK PSG1||Germany||Sniper||?||Used by Para-SAR|
|M2 Browning||United States||Machine gun||?||–|
|FN MAG||Belgium||Machine gun||?||–|
|CBC/Boito 12 gauge||Brazil||Shotgun||2,000||–|
Radar and Air Defence Systems
|M-60||Brazil||Radar||6||One operational, 3 to be delivered this year, 2 others later.|
|9K38 Igla||Russia||SAM||24 systems
|Pantsir-S1||Russia||SAM||3 battery (six vehicles)||future acquisition in developing.|
- Brazilian Army
- Brazilian Army Aviation
- Academia da Força Aérea
- Aerial Demonstration Squadron
- Brazilian Naval Aviation
- Brazilian Navy
- Military ranks of Brazil
- Military history of Brazil
- Brazil and weapons of mass destruction
- Alberto Torres
- Rui Moreira Lima
- Aeronautical -
- Brazilian Air Force -
- "Flightglobal World Air Forces 2011/2012". Flight International. Published December 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
- IISS 2010, pp. 69–72
- INCAER, 1991 – História Geral da Aeronáutica vol. 3, Capítulo 1
- "The Type IXD2 boat U-199 — German U-boats of WWII". UBoat.net. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
- Morison, Samuel Eliot (March 2001). History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. Vol.10: The Atlantic Battle Won. Castle Books. p. 219. ISBN 0-7858-1311-X.
- John W. Buyers, "HISTÓRIA DOS 350TH FIGHTER GROUP DA FORÇA AÉREA AMERICANA"
-  Aviation Week – Brazil Offered F-16s, Not F-35s
- "Brazilian fighter programme ready to fly", Flight International, 3 April 2009.
- "Negociações para compra de caça francês estão ‘muito avançadas’, diz Lula"
- "Brasil confirma accordo para compra aviões militares da França"
- "Gripen favorit i Brasilien"
- "Brazilian president confirms new slip to F-X2 fighter decision". www.flightglobal.com. 2011-02-23. Retrieved 2011-03-08.
- "Brazil jet bid extended 6 months." AFP, 7 July 2012.
- "Exclusive: Brazil likely won't have new jets for World Cup."
- "Brazil aims to build advanced fighter jets with Russia". October 16, 2013.
- Brazil may reject US fighter jet deal over NSA spying scandal, RT, 13/08/2013
- Russia to offer Brazil a stake in future advanced fighter project, RIANovosti, 14/10/2013
- Lei complementar no97 de 9 de junho de 1999
- "Russia and Brazil in the final stages of talks for the delivery of Russian Pantsir-S1 air defense system". October 20, 2013.
- International Institute for Strategic Studies; Hackett, James (ed.) (2010-02-03). The Military Balance 2010. London: Routledge. ISBN 1-85743-557-5.
- Brazilian Air Force website (Portuguese)
- Brazilian Air Force page at Scramble
- History of Brazilian Air Force in World War II (Portuguese)
- History of the Brazilian Air Force
- Milavia – Brazilian Air Force
- Military orders and medals from Brazil (Portuguese)