Brazilian Air Force

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Brazilian Air Force
Força Aérea Brasileira
COA of Brazilian Air Force.svg
Active 1941–present
Country  Brazil
Allegiance Federative Republic of Brazil
Branch Air force
Size 77,454 active personnel (2013)
743 aircraft
Part of Ministry of Defence
Command headquarters Brasília, Federal District, Brazil
Patron

Alberto Santos Dumont[1]

Eduardo Gomes[1]
Motto Wings that protect the country
March Hino dos Aviadores
Anniversaries May 22 (anniversary)
April 22 (fighter aviation day)
Engagements Contestado War (1912–16)
Lieutenants Revolts (1922–27)
Constitutionalist War (1932)
World War II (1942–45)
Lobster War (1961-63)
Araguaia guerrilla (1966–74)
Operação Traíra (1991)
Commanders
Commander-in-Chief President Dilma Rousseff
Commander Lieutenant-Brigadier Juniti Saito
Insignia
Fin flash Brazilian Air Force fin flash.svg
Roundel Brazilian Air Force roundel.svg
Roundel (low visibility) Brazilian Air Force roundel LOW Visibility.svg
Roundel (World War II) Brazilian Air Force WW2 roundel.svg
Aircraft flown
Attack A-1 AMX, A-29 Super Tucano, Mi-35M Hind
Electronic
warfare
Embraer R-99
Fighter Saab JAS 39E Gripen NG (planned), Northrop F-5 Tiger II
Interceptor Northrop F-5 Tiger II
Patrol Lockheed P-3 Orion, Bandeirulha P-95
Reconnaissance R-95, RA-1 AMX, Learjet R-35, Elbit Hermes 450, Elbit Hermes 900
Trainer Tucano, T-25, HB-350 Esquilo
Transport Boeing KC-767(planned), Cessna 208, C-130, C-295, Super Puma, UH-1H, EMB-110, EMB-190, C-95, UH-60L Black Hawk, Eurocopter EC725

The Brazilian Air Force (Portuguese: Força Aérea Brasileira, FAB) is the air branch of the Brazilian Armed Forces and one of the three national uniformed services. The FAB was formed when the Army and Navy air branch were merged into a single military force initially called "National Air Forces". Both air branches transferred their equipment, installations and personnel to the new force.

According to the Flight International (Flightglobal.com) and the International Institute for Strategic Studies, the Brazilian Air Force has an active strength of 77,454 military personnel and operates around 743 aircraft.[2][3] The Brazilian Air Force is the largest air force in the Southern hemisphere and the second in the Americas after the United States Air Force.

History[edit]

Creation[edit]

The establishment of the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force in April 1918, and the creation of the Italian Air Force (Regia Aeronautica) and the French Air Force during the 1920s drove the idea of uniting Brazilian air power under the same organization. Together with these events the Brazilian strategists were also influenced by the theories of Giulio Douhet, Billy Mitchell and Hugh Montague Trenchard.[citation needed]

The first public manifest[4] to create an integrated military air service came up in 1928 when an army Major called Lysias Rodrigues wrote an article called "An urgent need: The Ministry of the Air" ("Uma premente necessidade: o Ministério do Ar"). Two years later the French Military Mission, working for the Brazilian Army, made the first steps to organize a national air arm. The idea got more support when a group of Brazilian airmen came from Italy in 1934 and explained the advantages of having a military aviation unified. Also, the Spanish Revolution and the first movements of World War II at the end of the thirties showed the importance of Air power for military strategies.

One of the main supporters of the plan to create an independent air arm was the then-president Getúlio Vargas. He organized a study group early in 1940 and the whole structure of the Ministry of Aeronautics (Ministério da Aeronáutica) was established the end of that year. This new governmental agency was responsible for the all aspects of the civil and military aviation including infrastructure, regulation and organization.[5]

Formally, the Ministry of Aeronautics was founded on January 20, 1941 and so its military branch called "National Air Forces", changed to "Brazilian Air Force" (Força Aérea BrasileiraFAB) on May, 22. The Army ("Aviação Militar") and Navy ("Aviação Naval") air branches were extinguished and all personnel, aircraft, installations and other related equipment were transferred to FAB.[5]

World War II[edit]

The Brazilian Air force made important contributions to the Allied war effort in World War II, especially as part of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force on the Italian front.[6][7][8]

From mid-1942 until the end of the war, the FAB also patrolled the Atlantic. On 31 July 1943 it claimed the German submarine U-199, which was located on the surface, off Rio de Janeiro, at 23°54′S 42°54′W / 23.900°S 42.900°W / -23.900; -42.900Coordinates: 23°54′S 42°54′W / 23.900°S 42.900°W / -23.900; -42.900. Two Brazilian aircraft, a PBY Catalina and a Lockheed Hudson, and an American PBM Mariner attacked the U-boat.[9] The Catalina, named Ärará, was captained by 2º Ten.-Av. (2nd Lt.) Alberto M. Torres,[10] and hit U-199 with depth charges, sinking her. Forty-nine of the crew were killed, although twelve Germans managed to escape, including the captain. This was possible due to the Catalina’s crew, who threw a lifeboat to the survivors.

Badge of 1º Grupo de Aviação de Caça (1st Fighter Group).

1º Grupo de Aviação de Caça (1º GAVCA; "1st Fighter Group"), which saw action in Italy, was formed on December 18, 1943. Its commanding Officer was Ten.-Cel.-Av. (Aviation Lieutenant Colonel) Nero Moura.

The group had 350 men, including 43 pilots. The group was divided into four flights: Red ("A"), Yellow ("B"), Blue ("C"), and Green ("D"). The CO of the group and some officers were not attached to any specific flight. Unlike the BEF's Army component, the 1º GAVCA had personnel who were experienced Brazilian Air Force pilots. One of them was Alberto M. Torres, who had piloted a PBY Catalina that had sunk U-199, operating off the Brazilian coast.

The group trained for combat in Panama, where 2º Ten.-Av. (Aviation Second Lieutenant) Dante Isidoro Gastaldoni was killed in a training accident. On May 11, 1944, the group was declared operational and became active in the air defense of the Panama Canal Zone. On June 22, the 1º GAVCA traveled to the US to convert to the Republic P-47D Thunderbolt.

On September 19, 1944 the 1º GAVCA left for Italy, arriving at Livorno on October 6. It became part of the 350th Fighter Group of the USAAF, which in turn was part of the 62nd Fighter Wing, XXII Tactical Air Command, of the 12th Air Force.

1º GAC P-47s carried the "Senta a Pua!" emblem as nose art along with the national insignia of Brazil.

The Brazilian pilots initially flew from 31 October 1944, as individual elements of flights attached to 350th FG squadrons, at first in affiliation flights and progressively taking part in more dangerous missions. Less than two weeks later, on November 11, the group started its own operations flying from its base at Tarquinia, using its tactical callsign Jambock. Brazilian Air Force stars replaced the white U.S. star in the roundel on the FAB Thunderbolts. The 1oGAVCA started its fighting career as a fighter-bomber unit, its missions being armed reconnaissance and interdiction, in support of the US Fifth Army, to which the FEB was attached.

P-47 of the TAM Museum, Brazil.

On April 16, 1945, the U.S. Fifth Army started its offensive along the Po Valley. By then, the strength of the Group had fallen to 25 pilots, some having been killed and others shot down and captured. Some others had been relieved from operations on medical grounds due to combat fatigue. The Group disbanded the Yellow flight and distributed the surviving pilots among the other flights. Each pilot flew on average two missions a day.[citation needed]

On 22 April 1945, the three remaining flights took off at 5-minute intervals, starting at 8:30 AM, to destroy bridges, barges, and motorized vehicles in the San Benedetto region. At 10:00 AM, a flight took off for an armed reconnaissance mission south of Mantua. They destroyed more than 80 tanks, trucks, and vehicles. By the end of the day, the group had flown 44 individual missions and destroyed hundreds of vehicles and barges. On this day the group flew the most sorties of the war; consequently, Brazil commemorates April 22 Brazilian Fighter Arm Day.

In all, the 1oGAVCA flew a total of 445 missions, 2,550 individual sorties, and 5,465 combat flight hours, from 11 November 1944 to 6 May 1945. The XXII Tactical Air Command acknowledged the efficiency of the Group by noting that although it flew only 5% of the total of missions carried out by all squadrons under its control, it accomplished a much higher percentage of the total destruction wrought:

  • 85% of the ammunition depots
  • 36% of the fuel depots
  • 28% of the bridges (19% damaged)
  • 15% of motor vehicles (13% damaged)
  • 10% of horse-drawn vehicles (10% damaged)[11]

Post World War II[edit]

Embraer AT-26 Xavante, withdrawn from service in 2010.

After the war, the FAB began flying the British Gloster Meteor jet fighter. The jets were purchased from the British for 15,000 tons of crude cotton, as Brazil had no foreign currency reserves to spare. The jet was operated by the FAB until the mid-1960s, when it was replaced by the F-80C and TF-33A, which were later replaced by the MB-326, Mirage III and Northrop F-5 jets.

Having been given authority over all national military aircraft since 1941, from her commissioning in 1961 to 1999 the Brazilian Air Force flew the S-2 Trackers of the aircraft carrier Minas Gerais while from 1965 naval aviation flew its own helicopters. Now naval aviation is also authorized to fly its own fixed wing carrier based aircraft.

Boeing KC-137, withdrawn from service in 2013.

Cold War[edit]

During the Cold War, the then Brazilian Dictatorship was aligned with the United States and NATO. This meant that the F-5 could be bought cheaply from the United States, who called this jet the "Freedom Fighter". Many other countries, such as Mexico, also benefited from this policy.

The Embraer (Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica, Brazilian Aeronautic Co.) has its origins as an enterprise directly managed and sponsored by the FAB. Working with Italian corporations, it developed the new AMX attack aircraft (known locally as A-1) which makes up the backbone of the FAB's attack force. The successful Tucano T-27 trainer and the new light attack aircraft A-29 are also Embraer aircraft used extensively by the FAB.

Brazilian Air Force today[edit]

Developments[edit]

Saab Gripen future air superiority fighter. Older version shown, Brazil will use NG (E/F) variant.
Boeing KC-767, aerial refueling. 2 ordered. To be delivered in 2014. With option to 2 more.
Embraer KC-390. 28 ordered. To be delivered from 2015 to 2016.
F-5EM Tiger II fighter jet
AMX A-1A ground-attack
A-29 Super Tucano close air support
Embraer E-99 airborne early warning and control
P-3AM maritime patrol
P-95A Bandeirulha maritime patrol
A-27 Tucano, close air support
UH-60L Black Hawk combat Search and Rescue
Mi-35M4 Hind attack helicopter
SH-1D combat Search and Rescue
C-130 Hercules military transport
CASA C-295 Search and rescue
A-29/EMB-314 Super Tucano, Smoke Squadron
Embraer R-99 remote sensing
Cessna 208 Caravan air Observation
Hermes 450 reconnaissance UAV

In the early 2000s, with renewed economic stability, the FAB underwent an extensive renewal of its inventory through several acquisition programs, the most ambitious of which was the acquisition of 36 new front-line interceptor aircraft to replace its aging Mirage III. Known in late 1990s as the F-X Project, the program was postponed during the presidential mandate of Fernando Henrique Cardoso, who in the end of 2002 left the decision for his successor Luís Inácio ‘Lula’ da Silva, who postponed it again in 2003 and 2004.[12] It was postponed indefinitely in 2005.

On July 15, 2005 one agreement was set with the French government for the transfer of twelve Dassault Mirage 2000s (ten "C" and two "B" versions) second-hand ex-Armée de L'Air. Known as F-2000s in Brazil, the first two aircraft arrived at Anápolis Air Base on September 4, 2006.

On November 4, 2007 the F-X Project was restarted.[13] Known as Project F-X2 from the start of 2008, and with a bigger budget, the competitors for acquisition were the Eurofighter Typhoon, Sukhoi Su-35, Gripen NG, Dassault Rafale, Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and, although information on Lockheed Martin's F-35 Lightning II was requested, Lockheed Martin presented an F-16 Fighting Falcon variant (designated F-16BR).[14] In October 2008, FAB released a shortlist of 3 aircraft: Saab Gripen NG, Dassault Rafale and Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet. In February 2009, the three companies provided their final bids.[15] In September 2009, following a surprise French visit to Brazil, Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and Nicolas Sarkozy, from France, made a new military cooperation agreement. Lula, on an interview at TV5 Monde, said French Rafale was a step forward, as technology transfer would be effective.[16]

On September 7, 2009, Brazilian Independence Day, it was announced Brazil would negotiate 36 Dassault Rafale.[17] But the Defence Minister did not confirm the final decision.

On January 5, 2010, after lobbying by Air Force Officers and Commanders, it was reported that the final evaluation report by the Brazilian Air Force placed the Saab Gripen NG ahead of the other contenders. The decisive factor was apparently the overall cost of the new fighters, both in terms of unit cost, and operating and maintenance costs, and the personal preference of the test pilots. Rafale was reported to not even be the second choice.[18] It was announced in February 2011 that the decision would be further delayed due to budget cuts.[19] And that July the decision was put off for yet another six-month extension.[20]

However, in 2013, yet another six-month delay was announced.[21] In early June 2013, after a visit from US Vice President Joe Biden with Brazilian President Dilma Rouseff; Biden assured President Rouseff that the US Congress would approve technology transfer for Boeing's F-18s.[22][23] In a move apparently following the NSA spying scandal,[24][25] Russia has also offered Brazil a stake in the development of the Sukhoi PAK-FA 5th generation jet fighter[26] with complete stealth technology transfer.[27]

Saab won the competition on 18 December 2013.[28][29] The change away from the American jet was due to the 2013 Global surveillance disclosure, according to Reuters reporting;[30] other sources agree with the official rationale that the decision was due to cost and technological transfer.[31] As of January 2014, Brazil is in negotiations with Saab to lease current model Gripens while they wait four years for the next generation jets on order to be developed and built.[32]

Command structure[edit]

The Brazilian Air Force is the aerospace branch of the Brazilian armed forces and is managed by the "Aeronautics Command" (Comando da Aeronáutica – COMAer). The COMAer was created in 1999[33] and replaced the Ministry of Aeronautics. Now, the COMAer is one of the three armed forces assigned to the Ministry of Defense (Ministério da Defesa).

The COMAer is led by the "Aeronautics Commander" (Comandante da Aeronáutica). The Commander is a "Tenente-Brigadeiro-do-Ar" (the most senior Air Force rank), is appointed by the President, and reports directly to the Minister of Defense.

COMAer comprises six major components, four "General Commands" (Comandos-Gerais) and two "Departaments" (Departamentos). The "General Command of Air Operations" (Comando-Geral de Operações Aéreas – COMGAR), with headquarters in Brasília, supervises most of the flying operations. As the main flying element, COMGAR administers several sub-formations in the form of four "Air Forces" (Forças Aéreas) and seven "Regional Air Commands" (Comandos Aéreos Regionais – COMAR).

Besides COMGAR, other major parallel organizations, which also report directly to the COMAer, are the "General Command of Support" (Comando-Geral de Apoio – COMGAP), "General Command of Personnel" (Comando-Geral de Pessoal – COMGEP), "General Command of Aerospatial Technology" (Comando-Geral de Tecnologia Aeroespacial – CTA), "Aeronautics Departament of Teaching" (Departamento de Ensino da Aeronáutica – DEPENS), "Departament of Civil Aviation" (Departamento de Aviação Civil – DAC) and "Departament of Airspace Control" (Departamento de Controle do Espaço AéreoDECEA).

Operations[edit]

A recent operation of the FAB was the bombing of illegal landing sites in the Amazon Forest, used by drug dealers to transport drugs into and out of Brazil (see SIVAM). The operation also had support from the Brazilian Army and Brazilian Federal Police with many drug dealers being arrested as a result. The AMX Bomber/Fighter was the primary plane used.[citation needed]

The FAB is currently working on the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) supporting the United Nations force (a joint Brazilian, Uruguayan, Chilean and Argentine force) deployed there.

In 2010, the FAB worked on the Search & Rescue mission of Air France Flight 447. The Brazilian Air Force has started a search and rescue from the Brazilian archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, sending eight planes to search a stretch bounded by the coastal cities of Recife, Natal and the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha.

In 2011-2013, Operation Agatha marks the start of a new decade of the twenty-first century with the consolidation of the Amazon Surveillance System (SIVAM), an intricate network of radars, meteorological sensors, digital satellite communications, and advanced air-traffic-control software, among other technological advances available to Brazilian Military personnel. The Brazilian Air Force (FAB), which deployed new tactics and methods of fighting using RQ-450 remote-controlled aircraft. Operating in conjunction with sophisticated E-99 Guardian planes, they will locate objectives for A-29 Super Tucano fighters flying in darkness. Northrop F-5EM fighters, responsible for providing air superiority.

Exercises[edit]

The Cruzex air force exercises are the most important of its type in South America. They are hosted every 2 years by the Brazilian Air Force. Issues and participants:

Air units organization[edit]

At unit levels, "Groups" (Grupos) usually consist of one to sixteen consecutively numbered "Squadrons" (Esquadrões), each with varying numbers of aircraft, usually from six to 12. Smaller formations are known as "Flights" (Esquadrilhas). According to its tasks, a group has one of the following designations:

  • Air Defense Group: Grupo de Defesa Aérea (GDA): Air defense fighters. (Fighter Jets)
  • Transport Group: Grupo de Transporte (GT): Transport, Flight refueling
  • Aviation Group: Grupo de Aviação (GAv): Fighter, attack, reconnaissance, SAR, rotary wing
  • Fighter Aviation Group: Grupo de Aviação de Caça (GAvCa); Fighter, attack planes
  • Troop Transport Group: Grupo de Transporte de Tropas (GTT): Transports, troop carrying, parachutist drop
  • Special Flight Inspection Group: Grupo Especial de Inspeção em Vôo (GEIV): Calibration
  • Special Test Flights Group: Grupo Especial de Ensaios de Vôo (GEEV): Test flights
  • Special Transport Group: Grupo de Transporte Especial (GTE): VIP transport

Common used designations for squadrons are:

  • Air Transport Squadron: Esquadrão de Transporte Aéreo (ETA)
  • Air Training Squadron: Esquadrão de Instrução Aérea (EIA)
  • Demonstration flying team: Esquadrão de Demonstração Aérea (EDA) (also called "Esquadrilha da Fumaça")

The air units are organized as follows:

COMGAR sub-formation Air unit Aircraft type Air base
I FAe 1º/5º GAv C-95M Fortaleza
2º/5º GAv A-29B Natal
1º/11º GAv UH-50 Natal
II FAe 1º/7º GAv P-3AM Salvador
2º/7º GAv P-95B Florianópolis
3º/7º GAv P-95A Belém
4º/7º GAv P-95A Santa Cruz
1º/8º GAv UH-1H, H-36 Belém
2º/8º GAv AH-2 Porto Velho
3º/8º GAv H-34 Afonsos
5º/8º GAv H-60L Santa Maria
7º/8º GAv H-60L Manaus
2º/10º GAv UH-1H, SC-95B, SC105A, SC-130H Campo Grande
III FAe 1º/1º GAvCa F-5EM, AT-27 Santa Cruz
2º/1º GAvCa F-5EM, AT-27 Santa Cruz
1º GDA F-5EM, AT-27 Anápolis
1º/3º GAv AT-27, A-29A, A-29B Boa Vista
2º/3º GAv AT-27, A-29A, A-29B Porto Velho
3º/3º GAv AT-27, A-29A, A-29B Campo Grande
1º/4º GAv F-5EM, F-5FM Manaus
1º/6º GAv R-35A, R-95 Recife
2º/6º GAv E-99, R-99, C-98 Anápolis
1º/10º GAv A-1A, A-1B Santa Maria
3º/10º GAv RA-1A, RA-1B Santa Maria
1º/14º GAv F-5EM, F-5FM, AT-27 Canoas
1º/12º GAv RQ-450 (UAV), RQ-900 (UAV) Santa Maria
1º/16º GAv A-1A, A-1B Santa Cruz
V FAe 1º GTT C-130H Afonsos
1º/1º GT C-130H/KC-130H Galeão
1º/2º GAv C-99 Galeão
2º/2º GAv KC-137 Galeão
1º/9º GAv C-105A Manaus
1º/15º GAv C-105A, C-98 Campo Grande
I COMAR 1º ETA C-95B, C-98, C-97 Belém
II COMAR 2º ETA C-95A, C-97 Recife
III COMAR 3º ETA C-95B, C-97 Galeão
IV COMAR 4º ETA C-95A, C-97 São Paulo
V COMAR 5º ETA C-95A, C-97 Canoas
VI COMAR 6º ETA C-95C, VU-9, VC-97 Brasília
VII COMAR 7º ETA C-97, C-98 Manaus

Other air units are:

Major component Air unit Aircraft type Air base
DECEA GEIV EC-95B/C,EU-93A Rio de Janeiro-Santos Dumont
CTA GEEV A-1,XU-93,T-27,CH-55 São José dos Campos
DEPENS 1º EIA T-27 Pirassununga
DEPENS 2º EIA T-25A/C Pirassununga
DEPENS Clube de Vôo a Vela U-19,Z-15,Z-16,TZ-13 Pirassununga
DEPENS Support C-95A,UH-50,U-7 Pirassununga
Reporting direct to Air Force cabinet GTE 1 VC-1A, 2 VC-2, 4 VC-99B, 2 VC-99C, 2 VH-34, 2 VH-55, 2 VH-35, 1 VH-36 Brasília
Reporting direct to Air Force cabinet EDA T-27 Pirassununga

The Air Force Bases of the Brazilian Air Force are:

Location State ICAO IATA Airport name
Anápolis Goiás SBAN Anápolis Air Force Base
Belém Pará SBBE BEL Belém Air Force Base
Boa Vista Roraima SBBV BVB Boa Vista Air Force Base
Brasília Federal District SBBR BRS Brasília Air Force Base
Campo Grande Mato Grosso do Sul SBCG CGR Campo Grande Air Force Base
Canoas Rio Grande do Sul SBCO Canoas Air Force Base
Florianópolis Santa Catarina SBFL FLN Florianópolis Air Force Base
Fortaleza Ceará SBFZ FOR Fortaleza Air Force Base
Guarulhos São Paulo SBGR GRU São Paulo Air Force Base
Manaus Amazonas SBMN PLL Manaus Air Force Base
Natal Rio Grande do Norte SBNT NAT Natal Air Force Base
Porto Velho Rondônia SBPV PVH Porto Velho Air Force Base
Recife Pernambuco SBRF REC Recife Air Force Base
Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro SBGL GIG Galeão Air Force Base
Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro SBSC SNZ Santa Cruz Air Force Base
Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro SBAF Afonsos Air Force Base
Salvador Bahia SBSV SSA Salvador Air Force Base
Santa Maria Rio Grande do Sul SBSM Santa Maria Air Force Base
Santos São Paulo SBST SSZ Santos Air Force Base
Novo Progresso Pará SBCC Brigadeiro Velloso Testing Range Air Base
Pirassununga São Paulo SBYS QPS Brazilian Air Force Academy
São Gabriel da Cachoeira Amazonas SBUA SJL São Gabriel da Cachoeira Air Force Base

Inventory[edit]

Aircraft[edit]

For a list of aircraft currently in service with the Brazilian Air Force see:

List of active Brazilian military aircraft.

Missiles, bombs, rockets and torpedo[edit]

Type Product On order Origin Photo Launch platform (Aircraft)
Anti-tank Missile 9M120 Ataka-V High explosive anti-tank missile  Russia
9M120 ATGM Ataka.jpg
AH-2 (Mi-35M4)
Anti-tank Missile 9K114 Shturm High explosive anti-tank missile  Russia
BMPT at Engineering Technologies 2012 (10).jpg
AH-2 (Mi-35M4)
Anti-ship missile AGM-84 Harpoon Harpoon Block I air-launched missile[34]  United States
Harpoon Missile DN-SC-83-10453.jpg
P-3AM
Anti-ship missile MAN-1 It will be an anti-ship missile based on Exocet block III.  Brazil A-1M
Anti-radiation missile MAR-1 Brazilian anti-radiation missile (ARM)  Brazil
MAR-1 parts.jpg
A-1M, F-5M
Air to air missile MAA-1A Piranha Short range Air to Air missile  Brazil
MAA-1A seeker head.jpg
F-5M, A-29, A-1M
Air to air missile MAA-1B Piranha This new version of the Piranha, fits as a 4th generation missile with "off boresight", about 90°, and a greater range of 50%  Brazil
MAA-1B Piranha.jpg
F-5M, A-1M, A-29, Gripen NG (future platform)
Air to air missile A-Darter 5° Generation Air to Air missile (off boresight)  Brazil/ South Africa
A-darter.jpg
F-5M, A-1M, Gripen NG (future platform)
Air to air missile Derby Beyond-visual-range (BVR) active-radar air-to-air missile  Israel
Derby missile.jpg
F-5M, Gripen NG (future platform)
Air to air missile Python‐3 Short range all aspect air-to-air missile  Israel
Rafael Python 3 3.jpg
F-5M
Air to air missile Python‐4 Short range all aspect air-to-air missile  Israel
Rafael Python 4.jpg
F-5M
Cluster Bomb BLG-120 Cluster Bomb 120 kg  Brazil A-1M, A-29, F-5M, AT-27
Cluster Bomb BLG-252 Cluster Bomb 252 kg  Brazil
Rockeye Cluster Bomb.jpg
A-1M, A-29, F-5M, AT-27
Incendiary bomb BINC-300 Incendiary Bomb 300 kg  Brazil A-1M, A-29, F-5M, AT-27
Incendiary bomb BINC-200 Incendiary Bomb 200 kg  Brazil A-1M, A-29, F-5M, AT-27
Guided bombs Elbit Lizard Laser Guided Bomb  Israel A-1M, F-5M
Guided bombs FPG-82 INS/GPS Guided Bomb using the mark 82 bomb as base.  Brazil
Friuli FPG-82.jpeg
A-1M, F-5M, A-29
Guided bombs SMKB-82 GPS Guided Bomb (known like ACAUAN) using the mark 82 bomb as base.  Brazil
ACAUAN - SMKB.jpg
A-1M, F-5M, A-29
Guided bombs SMKB-83 GPS Guided Bomb (known like ACAUAN) using the mark 83 bomb as base.  Brazil
ACAUAN - SMKB.jpg
A-1M, F-5M, A-29
General-purpose bomb Mark 84 bomb Bomb 2039 lb (925 kg)  Brazil/ United States
Mk-84 xxl.jpg
A-1M, F-5M
General-purpose bomb Mark 83 bomb Bomb 1014 lb (460 kg)  Brazil/ United States
Mk83бомба.jpg
A-1M, F-5M
General-purpose bomb Mark 82 bomb Bomb 500 lb (227 kg)  Brazil/ United States
Mk-82 xxl.jpg
A-1M, F-5M, A-29
General-purpose bomb Mark 81 bomb Bomb 262 lb (119 kg)  Brazil/ United States
Mark 81 bombs.jpg
A-1M, F-5M, A-29
Anti-runway bomb BAPI Anti-runway  Brazil A-1M, F-5M
Rockets SKYFIRE Rocket Air-to-Surface 70mm  Brazil A-29, A-1M, H-1H
Rockets SBAT-70 Air-to-Surface rocket 70mm  Brazil A-1M, AT-27, A-29, P-95, H-1H
Rockets SBAT-127 Air-to-Surface rocket 127mm  Brazil A-1M, AT-27, A-29, P-95
Rockets S-8 rocket Air-to-Surface rocket 80mm  Russia
Mi-24 Desert Rescue.jpg
AH-2 (Mi-35M4)
Torpedo Mark 46 torpedo Light torpedo 324mm  United States
MK 46 torpedo for HS-15 SH-3H on CV-66 1977.JPEG
P-3AM

Machine guns and automatic cannon[edit]

Type Product On order Origin Aircraft Photo
Automatic cannon Bernardini Mk-164 30mm single-barrel  Brazil A-1M Canon DEFA MG 1462.JPG
Automatic cannon M39 cannon 20mm single-barrel  United States F-5M Cannon M39A2.png
Machine Gun M2 Machine Gun 12,7mm single barrel heavy machine gun  United States A-29, AT-27, H-1H P-47 does night gunnery.jpg
Machine Gun Minigun 7,62mm multi-barrel heavy machine gun  United States H-60L GAU-17 machine gun fired from UH-1N Huey in 2006.jpg
Machine Gun FN MAG 7.62mm general purpose machine gun  Belgium H-36, H-34, H-1H Paris Air Show 2007-06-24 n24.jpg
Automatic cannon GSh-23L NPPU-23 movable mounting  Russia AH-2 (Mi-35M4) Mil Mi-35M (54 yellow).jpg

Infantry Air Force (Pistols, rifles and machine guns)[edit]

Brazilian Air Force Infantry
Air Force guards
Platform Origin Type In service Notes Photo
HK33  Germany Assault Rifle +50,000 Standard rifle. Will be replaced by IMBEL IA2 HK33A2 Flickr (yet another finn).jpg
AR-15  United States Assault Rifle ~400 Used by Para-SAR. Secondary option. AR-15 Sporter SP1 Carbine.JPG
SIG SG 551   Switzerland Assault Rifle ~400 Carbine used by Para-SAR SIG-551-p1030048.jpg
SIG SG 550   Switzerland Assault Rifle SAW  ? Used by Para-SAR Caroline-profile-bipode-p1000509.jpg
Taurus MT-12  Brazil Submachinegun 1,300 Copy of Beretta Model 12. Designated as M-972 Beretta M12.jpg
Taurus PT-92  Brazil Pistol  ? Version of Beretta 92. Designated as M-975 TaurusPT92.jpg
IMBEL M973  Brazil Pistol  ? Version of M1911 in 9mm. Designated as M-973 Colt Model of 1911 U.S. Army b.png
HK PSG1  Germany Sniper  ? Used by Para-SAR H&K PSG-1 Sniper Rifle.jpg
M2 Browning  United States Machine gun  ? Musee-de-lArmee-IMG 1044.jpg
FN MAG  Belgium Machine gun  ? Ksp58.jpg
CBC/Boito 12 gauge  Brazil Shotgun 2,000

Radar and Air Defence Systems[edit]

Platform Origin Type In service Notes Photo
M-60  Brazil Radar 6
9K38 Igla  Russia SAM 24 systems
24 systems
SA-18
SA-24
9K338 Igla-S (NATO-Code - SA-24 Grinch).jpg
Pantsir-S1  Russia SAM 1 battery (six vehicles) future acquisition in developing.[35] Pantsir-s1-weapons.jpg

Historic inventory of the Brazilian Air Force[edit]

1910 and 1920[edit]

Aircraft Origin Employee year QTD Role Notes Picture
Morane-Saulnier P  France 1915-1917 ~03 Attack/Reconnaissance First Brazilian military aircraft. Participating in Contestado War
Borel PMPR.jpg
Morane-Saulnier Type A  France 1915-1916 ~01 Observation Participating in Contestado War
Emile Taddéoli monoplane.jpg
Nieuport 10  France 1916-1924 12 Fighter/Reconnaissance Attacked rebel targets during Tenente revolts.
Nieuport 10 colourized.jpg
Caudron G.3  France 1917-1929  ? Fighter/Reconnaissance Attacked rebel targets during Tenente revolts.
Caudron G-III E-2.JPG
SPAD S.VII  France 1922-1932 15 Fighter Participating in Tenente revolts.
SADS7BRIT.jpg
Nieuport 21  France 1918-1927 06 Fighter Participating in Tenente revolts.
Nieuport 21.jpg
Nieuport 24  France 1919-1931 10 Fighter/Bomber Attacked rebel positions in the city of São Paulo during Tenente revolts.
Nieuport24bis.jpg
Breguet 14  France 1919-1932 30 Fighter/Bomber/Reconnaissance Attacked rebel positions in the city of São Paulo during Tenente revolts.
Breguet 14 - Front.jpg
Caudron C.59  France 1923-1936  ? Fighter Attacked rebel positions in Tenente revolts.
Caudron C.59 and DH-5.jpg
SPAD S.XIII  France 1921-1930  ? Fighter
SPAD S.XIII Front.jpg
Morane-Saulnier MS.147  France 1928-1937 30 Observation/Trainer
Tavsanli aircraft.jpg
Potez 25  France 1927-1939 ~14 Attack aircraft Used by loyalist forces and rebels during Constitutionalist War
Potez 25 1 (MAE).JPG
Breguet 19  France 1929-1936 05 Attack aircraft
Breguet 19 Sabiha.jpg
Waco 10  United States 1930-1937 08 Attack aircraft Used by loyalist forces and rebels during Constitutionalist War
Farell2 WACO model 10.jpg
Amiot 120  France 1927-1936 05 Bomber aircraft Used by loyalist forces during Constitutionalist War
Amiot123 Idzikowski-Kubala.jpg
Avro 504  United Kingdom 1928-1937 22 Fighter/Bomber Used by loyalist forces during Constitutionalist War
First aeroplane in Iceland.jpg

1930[edit]

Aircraft Origin Employee year QTD Role Notes Picture
Avro 626  United Kingdom 1930-1940 16 Observation/Attack Used by Constitutionalist War
Avro Prefect.jpg
Curtiss Fledgling  United States 1930-1942  ? Observation/Trainer
Curtiss N2C-2 NAF drone 1938-39.jpg
Curtiss-Wright CW-12  United States 1932-1940 15 Observation/Trainer
Curtiss Travel Air 16E.jpg
Morane-Saulnier MS.230  France 1930-1940 24 Observation/Trainer
Morane-Saulnier MS 230.jpg
Savoia-Marchetti S.55  Italy 1930-1938 08 Observation/Maritime Patrol Used by Constitutionalist War
SIAI S.55X.jpg
Martin PM  United States 1931-1939 04 Maritime Patrol Used by Constitutionalist War
Naval Aircraft Factory PN9.jpg
Nieuport-Delage NiD 52  France 1931-1935 02 Light attack Used by loyalist ad rebel forces during Constitutionalist War
Nieuport-Delage NiD 52.jpg
Focke-Wulf Fw 44  Nazi Germany/ Argentina 1934-1941  ? Trainer
Stieglitzc 2008.jpg
Curtiss Falcon  United States 1932-1944 ~20 Attack aircraft Used by loyalist forces during Constitutionalist War
Curtiss XA-4 parked.jpg
Vought O2U Corsair  United States 1930-1946 18 Observation/light attack Used by Constitutionalist War
Aeroprints (8141430310).jpg
DH.60 Moth  United Kingdom 1932-1941 39 Basic trainer
DH60.jpg
Boeing P-12  United States 1932-1951 14 Fighter aircraft
Boeing F4B VF5.jpg
Tiger Moth  United Kingdom 1933-1947 17 Trainer/Observation
Aeroprints (8141430760).jpg
Vultee V-11  United States 1939-1949 31 Ground attack Used to attack German submarines during Battle of the Atlantic in WWII.
Vultee YA-19 in flight.jpg
Douglas B-18 Bolo  United States 1937-1946 03 Medium bomber/Maritime patrol Scaled to protect the Brazilian coast during Battle of the Atlantic in WWII.
Douglas B-18A airplane in flight (00910460 121).jpg
Savoia-Marchetti SM.79  Italy 1936-1947 03 Bomber/Maritime Patrol Scaled to protect the Brazilian coast during Battle of the Atlantic in WWII.
Savoia-Marchetti S.M.79.jpg
Focke-Wulf Fw 58  Nazi Germany 1937-1949 15 Maritime patrol Scaled to protect the Brazilian coast during Battle of the Atlantic in WWII.
Bundesarchiv Bild 101II-MW-2094-11, Bulgarien, Flugzeug Focke-Wulf Fw 58.jpg
Muniz M-7  Brazil 1935-1945 11 Trainer
Muniz M-7.jpg

1940[edit]

Aircraft Origin Employee year QTD Role Notes Picture
Boeing-Stearman  United States 1940-1948  ? Trainer/Maritime Patrol Scaled to protect the Brazilian coast during Battle of the Atlantic in WWII.
Boeing-Stearman NS-1-1936.jpg
Grumman G-44 Widgeon  United States 1942-1958 14 Transport/Maritime observation
Grumman OA-14.jpg
North American NA-16  United States 1942-1965 ~20 Ground attack/Maritime Patrol Used to attack German submarines during Battle of the Atlantic in WWII.
NA-16 FAH-21 EDUARDO SOSA 2005.jpg
Beechcraft Staggerwing  United States 1942-1960 54 Utility aircraft/Maritime Patrol Scaled to protect the Brazilian coast during Battle of the Atlantic in WWII.
Beechcraft UC-43 43-10859 side view.jpg
Beechcraft Model 18  United States 1943-1952 01 Utility aircraft Used in the National Air Mail.
Beechcraft AT-7 advanced training plane (00910460 026).jpg
Vultee A-31 Vengeance  United States 1943-1958 33 Ground attack/Maritime Patrol Used to attack German submarines during Battle of the Atlantic in WWII.
Vengeance bomber of 12 Sqn RAAF in flight 1943.jpg
Curtiss P-36 Hawk  United States 1942-1946 10 Fighter Scaled to protect the Brazilian coast during Battle of the Atlantic in WWII.
Curtiss H-75A of IIAF - III.jpg
Curtiss P-40 Warhawk  United States 1944-1958 49 Fighter
Aeroprints (8141412276).jpg
Vultee BT-13 Valiant  United States 1941-1956 120 Trainer/Maritime patrol Scaled to protect the Brazilian coast during Battle of the Atlantic in WWII.
Aeroprints (8141419648).jpg
Consolidated PBY Catalina  United States 1943-1979 22 Maritime patrol/Transport Responsible for patrolling the Brazilian coast during Battle of the Atlantic in WWII, one catalina attacked and sank the German submarine U-199. The Catalina, named Ärará, was captained by 2º Ten.-Av. (2nd Lt.) Alberto M. Torres and hit U-199 with depth charges, sinking her. Forty-nine of the crew were killed, although twelve Germans managed to escape, including the captain. This was possible due to the Catalina’s crew, who threw a lifeboat to the survivors.
PBY Catalina landing.jpg
Fairchild PT-19  United States 1942-1960  ? Trainer
Aeroprints (8141428860).jpg
Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar  United States 1943-1968 08 Transport/Observation Used in the National Air Mail.
Aeroprints (8141431212).jpg
Cessna AT-17 Bobcat  United States 1943-1956 39 Transport
Cessna UC-78 Bobcat in flight.jpg
Noorduyn Norseman  Canada 1944-1960 17 Transport
Noorduyn UC-64A Norseman.jpg
Douglas A-20 Havoc  United States 1944-1970 31 Light bomber/reconnaissance Scaled to protect the Brazilian coast during Battle of the Atlantic in WWII.
Aeroprints (8141392963).jpg
Lockheed Hudson  United States 1942-1955 27 bomber/reconnaissance Escort naval convoys the Brazilian coast during Battle of the Atlantic in WWII.
Lockheed Hudson ExCC.jpg
Lockheed Ventura  United States 1944-1956 20 Patrol bomber Escort naval convoys the Brazilian coast during Battle of the Atlantic in WWII.
Ventura LOC 8e01506u.jpg
North American B-25 Mitchell  United States 1943-1972 79 Medium bomber/reconnaissance/Maritime Patrol One B25 of the Brazilian Air Force attacked and damaged a German submarine of the Brazilian coast during Battle of the Atlantic in WWII.
B-25G Mitchell, AAF TAC Center, Florida - 040315-F-9999G-005.jpg
Douglas C-47 Skytrain  United States 1943-1985 82 transport aircraft Played an important role in the National Air Mail, military mail.
2009 Douglas DC-3 ( C-47 ) Forca Aerea Brasileira (7378635360).jpg
North American T-6 Texan  United States 1944-1985 ~100 Tariner/light attack/counter insurgency Made successive attacks against guerrillas in the 1970s.
T-6 at Campo Grande (14438094652).jpg
Piper J-3 Cub  United States 1944-1970  ? Observation Squadron sent the Italian front integrated with Brazilian Expeditionary Force in WWII.
Aeroprints (8141520741).jpg
Republic P-47 Thunderbolt  United States 1944-1956 85 Fighter/attack Aviation grup sent the Italian front integrated with 62nd Fighter Wing, XXII Tactical Air Command, of the 12th Air Force in WWII.
360fg-p47-brazilaf.jpg
Curtiss C-46 Commando  United States 1948-1983 02 Transport
2058 C-46 Forca Aerea Brasileira (7378794836).jpg

1950[edit]

Aircraft Origin Employee year QTD Role Notes Picture
Fokker S-11  Netherlands 1953-1975 100 Trainer
Fokker S12.jpg
Gloster Meteor  United Kingdom 1952-1972 62 Fighter First jet aircraft of the Brazilian Air Force.
Gloster F-8 Meteor (F8), Brazil - Air Force AN1198897.jpg
Douglas A-26 Invader  United States 1956-1979 32 Light bomber Attacked positions of the Araguaia guerrilla in the 1970s.
Douglas A-26B in flight.jpg
Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress  United States 1951-1968 13 Maritime Patrol/Search and rescue Was used in the Lobster War
US Coast Guard PB-1G in flight.jpg
Fairchild C-82 Packet  United States 1955-1969 12 Transport/Search and rescue
Trans World Airlines Fairchild Packet Quackenbush.jpg
Grumman HU-16 Albatross  United States 1958-1980 14 Transport/Search and rescue
Aeroprints (8141402531).jpg
Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star  United States 1958-1973 33 Fighter
VMF-311 TO-1 in 1948.jpg
Lockheed T-33  United States 1956-1975 58 Trainer/Fighter
T 33 Shooting Star-IIAF.jpg
Sikorsky H-19  United States 1954-1968 06 Utility helicopter
Sikorsky UH-19B Chickasaw USAF.jpg
Beechcraft Bonanza  United States 1950-1960 05 VIP
V-Tailed Beechcraft Bonanza.jpg
Bell 47  United States 1958-1990 49 Trainer
Bell 47 of Carabinieri.JPG
Cessna O-1 Bird Dog  United States 1957-1980 20 Observation aircraft Used for observation missions in anti-guerrilla during Parrot Operation.
Aeroprints (8141380799).jpg
Lockheed P-2 Neptune  United States 1958-1976 14 Anti-submarine warfare/Maritime Patrol Was used in the Lobster War
P2V-5 NAS Jacksonville 1952.jpg
CAP-4 Paulistinha  Brazil 1959-1975 ~50 Trainer/Observation
Cap4paulistinha.JPG

1960[edit]

Aircraft Origin Employee year QTD Role Notes Picture
Douglas C-54 Skymaster  United States 1960-1970 12 Transport Used in the National Air Mail.
Aeroprints (8141416890).jpg
Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar  United States 1962-1975 13 Transport
R4Q-1 USMC NAN8-50.jpg
Sikorsky H-34  United States 1962-1968 06 Anti-submarine warfare
HSS HS-831 sonar NAN6-60.jpg
Grumman S-2 Tracker  United States 1961-1996 21 Anti-submarine warfare Was used in the Lobster War. They operated from the aircraft carrier NAeL Minas Gerais.
Brazilian S-2E on USS America (CV-66) 1977.JPEG
Hawker Siddeley HS 748  United Kingdom 1962-2005 12 Transport
Avro 748 62.jpg
Morane-Saulnier MS.760 Paris  France 1962-1980 30 Trainer aircraft
Aeroprints (8141395391).jpg
Cessna T-37 Tweet  United States 1968-1978 65 Trainer aircraft
Aeroprints (8141387837).jpg
Fouga CM.170 Magister  France 1968-1975 07 Trainer Used the Fouga Magister in their aerobatic display team, the Smoke Squadron.
Aeroprints (8141417348).jpg
DHC-5 Buffalo  Canada 1968-2004 24 Transport
C-115 Buffalo (12978188475).jpg
Aerotec Uirapuru  Brazil 1968-1980 ~100 Trainer
Uirapuru voa.jpg
BAC One-Eleven  United Kingdom 1968-1976 02 VIP
BAC 1-11 401AK N5018 AA CLE 27.03.71 edited-2.jpg
Douglas DC-6  United States 1968-1978 05 Transport Used in military mail.
Douglas DC-6B N6531C PAA Heathrow 09.54.jpg

1970[edit]

Aircraft Origin Employee year QTD Role Notes Picture
Neiva Regente  Brazil 1970-2010 ~80 Utility transport/Observation
Neiva N-591 Regente C-42 2238 FAB SDU 08.05.72 edited-3.jpg
AT-26 Xavante  Brazil/ Italy 1971-2010 182 Advanced trainer/Light attack/reconnaissance Multifunctional jet Brazilian Air Force produced nationally, was the main ground attack aircraft during the 1980s.
Embraer AT-26 Xavante (EMB-326GB), Brazil - Air Force AN1136533.jpg
Dassault Mirage III  France 1972-2005 32 Interceptor aircraft First supersonic aircraft of the Brazilian Air Force, the Mirage III fighters belonged to the 1st. Group Air Defense (1st GAD), located at the Anápolis Air Base in Goiás.

On May 19, 1986 the Brazilian Air Force to detonate two operations interception and pursuit of UFOs for Mirage III fighters, the notorious Night of UFOs.

Mirage III - Museu Asas de um Sonho.jpg
Boeing 737  United States 1972-2010 02 VIP
FlickrNilsonCarvalho.jpg
Boeing 707  United States 1972-2012 04 Aerial refuelling and transport
Boeing KC-137 (707-345C), Brazil - Air Force AN0220898.jpg
Bell 206  United States 1973-2010 04 VIP
Aeroprints (8141515789).jpg
F-5  United States 1975–Present Day 57 Fighter/Interceptor 11 bought from Jordania in 2009
F-5 Tiger II
Hawker Siddeley VU-93  United Kingdom 1977-2009 06 VIP
Hawker Siddeley VU-93 HS-125-400A Lofting.jpg

1980, 1990 and 2000s[edit]

Aircraft withdrawn from service[edit]

Aircraft Origin Employee year QTD Role Notes Picture
HB.355F Esquilo Bi  France/ Brazil 1980-2013 10 Utility helicopter 4 were donated to Rio de Janeiro Police.[36]
29.10.08 vôo SJC 036.jpg
Aérospatiale SA 330 Puma  France 1981-1986 06 Utility helicopter
RAF Puma Mk2 Helicopter MOD 45156639.jpg
Atlas Impala  South Africa 2005-2010 12 Light attack
Aeroprints (8141515305).jpg
Dassault Mirage 2000  France 2006-2013 12 Fighter
Brazilian Mirage 2000 Orange Air Base open day in May 2008 (2937788939).jpg

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Personalidades [Personalities] (in Portuguese), Força aérea brasileira .
  2. ^ "World Air Forces 2011/2012". Flight International. Flight global. December 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2012. 
  3. ^ Hackett 2010, pp. 69–72.
  4. ^ "1", História Geral da Aeronáutica [General History of Aeronautics] (in Portuguese) 3, Incaer, 1991 .
  5. ^ a b Ad luna [To the Moon], BR: Universo online .
  6. ^ FAB, Guerra Mundial [Brazilian Air Force, World War] (PDF) (opuscule) (in Portuguese), Força aérea brasileira .
  7. ^ II guerra [World War] (in Portuguese), BR .
  8. ^ P Brasil [P Brazil] (in Portuguese), Word press, 2009-08-23 .
  9. ^ "The Type IXD2 boat U-199". German U-boats of WWII. UBoat. Retrieved 9 March 2010. 
  10. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot (March 2001). History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. 10: The Atlantic Battle Won. Castle Books. p. 219. ISBN 0-7858-1311-X. 
  11. ^ Buyers, John W, História dos 350th Fighter Group da Força Aérea Americana [History of the USAF 350th Fighter Group] (in Portuguese) .
  12. ^ "F‐X BR 2001–4", Global security .
  13. ^ "F‐X BR", Global security .
  14. ^ "Brazil Offered F-16s, Not F-35s", Aviation Week .
  15. ^ "Brazilian fighter programme ready to fly", Flight International (Flight global), 3 April 2009 .
  16. ^ "Negociações para compra de caça francês estão ‘muito avançadas’, diz Lula" [Negotiations for fighter acquisition are ‘very developed’, says ‘Lula’], G1 (in Portuguese) (Globo), 2009-09-06 .
  17. ^ Guerreiro, Gabriela (2009-09-07), "Brasil confirma accordo para compra aviões militares da França" [Brazil confirms agreement to acquire military airplanes from France], Folha de S. Paulo (in Portuguese) (Brasília, DF, BR: Universo online) .
  18. ^ Gripen favorit i Brasilien [Gripen favourite with Brazilians] (in Swedish), DNS .
  19. ^ "Brazilian president confirms new slip to F-X2 fighter decision". Flight global. 2011-02-23. Retrieved 2011-03-08. 
  20. ^ "Brazil jet bid extended 6 months", Space daily (AFP), 7 July 2012 .
  21. ^ "Brazil likely won't have new jets for World Cup", Reuters, 2013-03-08 .
  22. ^ Winter, Brian (4 June 2013). "Brazil closer to Boeing on jets deal after Biden visit". Thomson Reuters. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  23. ^ "Brazil aims to build advanced fighter jets with Russia". Defence talk. October 16, 2013. 
  24. ^ "Brazil may reject US fighter jet deal over NSA spying scandal", RT, 2013-08-13 .
  25. ^ Mallén, Patricia Rey (September 12, 2013), "Boeing Might Lose $4B Brazil Deal For F-18 Jets After NSA Surveillance Scandal; Analysts Say Politics Won't Trump Business", International Business Times .
  26. ^ "Russia to offer Brazil a stake in future advanced fighter project", RIA Novosti, 2013-10-14 .
  27. ^ "Russia offers PAK‐FA T‐50 to Brazil", Defence aviation, Oct 2013 .
  28. ^ "Brazil to award fighter jet deal to Saab", Reuters, 2013-12-18 .
  29. ^ "Saab Gripen NG wins Brazil jet fighter F-X2 competition and outbid Dassault Rafale and Boeing F-18". Air recognition. December 18, 2013. 
  30. ^ Winter, Brian (20 December 2013). "Insight: How US spying cost Boeing multibillion-dollar jet contract". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved 20 December 2013. 
  31. ^ Aboulafia, Richard (2013-12-19), Brazil's Fighter Buy: That NSA Narrative Is Probably Wrong, Forbes, "There’s a chance the NSA scandal played a role in Brazil’s decision. But it’s just as likely that this decision was an honest reflection of Brazilian Air Force (BAF) requirements, and a realistic appraisal of the options on offer. […] In short, the NSA scandal was probably a completely marginal factor in Brazil’s fighter decision. But for Brazil’s politicians and some of its media, the FX-2 decision provides a convenient rationale for criticizing the US." 
  32. ^ Haynes, Brad; Oatis, Jonathan (21 December 2013). "Brazil may wait over four years for new fighters, says Saab". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved 21 December 2013. 
  33. ^ Lei complementar [Complementar law] (in Portuguese) (97), BR: Presidency, 9 June 1999 .
  34. ^ "Brazilian Air Force in talks to purchase 20 Harpoon Block II anti-ship missiles from the US". May 21, 2014. 
  35. ^ "Russia and Brazil in the final stages of talks for the delivery of Russian Pantsir-S1 air defense system". Army recognition. October 20, 2013. 
  36. ^ http://www.aereo.jor.br/2013/11/22/doacao-de-seis-helicopteros-da-fab-para-a-secretaria-de-seguranca-do-rio-de-janeiro/

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]