|Regions with significant populations|
|Florida, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, New York City, Atlanta|
|American English, Portuguese|
|Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, Spiritism, Agnosticism, Atheism|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Other Brazilians diaspora|
Brazilian Americans (Portuguese: brasílio-americanos, norte-americanos de extração brasileira or estadunidenses de extração brasileira) are Americans of full or partial Brazilian descent. There were an estimated 371,529 Brazilian Americans as of 2012, according to the United States Census Bureau. Another source gives an estimate of some 800,000 Brazilians living in the U.S. in 2000, while still another estimates that as of 2008[update] some 1,100,000 Brazilians live in the United States, 300,000 of them in Florida.
While the official United States Census category of Hispanic or Latino includes persons of South American origin, it also refers to persons of "other Spanish culture," creating some ambiguity about whether Brazilians, who are of South American origin but do not have a Spanish culture, qualify as Latino, as while they are not "Hispanic" (of a culture derived from Spain), they are "Latino" (which is short for latinoamericano).
Other U.S. government agencies such as the Small Business Administration and the Department of Transportation specifically include Brazilians within their definitions of Hispanic and Latino for purposes of awarding minority preferences by defining Hispanic Americans to include persons of South America ancestry or persons who have Portuguese cultural roots.
- 1 History
- 2 Socioeconomics
- 3 Culture
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Relations with Brazil
- 6 Notable Brazilian Americans
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The first recorded Brazilians to emigrate to the United States came in the 1960s. Before then, Brazilians were included in a group formed by all South American groups and were not counted separately. Of the 234,761 people of South America that arrived in the United States between 1820 and 1960, at least, some of them were Brazilian. In 1960 the U.S. Census Bureau report counted 27,885 Americans of Brazilian ancestry.
From 1960 until the mid-1980s between 1,500 and 2,300 Brazilian immigrants arrived in the United States each year. Since the mid-1980s poverty in Brazil quickly increased, as a result between 1986 and 1990 1.4 million Brazilians emigrated to the United States, as well as Japan, and Europe. It was not until the 80s when Brazilian emigration reached significant levels. Thus, between 1987 and 1991, an estimated 20,800 Brazilians arrived in the United States. A significant number of them, 8,133 Brazilians, arrived in 1991. The 1990 U.S. Census Bureau recorded that there are about 60,000 Brazilians living in the United States. However, other sources indicate that there are near 100,000 Brazilians living in the New York area alone in addition to sizable Brazilian communities in Atlanta, Boston, Washington, D.C., Los Angeles, Miami, Houston and Phoenix.
The 2000 U.S. Census showed that 34.5 percent of Brazilians had completed four or more years of college, while the corresponding number for the general U.S. population is only 24.4 percent. However, although effectively many Brazilian immigrants in the United States are university educated, most these immigrants fail to get well-qualified jobs and have to get lower-status jobs because the United States doesn't recognize their qualifications and also because most of them do not speak English.
Anyway, to a lesser extent, many Brazilian immigrants in the United States also have typical white collar jobs as professionals or managers, while others work in blue collar occupations typically associated with recent immigrants. Second-and third-generation Brazilian Americans tend to have better jobs; they have been educated in the United States, speak English, and have citizenship.
Although the majority of Brazilian-Americans are Roman Catholic, there also significant numbers of Protestants and spiritualists. Spiritualists' beliefs are based on communication with the spirits of the dead. There are three main types of Spiritualism followed by Brazilian Americans: Spiritism (or Kardecism, a form of spiritualism that originated in France), Umbanda (a syncretic religion mixing African animist beliefs and rituals with Catholicism, Spiritism, and indigenous lore), and Candomblé (a syncretic religion that originated in the Brazilian state of Bahia that combines African animist beliefs with elements of Catholicism).
Brazilians began immigrating to the United States in large and ever-increasing numbers in the 1980s as a result of worsening economic conditions in Brazil at that time. However, many of the Brazilians who have emigrated to the United States since this decade have been undocumented. More women have immigrated to the United States from Brazil than men, with the 1990 and 2000 U.S. Censuses showing there to be ten percent more female than male Brazilian Americans. The greatest percentage of Brazilian Americans live in Florida, Massachusetts, and California. Most Brazilians who have emigrated to the United States, at least from the 1960s, are from southern and south-central Brazil and belonged from the middle- and upper-middle-classes. Also, the majority them are of European descent. However, also there Brazilian Americans of African, Asian (mostly Japanese), Arab or Jewish descent.
Brazilian American communities
- West 46th Street has historically been a commercial center for Brazilians living in or visiting New York City. A few years ago[when?] the street was officially titled "Little Brazil Street" by the city. The New York metropolitan area is home to about 76,257 Brazilian Americans. Another NYC neighborhood home to many Brazilian Americans is located in Astoria, Queens.
- Los Angeles's Brazilian residents have tended to settle, if not form distinct ethnic enclave in, its southern beach cities (Venice, Redondo Beach, Manhattan Beach, Long Beach) and Westside neighborhoods near and south of Interstate 10 (Palms, Rancho Park, Culver City). The city's greatest concentration of Brazilian American businesses began appearing in the late 1980s along Venice Boulevard's north border between Culver City and Palms (between Overland Avenue and Sepulveda Avenue) and now numbers more than two dozen, including restaurants, cafés, markets, import shops, money transfer facilities, night clubs, live music venues, and martial arts/dance spaces.
- Newark, New Jersey is also home to many Brazilian and Luso-Americans, mainly in the inner-city's Ironbound district.
- Chicago's ethnic neighborhoods have a significant population of Brazilian-born residents.
- South Florida's large Brazilian community is mostly centered between around the islands and northeastern section of Miami-Dade County (North Bay Village, Bay Harbor Islands, Miami Beach, Surfside, Key Biscayne, Aventura and Sunny Isles Beach) with the exception of Doral. In Broward County, the population is centered around the northeastern part as well (Deerfield Beach, Pompano Beach, Oakland Park, Coconut Creek, Lighthouse Point and Sea Ranch Lakes), with some living on the border of Palm Beach County, Florida (particularly the Boca Raton area).
- Atlanta's Brazilian community is largely located in Marietta, a large suburb in Cobb County. Other areas of high Brazilian concentration included Roswell and Alpharetta.
- Massachusetts has a sizable Brazilian immigrant population. Framingham has the highest percentage of Brazilians of any municipality in Massachusetts. Large populations also exist in Somerville, Everett, Barnstable, and Falmouth.
U.S. communities with high percentages of people of Brazilian ancestry
The top 25 U.S. communities with the highest percentages of people claiming Brazilian ancestry are:
- East Newark, New Jersey 6.20%
- North Bay Village, Florida 6.00%
- Danbury, Connecticut 4.90%
- Harrison, New Jersey and Framingham, Massachusetts 4.80%
- Somerville, Massachusetts 4.50%
- Kearny, New Jersey 3.70%
- Vineyard Haven, Massachusetts 3.60%
- Deerfield Beach, Florida 3.50%
- Everett, Massachusetts 3.20%
- Marlborough, Massachusetts 3.10%
- Long Branch, New Jersey 2.80%
- Edgartown, Massachusetts 2.70%
- Newark, New Jersey, Doral, Florida and Oak Bluffs, Massachusetts 2.50%
- Miami Beach, Florida, Hillside, New Jersey and Hudson, Massachusetts 2.20%
- Oakland Park, Florida, South River, New Jersey, Cliffside Park, New Jersey and Tisbury, Massachusetts 2.10%
- Fairview, New Jersey 2.00%
- Aventura, Florida 1.90%
- Lauramie, Indiana 1.80%
- Revere, Massachusetts, Malden, Massachusetts and Sea Ranch Lakes, Florida 1.70%
- Surfside, Florida, Barnstable, Massachusetts, Lowell, Massachusetts, Ojus, Florida, Washington, Ohio and Naugatuck, Connecticut 1.60%
- Milford, Massachusetts, Dennis Port, Massachusetts, Keene, Texas, Key Biscayne, Florida, Mount Vernon, New York, Avondale Estates, Georgia and Sunny Isles Beach, Florida 1.50%
- Riverside, New Jersey and Trenton, Florida 1.40%
- South Lancaster, Massachusetts, Great River, New York and Port Chester, New York 1.30%
- Coconut Creek, Florida, Belle Isle, Florida, Big Pine Key, Florida, Chelsea, Massachusetts, Yarmouth, Massachusetts, Bridgeport, Connecticut, Elizabeth, New Jersey and Ashland, Massachusetts 1.20%
- Pompano Beach, Florida, Corte Madera, California and Delran, New Jersey 1.10%
U.S. communities with the most residents born in Brazil
Top 25 U.S. communities with the most residents born in Brazil are:
- Loch Lomond, Florida 15.8%
- Bonnie Loch-Woodsetter North, Florida 7.2%
- North Bay Village, Florida 7.1%
- East Newark, New Jersey 6.7%
- Framingham, Massachusetts 6.6%
- Harrison, New Jersey 5.8%
- Danbury, Connecticut 5.6%
- Somerville, Massachusetts 5.4%
- Sunshine Ranches, Florida 5.1%
- Flying Hills, Pennsylvania 5.1% However, the Wiki link shows the Hispanic/Latino population as less than 1%
- Deerfield Beach, Florida 4.7%
- Fox River, Alaska 4.5% However, the Wiki link shows the Hispanic/Latino population as less than 1%
- Edgartown, Massachusetts 4.4%
- West Yarmouth, Massachusetts 4.4%
- Marlborough, Massachusetts 4.4%
- Kearny, New Jersey 4.4%
- Doral, Florida 4.1%
- Everett, Massachusetts 4.0%
- Long Branch, New Jersey 3.7%
- Vineyard Haven, Massachusetts 3.4%
- Hudson, Massachusetts 3.2%
- Miami Beach, Florida 3.1%
- Oak Bluffs, Massachusetts 3.0%
- Oakland Park, Florida 3.0%
- Pompano Beach Highlands, Florida 3.0%
Relations with Brazil
Many Brazilian Americans voted in the Brazilian presidential elections in 1989 through the Brazilian consulate. Brazilian Americans are divided between the major political parties in Brazil. Few eligible Brazilian illegal immigrants voted at the Brazilian consulate for fear of being reported to U.S. immigration authorities, opting instead to vote in their own country.
Notable Brazilian Americans
- Morena Baccarin, actress
- Camilla Belle, actress
- Blondfire, pop music band
- Jordana Brewster, actress
- Bob Burnquist, professional skateboarder
- Bruno Campos, actor
- Max Cavalera, musician
- Flavia Colgan, political strategist
- Mônica da Silva, singer, songwriter
- Sky Ferreira, singer, songwriter, model, and actress.
- Bebel Gilberto, singer
- Bill Handel, radio personality
- Nenê Hilário, basketball player
- Ryan Hollweg, hockey player
- Sergio Menezes, footvolley athlete and founder of pro tour
- Joe Penna, YouTube filmmaker
- Jared Gomes, Rapper and vocalist from Hed PE
- Nancy Randall, model
- Eduardo Saverin, Facebook cofounder - (In September 2011, he renounced his U.S. citizenship;)
- Anderson Varejão, basketball player
- Maiara Walsh, actress
- Marcelo Gleiser, physicist and astronomer
- Gil de Ferran, race car driver and team owner
- Fabrizio Moretti, musician
- Carlos Saldanha, film director and animator
- Benny Feilhaber, football player
- American Brazilian
- Luso American
- Brazilian Day - Brazilian American party of New York
- List of Brazilian Americans
- Brazilian British
- US Census Bureau 2012 American Community Survey B040003 TOTAL ANCESTRY REPORTED Universe: Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported retrieved September 21, 2013
- "Brazilian Immigrant Women in the Boston area: Negotiation of Gender, Race, Ethnicity, Class and Nation".
- Imigrante brasileiro espera anistia de sucessor de Bush - 01/11/2008 - UOL Eleição americana 2008
- Office of Management and Budget. "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity. Federal Register Notice October 30, 1997". Retrieved 2008-01-11.
- United States Census Bureau (March 2001). "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2007-07-15.
- "B03001. Hispanic or Latino Origin by Spedific Origin". 2006 American Community Survey. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
- "49 CFR Part 26". U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 2012-10-22. "'Hispanic Americans,' which includes persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central or South American, or other Spanish or Portuguese culture or origin, regardless of race;"
- "US Small Business Administration 8(a) Program Standard Operating Procedure". Retrieved 2012-10-22. "SBA has defined 'Hispanic American' as an individual whose ancestry and culture are rooted in South America, Central America, Mexico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, or the Iberian Peninsula, including Spain and Portugal."
- Alphine W. Jefferson. "A Countries and Their Cultures: Brazilian Americans". Countries and their cultures. Retrieved December 26, 2011.
- Franklin Goza, Bowling Green State University. "An Overview of Brazilian Life as Portrayed by the 2000 U.S. Census". Retrieved 2012-12-17.
- U.S. Census Bureau. "Educational Attainment: 2000". Retrieved 2012-12-17.
- "Little Brazil (New York City, USA)". zonalatina.com. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
- "Ancestry Map of Brazilian Communities". Epodunk.com. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
- "Top 101 cities with the most residents born in Brazil (population 500+)". city-data.com. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
- "She's part Brazilian – her mother is from São Paulo"
- "Belle already speaks fluent Portuguese — her mother is Brazilian"
- "Nationality:, American/Brazilian"
- Ruibal, Sal (2008-06-18). "Skateboarder Burnquist strikes a balance on Dew Tour - USATODAY.com". USA Today. Retrieved 2010-01-22.
- http://articles.latimes.com/2006/aug/04/sports/sp-xdiary4 Los Angeles Times
- The Brazilian-American Foundation
- Brazilian-American Cultural Institute
- Brazilian-American Association
- Brazilian-American Chamber of Commerce, Inc.