Brazilian hemorrhagic fever

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Sabiá virus
Virus classification
Group: Group V ((-)ssRNA)
Family: Arenaviridae
Genus: Arenavirus
Species

Sabiá virus

Brazilian hemorrhagic fever (BzHF) is an infectious disease caused by the Sabiá virus, an Arenavirus. The Sabiá virus is an enveloped RNA virus and is highly infectious and lethal.[1]

The incubation period is between 7–16 days, during which signs and symptoms can develop. Initial signs and symptoms can include fever, eye redness, fatigue, dizziness, muscle aches, loss of strength, and exhaustion. Severe cases show signs of bleeding under the skin, internal organs, or from body orifices like the mouth, eyes, or ears. Severely ill patients show shock, nervous system malfunction, coma, delirium, and seizures.[1]

The Sabiá virus can be acquired through inhalation, ingestion, the eyes, and contact with urine, saliva, blood, or feces of rodents.[1]

The Sabiá virus is a Biosafety Level 4 pathogen.[1]

To date, there have only been three reported infections of the Sabiá virus. Only one known case of naturally contracted Sabiá virus occurred in 1990 in a woman staying in the neighborhood of Jardim Sabiá, in Cotia, a city near São Paulo. Two other cases occurred in a clinical setting which are the viriologist who was responsible for the study of the woman's disease, contracted the disease as during the course of his research; he, fortunately, survived. Four years later, while working under level 3 biohazard conditions, a researcher at the Tropical Medicine Clinic at Yale-New Haven Hospital was exposed to the virus. Exposure apparently resulted when a centrifuge bottle containing infected tissue cracked and leaked into the spinning centrifuge, releasing aerosolized virus particles into the air. One of the scientists who was infected was treated with ribavirin.[2][3]

This virus has also been implicated as a means for bioterrorism, as it can be spread through aerosols.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d NRT Quick Reference Guide: Brazilian Hemorrhagic Fever (BzHF)
  2. ^ http://www.stanford.edu/group/virus/arena/2005/SabiaVirus.htm Sabia Virus
  3. ^ Barry, M.; Russi, M.; Armstrong, L.; Geller, D.; Tesh, R.; Dembry, L.; Gonzalez, J. P.; Khan, A. S.; Peters, C. J. (1995). "Treatment of a Laboratory-Acquired Sabiá Virus Infection". N Engl J Med 333 (5): 317–318. doi:10.1056/NEJM199508033330505. PMID 7596373. 
  4. ^ http://www.oregon.gov/DHS/ph/acd/bioterrorism/backvhf.pdf Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers and Bioterrorism