Bread and Roses
Bread and Roses is a poem by James Oppenheim, first published in The American Magazine in December 1911, with the attribution line "'Bread for all, and Roses, too' -- a slogan of the women in the West." The poem has been translated into other languages and has been set to music by at least three composers.
The slogan pairing bread and roses, appealing for both fair wages and dignified conditions, found resonance as transcending "the sometimes tedious struggles for marginal economic advances" in the "light of labor struggles as based on striving for dignity and respect", as Robert J.S. Ross wrote in 2013.
The Lawrence Strike
The 1912 Lawrence Textile Strike, which united dozens of immigrant communities under the leadership of the Industrial Workers of the World, was led to a large extent by women. The popular mythology of the strike includes signs being carried by women reading "We want bread, but we want roses, too!", though the image is probably ahistorical.
The strike was settled on March 14, 1912 on terms generally favorable to the workers. The workers won pay increases, time-and-a-quarter pay for overtime, and a promise of no discrimination against strikers.
After its first publication in 1911, the poem was published again in July 1912 in The Survey (magazine) with the same attribution as in December 1911, and again on October 4, 1912 in The Public, a weekly then published by Louis F. Post in Chicago, this time with the slogan being attributed to "Chicago Women Trade Unionists". The first publication in book form was in the 1915 labor anthology, The Cry for Justice: An Anthology of the Literature of Social Protest by Upton Sinclair, this time with a new attribution and rephrased slogan: "In a parade of strikers of Lawrence, Mass, some young girls carried a banner inscribed, 'We want Bread, and Roses too!'".
It was set in music several times. The oldest seems to be the one attributed both to Martha Coleman and Caroline Kohlsaat which suggests that both names refer to the same person. It was again set to music in 1974 by Mimi Fariña and has been recorded by various artists, including Judy Collins, Ani DiFranco, Utah Phillips, John Denver, and Josh Lucker. It was again set to music in Germany by Renate Fresow, using a translation by the Hannoveraner Weiberquartett, but which is sung mostly with the German translation by Peter Maiwald (1946-2008).
Mimi Fariña created in 1974 the Bread and Roses Benefit Agency.
In 2000 British director Ken Loach titled a movie Bread and Roses. The film is about the struggle of two Mexican labourers in Los Angeles, performed by Pilar Padilla and Elpidia Carrillo, for the right to form a union. It depicts an episode in the ongoing Justice for Janitors campaign, which is run by the Service Employees International Union.
- As we come marching, marching in the beauty of the day,
- A million darkened kitchens, a thousand mill lofts gray,
- Are touched with all the radiance that a sudden sun discloses,
- For the people hear us singing: "Bread and roses! Bread and roses!"
- As we come marching, marching, we battle too for men,
- For they are women's children, and we mother them again.
- Our lives shall not be sweated from birth until life closes;
- Hearts starve as well as bodies; give us bread, but give us roses!
- As we come marching, marching, unnumbered women dead
- Go crying through our singing their ancient cry for bread.
- Small art and love and beauty their drudging spirits knew.
- Yes, it is bread we fight for -- but we fight for roses, too!
- As we come marching, marching, we bring the greater days.
- The rising of the women means the rising of the race.
- No more the drudge and idler -- ten that toil where one reposes,
- But a sharing of life's glories: Bread and roses! Bread and roses!
- Anna LoPizzo, woman striker killed during the Lawrence textile strike
- William M. Wood Co-founder of the American Woolen Company
- Bruce Watson, Bread and Roses: Mills, Migrants, and the Struggle for the American Dream (New York: Viking, 2005), ISBN 0-670-03397-9.
- Zwick, Jim (2002-07-20). Bread and Roses: The Lost Histories of a Slogan and a Poem. "Bread and Roses: Poetry and History of the American Labor Movement". www.boondocksnet.com.[dead link]
- Zwick, Jim (2003). "Behind the Song: Bread and Roses". Sing Out! The Folk Song Magazine 46: 92–93. ISSN 0037-5624. OCLC 474160863.
- Ross, Robert J.S (March 2013). "Bread and Roses: Women Workers and the Struggle for Dignity and Respect". Working USA: The Journal of Labor & Society (Immanuel News and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) 16: 59–68. ISSN 1089-7011.
- Sider, Gerald M. (1997). Between history and histories: the making of silences and commemorations. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-7883-4.
- Watson, Bruce (2006). Bread and Roses: Mills, Migrants, and the Struggle for the American Dream (reprint ed.). Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-303735-4.
- Gabaccia, Donna R.; Fraser M. Ottanelli (2001). Italian workers of the world: labor migration and the formation of multiethnic states. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-02659-1.
- Moran, William (2004). The Belles of New England: The Women of the Textile Mills and the Families Whose Wealth They Wove (reprint ed.). Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-32600-5.
- ´Silber, Irwin (March 10, 1999). "Re: Happy!; Bread and Roses". rec.music.folk. Web link. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- Eisenstein, Sarah (1983). Give us bread but give us roses. Working women's consciousness in the United States, 1890 to the First World War. London: Routledge. p. 32. ISBN 0-7100-9479-5.
- ´Silber, Irwin (March 11, 1999). "Re: Happy!; Bread and Roses". rec.music.folk. Web link. "In any event, I am virtually certain that the song had been dormant for close on to 30 years until I came across sheet music for it while doing some research at the New York Public Library sometime in 1951. That's where the name Martha Coleman appeared. (This is just a guess, but I wouldn't be surprised if Martha Coleman turned out to be a pseudonym for Caroline Kohlsaat.) There is no evidence to indicate that this was particularly known as a song. The poem was somewhat known but not with a musical setting. The tune itself never caught on which is one reason why others have tried writing a new melody for it. I think if it was being sung prior to its publication in Sing Out! (January 1952), I would have known about it.". Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- Offer, Joe (2005-01-22). "Lyr Req/Add: They All Sang Bread and Roses (S Kahn)". mudcat.org. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- "Bread and Roses". iww.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-11-03.