Bremen Roland

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Coordinates: 53°04′33″N 8°48′26″E / 53.0759°N 8.80731°E / 53.0759; 8.80731

UNESCO World Heritage Site
Town Hall and Roland on the Marketplace of Bremen
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
RolandBremen01.jpg
Statue of Roland on the market square
Type Cultural
Criteria iii, iv, vi
Reference 1087
UNESCO region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 2005 (29th Session)

The Bremen Roland is a statue of Roland, erected in 1404. It stands in the market square (Rathausplatz) of Bremen, Germany, facing the cathedral, and shows Roland, paladin of the first Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne and hero of the Battle of Roncevaux Pass. Roland is shown as protector of the city: his legendary sword (known in chivalric legend as Durendal) is unsheathed, and his shield is emblazoned with the two-headed Imperial eagle.

The standing figure is 5.47 m tall, and stands on a 60 cm rostrum. A supporting column, crowned by a baldachin, brings the combined height to 10.21 m. The statue was carved in limestone from Elm, and was commissioned by the city fathers to replace a wooden one burnt in 1366 by Prince-Archbishop Albert II. It confronts the church as a representation of city rights opposed to the territorial claims of the prince-archbishop.

Statues of Roland appear in numerous cities of the former Holy Roman Empire, as emblems of city liberties, Stadtrechte.[1] The Roland statue at Bremen is the oldest surviving example. From Bremen the symbol of civic liberty and freedom spread to other cities and has become a symbol of the new Europe. Since 1973, it is protected by the monument protection act.[2] In July 2004, along with the town hall, the statue was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Legend[edit]

Postcard of Bremen from circa 1905, showing Roland and the marketplace.

According to legend, Bremen will remain free and independent for as long as Roland stands watch over the city. For this reason, it is alleged that a second Roland statue is kept hidden in the town hall's underground vaults, which can be quickly installed as a substitute, should the original fall.

Notes[edit]

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This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the German Wikipedia.