Brickwork

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Decorative Tudor brick chimneys, Hampton Court Palace, UK
Twelfth-century temple brickwork, Ayutthaya, Thailand

Brickwork is masonry produced by a bricklayer, using bricks and mortar. Typically, rows of bricks — called courses[1][2] — are laid on top of one another to build up a structure such as a brick wall.

Brick is a popular medium for constructing buildings, and examples of brickwork are found right back through history as far as the Bronze Age. The fired-brick faces of the ziggurat of ancient Dur-Kurigalzu in Iraq date from around 1400 BC, and the brick buildings of ancient Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan were built around 2600 BC. Much older examples of brickwork made with dried (but not fired) bricks may be found in such ancient locations as Jericho in the West Bank, Çatal Hüyük in Anatolia, and Mehrgarh in Pakistan. These structures have survived from the Stone Age to the present day.

Contents

The co-ordinating principle

Parts of brickwork include bricks, beds and perpends. The bed is the mortar upon which a brick is laid.[3] A perpend is a vertical joint between any two bricks and is usually — but not always — filled with mortar.[4] The dimensions of these parts are, in general, co-ordinated so that two bricks laid side by side separated only by the width of a perpend have a total width identical to the length of a single brick laid transversely on top of them.

An example of a co-ordinating metric commonly used for bricks in the UK is as follows:[5][6][7]

  • Bricks of dimensions 215 mm x 102.5 mm × 65 mm;
  • Mortar beds and perpends of a uniform 10 mm.

In this case the co-ordinating metric works because the total width of two bricks (102.5 mm + 102.5 mm = 205 mm) plus a perpend of mortar (10 mm) is equal to the length of a single brick (215 mm).

There are many other brick sizes worldwide, and many of them use this same co-ordinating principle.


Orientation[edit]

Six positions

A brick is given a classification based on how it is laid, and how the exposed face is oriented relative to the face of the finished wall.

Stretcher
A brick laid with its long narrow side exposed.[8]
Header
A brick laid flat with its width at the face of the wall, or parallel to the face of the wall.[8]
Soldier
A brick laid vertically with the long narrow side of the brick exposed.[9]
Sailor
A brick laid vertically with the broad face of the brick exposed.[10]
Rowlock
A brick laid on the long narrow side with the short end of the brick exposed.[11]
Shiner
A brick laid on the long narrow side with the broad face of the brick exposed.[12]

Cut[edit]

The practice of laying uncut full-sized bricks wherever possible gives brickwork its maximum possible strength. In the diagrams below, uncut full-sized bricks are coloured as follows:

  Stretchers: A brick laid with its long, narrow side exposed.
  Header: A brick laid with its short side exposed.

Occasionally though a brick must be cut to fit a given space, or to be the right shape for fulfilling some particular purpose such as generating an offset, or lap at the beginning of a course.[13] In the diagrams below, the most commonly used cuts for generating offsets are coloured as follows:

  Three-quarter bat - stretching: A brick cut to three-quarters of its length, and laid with its long, narrow side exposed.
  Three-quarter bat - heading: A brick cut to three-quarters of its length, and laid with its short side exposed.
  Half bat: A brick cut in half across its width.
  Queen closer: A brick cut in half down its width.[14]

Less frequently used cuts are all coloured as follows:

  Quarter bat: A brick cut to a quarter of its length.
  Three-quarter queen closer: A queen closer cut to three-quarters of its length.
  King closer: A brick with one corner cut away, leaving one header face at half its standard width.[15]

Bonding[edit]

A nearly universal rule allowing for brickwork to be stable under even modest loads is that perpends should not vertically align in any two successive courses. If this rule is observed, then the force acting on any brick is distributed across a wider area in the next successive course.[16]

A second practice particularly observed in older examples of brickwork is that of building brickwork thicker than the width of any of its individual bricks. In these cases, a number of the component bricks are tied together into the depth of the wall. If — for example — a wall describing an east-west line is under construction, then bricks oriented to point north-south may be built into the width of the wall, their length spanning two widths of brick and tying the brickwork on the transverse plane. Historically, this was the dominant method for consolidating the transverse strength of walls.

Brickwork observing either or both of these two conventions is described as being laid in one or another bond.[17][18]

Wall ties[edit]

The advent during the mid twentieth century of the cavity wall saw the development of another method of strengthening brickwork — the wall tie. A cavity wall comprises two totally discrete walls — each one of which is called a wythe or leaf.[19][20] A cavity separates the two leaves so that there is no masonry connection between them at all.[21] Typically the main loads taken by the foundations are carried there by the inner leaf, and the major functions of the external leaf are to protect the whole from weather, and to provide a fitting aesthetic finish. Although the two leaves may not share the structural load, their transverse rigidity still needs to be guaranteed, and must come from some source other than interlocking bricks. The device used to satisfy this need is the insertion at regular intervals of wall ties into the cavity wall's mortar beds.[22][23]

Thickness[edit]

Brickwork is said to be one brick thick if it has a total width equal to the length of one of its regular component bricks. Accordingly, a wall of a single leaf is a wall of one half brick thickness; a wall with the simplest possible masonry transverse bond is said to be one brick thick, and so on.[24] The thickness specified for a wall is determined by such factors as damp proofing considerations, whether or not the wall has a cavity, load-bearing requirements, and expense.[25][26] Wall thickness specification has proven considerably various, and while some non-load-bearing brick walls may be as little as half a brick thick, others brick walls will be much thicker. The Monadnock Building in Chicago — for example — is a very tall masonry building, and has load-bearing brick walls nearly two metres thick at the base.[27] The majority of brick walls are however usually between one and three bricks thick. At these more modest wall thicknesses, distinct patterns have emerged allowing for a structurally sound layout of bricks internal to each particular specified thickness of wall.

Load-bearing bonds[edit]

Courses of mixed headers and stretchers[edit]

Brickwork in flemish bond.svg Brickwork in monk bond.svg Brickwork in sussex bond.svg
Flemish bond Monk bond Sussex bond

Flemish bond[edit]

This bond has one stretcher between headers, with the headers centred over the stretchers in the course below.[28]

Where a course begins with a quoin stretcher, the course will ordinarily terminate with a quoin stretcher at the other end. The next course up will begin with a quoin header. For the course's second brick, a queen closer is laid, generating the lap of the bond. The third brick along is a stretcher, and is — on account of the lap — centred above the header below. This second course then resumes its paired run of stretcher and header, until the final pair is reached, whereupon a second and final queen closer is inserted as the penultimate brick, mirroring the arrangement at the beginning of the course, and duly closing the bond.

Some examples of Flemish bond incorporate stretchers of one colour and headers of another. This effect is commonly a product of treating the header face of the heading bricks while the bricks are being baked as part of the manufacturing process. Some of the header faces are exposed to wood smoke, generating a grey-blue colour, while other simply vitrified until they reach a deeper blue colour. Some headers have a glazed face, caused by using salt in the firing. Sometimes Staffordshire Blue bricks are used for the heading bricks.[29][30]

Brickwork that appears as Flemish bond from both the front and the rear is Double Flemish bond, so called on account of the front and rear duplication of the pattern. If the wall is arranged such that the bricks at the rear do not have this pattern, then the brickwork is said to be Single Flemish bond.[31]

Double Flemish bond of one brick’s thickness[edit]

By simply placing stretchers immediately to the rear of the face stretchers, Flemish bonded brickwork with a thickness of one brick is built.

Double Flemish bond of one and a half bricks’ thickness[edit]

Alternately, facing bricks and the bricks behind the facing bricks may be laid in groups of four bricks and a half-bat. The half-bat sits at the centre of the group and the four bricks are placed about the half-bat, in a square formation. These groups are laid next to each other for the length of a course, making brickwork one and a half bricks thick.[32][33]

To preserve the bond, it is necessary to lay a three-quarter bat instead of a header following a quoin stretcher at the corner of the wall. This fact has no bearing on the appearance of the wall; the choice of brick appears to the spectator like any ordinary header.

Double Flemish bond of two bricks’ thickness[edit]

For a more substantial wall, a header may be laid directly behind the face header, a further two headers laid at 90° behind the face stretcher, and then finally a stretcher laid to the rear of these two headers. This pattern generates brickwork a full two bricks thick.

Double Flemish bond of two and a half bricks’ thickness[edit]
Double Flemish bond of three bricks’ thickness[edit]

For a still more substantial wall, two headers may be laid directly behind the face header, a further two pairs of headers laid at 90° behind the face stretcher, and then finally a stretcher laid to the rear of these four headers. This pattern generates brickwork a full three bricks thick.

Single Flemish bond of one and a half bricks’ thickness[edit]

Monk bond[edit]

This bond has two stretchers between every header with the headers centred over the perpend between the two stretchers in the course below in the bond's most symmetric form.[34]

In this symmetric form the lap of the bond may be variously generated. The brickwork in Monk bond at Guildford Cathedral sandwiches a queen closer between two heading bricks at the quoins. At this point the regular run of two stretchers and one header follows on along the course. In other structures the queen closer is omitted, and the grouping is instead of a quoin header, and a three-quarter bat as the second brick along.

One brick's thickness[edit]
Raking Monk bonds[edit]
Monk bond variations
New Malden Library, Kingston upon Thames, Greater London.
New Malden Library, Kingston upon Thames, Greater London.
Former Post Office, Arvika, Sweden.
Former Post Office, Arvika, Sweden.
Private building, Solna, Sweden.
Private building, Solna, Sweden.
Pyramids highlighted.
Pyramids highlighted.

Monk bond may however take any of a number of arrangements for course staggering. The disposal of bricks in these often highly irregular raking patterns can be a challenging task for the bricklayer to correctly maintain while constructing a wall whose courses are partially obscured by scaffold, and interrupted by door or window openings, or other bond-disrupting obstacles. If the bricklayer frequently stops to check that bricks are correctly arranged, then masonry in a raking Monk bond can be expensive to build.[35]

Occasionally, brickwork in such a raking Monk bond may contain minor errors of header and stretcher alignment some of which may have been silently corrected by incorporating a compensating irregularity into the brickwork in a course further up the wall. In spite of these complexities and their associated costs, the bond has proven a common choice for constructing brickwork in the north of Europe.

Raking courses in Monk bond may — for instance — be staggered in such a way as to generate the appearance of diagonal lines of stretchers. One method of achieving this effect relies on the use of a repeating sequence of courses with back-and-forth header staggering. In this grouping, a header appears at a given point in the group's first course. In the next course up, a header is offset one and a half stretcher lengths to the left of the header in the course below, and then in the third course, a header is offset one stretcher length to the right of the header in the middle course. This accented swing of headers, one and a half to the left, and one to the right, generates the appearance of lines of stretchers running from the upper left hand side of the wall down to the lower right. Such an example of a raking Monk bond layout is shown in the New Malden Library, Kingston upon Thames, Greater London.

Elsewhere, raking courses in Monk bond may be staggered in such a way as to generate a subtle appearance of indented pyramid-like diagonals. Such an arrangement may set a header at a given point in a first course. A header in the second course is staggered in the horizontal plane by a length of three-quarters of a stretcher to the right. With each ascending course, the interval of the stagger of headers increases by a length of half a stretcher until the stagger is equal to a length of one and three-quarters of a stretcher. This progression is then reversed so that the stagger then decreases with ascending courses by a half stretcher until it is back down to the length of three-quarters of a stretcher of stagger. This arrangement is repeated as the wall ascends. Every two courses gained in height the indented pyramids flip around in the horizontal plane so as to form pyramids that are mirror images of those below. Such a bond appears in the picture here from the building in Solna, Sweden.

Many other particular adjustments of course alignment exist in Monk bond, generating a variety of visual effects which differ in detail, but often having the effect of directing a viewing eye diagonally down the wall.[36]

The great variety of Monk bond patterns allow for many possible layouts at the quoins, and this particular is variously planned and executed. A quoin brick may be a stretcher, a three-quarter bat, or a header. Queen closers may be used next to the quoins, but the practice is not mandatory.

Sussex bond[edit]

This bond has three stretchers between every header, with the headers centred above the midpoint of three stretchers in the course below.[37]

The bond's horizontally extended proportion suits long stretches of masonry such as garden walls or the run of brickwork over a ribbon window; conversely, the bond is less suitable for a surface occupied by many features, such as a Georgian façade. The relatively infrequent use of headers serves to make Sussex bond one of the less expensive bonds in which to build a wall, as it allows for the bricklayer to proceed rapidly with run after run of three stretchers at a time.[38]

One stretching course per heading course[edit]

One of the two kinds of course in this family of bonds is called a stretching course, and this typically comprises nothing but stretchers at the face from quoin to quoin. The other kind of course is the heading course, and this usually consists of headers, with two queen closers — one by the quoin header at either end — to generate the bond.[39]

English bond[edit]

This bond has alternating stretching and heading courses, with the headers centred over the midpoint of the stretchers, and perpends in each alternate course aligned. Queen closers appear as the second brick, and the penultimate brick in heading courses.[40][41] A muted colour scheme for occasional headers is sometimes used in English bond to lend a subtle texture to the brickwork. Examples of such schemes include blue-grey headers among otherwise red bricks – seen in the south of England – and light brown headers in a dark brown wall, more often found in parts of the north of England.[42]

Courses of one brick's thickness[edit]
Courses of one and a half bricks' thickness[edit]
Courses of two bricks' thickness[edit]

English Cross bond[edit]

Dutch Bond, Linacre College, Oxford.

This bond also has alternating stretching and heading courses. However, whilst the heading courses are identical with those found in the standard English bond, the stretching courses alternate between a course composed entirely of stretchers from quoin to quoin with no off-set, and a course composed of stretchers half off-set relative to the stretchers two courses above or below, by virtue of a header placed just before the quoins at either end.[43][44] The bond is widely found in Northern France, Belgium and the Netherlands.[45]

Dutch bond[edit]

This bond is exactly like English Cross bond except in the generating of the lap at the quoins. In Dutch bond, all quoins are three-quarter bats – placed in alternately stretching and heading orientation with successive courses – and no use whatever is made of queen closers.[46]

Double English Cross bond[edit]

This bond comprises two courses of headers (half off-set by alternately stretching and heading three-quarter bats at the quoins) followed by two courses of stretchers (quarter off-set, also by alternately stretching and heading three-quarter bats at the quoins). By off-setting the stretchers from each other by one-quarter and centring the lower course of stretchers above the upper course of headers they sit upon, perpends in the upper courses of stretchers are aligned with perpends in the upper courses of headers, whereas perpends in the lower courses of stretchers are aligned with perpends in the lower courses of headers.[47]

Two or more stretching course per heading course[edit]

English Garden Wall bond[edit]

This bond has three courses of stretchers between every course of headers.[48]

Headers are used as quoins for the middle stretching course in order to achieve the necessary off-set in the standard English Garden Wall bond, with queen closers as the penultimate brick at either end of the heading courses. A more complex set of quoins and penultimate bricks is necessary to achieve a raking English Garden Wall bond however.

The heading course in English Garden Wall bond sometimes features bricks of a different colour to its surrounding stretchers. In English chalk districts, flint is substituted for the stretchers, and the headers constitute a lacing course.[42]

Scottish bond[edit]

This bond has five courses of stretchers between every course of headers.

Headers are used as quoins for the even numbered stretching courses, counting up from the previous heading course, in order to achieve the necessary off-set in the standard Scottish bond, with queen closers as the penultimate brick at either end of the heading courses

American, or common bond[edit]

American bond, 5th Ave, Harlem, New York

This bond has anywhere from three to nine courses of stretchers between every course of headers.

Headers are used as quoins for the even numbered stretching courses, counting up from the previous heading course, in order to achieve the necessary off-set in a standard American bond, with queen closers as the penultimate brick at either end of the heading courses.

The brick Clarke-Palmore House in Henrico County, Virginia, has a lower level built in 1819 described as being American bond of three to five stretching courses between each heading course, and an upper level built in 1855 with American bond of six to seven stretching courses between each heading course.[49]

Only stretching or heading courses[edit]

Header bond[edit]

Consists entirely of courses of headers, with the bricks in each successive course staggered by half a header.

Alternately stretching and heading three-quarter bats serve for quoins, generating the necessary offset.

Header bond is often used on curving walls with a small radius of curvature. In Lewes, Sussex many small buildings are constructed in this bond, using blue coloured bricks and vitrified surfaces.[50][51]

Stretcher, or running bond[edit]

Consists entirely of courses of stretchers, with the bricks in each successive course staggered by half a stretcher.

Headers are used as quoins on alternating stretching courses in order to achieve the necessary off-set.

It is the simplest repeating pattern, and will create a wall only one-half brick thick. Such a thin wall is not stable enough to stand alone, and must be tied to a supporting structure. This practice is common in modern buildings, where stretcher bonded brickwork may be the outer face of a cavity wall, or the facing to a timber or steel-framed structure.[52]

Raking Stretcher bond[edit]

Also consists entirely of courses of stretchers, but with the bricks in each successive course staggered in some pattern other than that of standard stretcher bond.[53]

One or more stretching courses per alternating course[edit]

Flemish Stretcher bond[edit]

Flemish Stretcher bond separates courses of alternately laid stretchers and headers, with a number of courses of stretchers alone. Brickwork in this bond may have between one and four courses of stretchers to one course after the Flemish manner.[34][54] The courses of stretchers are often but not always staggered in a raking pattern.

Courses of mixed rowlocks and shiners[edit]

Rat-trap bond[edit]

Brick wall laid in rat-trap bond photographed near Angelsea Road, Wivenhoe, Essex, England.

Rat-trap bond substantially observes the same pattern as Flemish bond, but consists of rowlocks and shiners instead of headers and stretchers. This gives a wall with an internal cavity bridged by the rowlocks, hence the reference to rat-traps.[55]

One shiner course per heading course[edit]

Dearne's Bond[edit]

Dearne's bond substantially observes the same pattern as English bond, but uses shiners in place of stretchers.[56]

Non-load-bearing bonds[edit]

Courses of mixed shiners and sailors[edit]

Single Basket Weave bond[edit]

45° Herringbone bond, Canterbury, UK

A row of Single Basket Weave bond comprises pairs of sailors laid side-by-side, capped with a shiner, alternating with pairs of sailors laid side-by-side sat atop a shiner. Subsequent rows are identical and aligned with those above.[57]

Double Basket Weave bond[edit]

A row of Double Basket Weave bond comprises pairs of shiners laid atop one another, alternating with pairs of sailors laid side-by-side. The following row is off-set so the pair of shiners sits below the pair of sailors in the row above. This results in bricks arranged in pairs in a square grid so that the join between each pair is perpendicular to the join of the four pairs around it.[53]

Herringbone bond[edit]

The Herringbone pattern is made by placing a sailor to one side of a shiner making an 'L' shape, then repeatedly nesting further such combinations. The whole tessellation can be rotated by 45°. Herringbone is sometimes used as noggins in timber framed buildings.[53]

Brickwork built around square fractional-sized bricks[edit]

Pinwheel bond[edit]

Pinwheel bond is made of four bricks surrounding a square half-brick, repeated in a square grid.[53]

Della Robbia bond[edit]

A pattern made of four bricks surrounding a square brick, one-quarter the size of a half-brick. It is designed to resemble woven cloth.[53]

The picture of Della Robbia bond is in fact called interlacing bond

Diapering[edit]

Flemish Diagonal Bond, St John's College, Trinity Street, Cambridge

Brickwork formed into a diamond pattern is called diapering.

Flemish Diagonal bond[edit]

Flemish diagonal bond comprises a complex pattern of stretcher courses alternating with courses of one or two stretchers between headers, at various offsets such that over ten courses a diamond-shaped pattern appears.

Damp-proof courses[edit]

Moisture may ascend into a building from the foundation of a wall or gain ingress into a building from a wet patch of ground, where it meets a solid wall. The manifest result of this process is called damp. One of many methods of resisting such ingresses of water is to construct the wall with several low courses of dense engineering bricks such as Staffordshire blue bricks. This method of damp proofing appears as a distinctive navy blue band running around the circumference of a building. The efficacy of this means of keeping out damp is more limited by the permeability of the mortar bedding and perpends joining the bricks, than by that of the bricks themselves.[58]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Joseph Moxon. Mechanick Exercises: Or, The Doctrine of Handy-Works. Applied to the Arts of Smithing, Joinery, Carpentry, Turning, Bricklayery. Printed for Daniel Midwinter and Thomas Leigh. 1703. London. Page 129. "Three or four or five course of Bricks to be laid."
  2. ^ Nicholson: The New Practical Builder, and Workman's Companion. Thomas Kelly, 17 Paternoster Row, London. 1823. "By a Course, in walling, is meant the bricks contained between two planes parallel to the horizon, and terminated by the faces of the wall. The thickness is that of one brick with mortar. The mass formed by bricks laid in concentric order, for arches or vaults, is also denominated a Course."
  3. ^ Peter Nicholson, Practical Masonry Bricklaying and Plastering. Published by Thomas Kelly, Paternoster Row, London. 1841. Page 166. "BED.—The under-surface of bricks when laid in any kind of work."
  4. ^ Reports of artisans selected by a committee appointed by the council of the Society of Arts to visit the Paris Universal exhibition, 1867. Published for the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce. Published by Bell and Daldy, York Street, Covent Garden, London. Printed by W. Trounce, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, London. 1867. Part 1. Bricklaying by George Howell. Page 194. "The beauty of brickwork will very much depend upon the 'perpends' being perfectly kept, that is, the prefect regularity of the perpendicular joints right up the building."
  5. ^ R.W. Brunskill. Brick Building in Britain. Victor Gollancz (Publisher) in association with Peter Crawley. An imprint of the Cassell Group. Wellington House, 125 Strand, London WC2R 0BB. 1997. isbn 0575065354. Page 39. "British Standard 3921 of 1969, gave dimensions of 215 mm by 102.5 mm by 65 mm [...]."
  6. ^ British Standards Institution. Specification for Masonry Units. Part 1: Clay Masonry Units. BSI, London, 2003, BS EN 771.
  7. ^ The Compressive Strength of Modern Earth Masonry, Andrew Heath, Mike Lawrence, Peter Walker and Clyde Fourie. BRE Centre for Innovative Construction Materials, University of Bath and Natural Building Technologies (NBT). Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Non-conventional Materials and Technologies (NOCMAT 2009). 6–9 September 2009, Bath, UK. "All earth masonry units were intended to be 'standard' brick size (215x102.5x65mm) if they were fired, but because they did not have additional shrinkage from firing, the average size was 223x106x67mm."
  8. ^ a b John Houghton. A Collection for Improvement of Husbandry and Trade. 1693. Issue 74. Published by Randal Taylor near Stationers-Hall. London. "A Brick-wall of a Foot and half thick is commonly made by Stretchers and Headers, that is, by laying on the out-side one Brick, so as to have the narrowest side of it to be seen longways, and the next to have only the end seen, and the Brick lying on the broad side, and so on, a Stretcher and a Header."
  9. ^ Whitney Clark Huntington. Building Construction. Types of Construction, Materials, and Cost Estimating. New York: Wiley. London: Chapman & Hall. 1929. Page 130. "Belt courses and flat arches may be formed of brick[s] set on end with the narrow side exposed. Such bricks are called soldiers."
  10. ^ Rob W. Sovinski. Brick in the Landscape. A Practical Guide to Specification and Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York. 1999. Page 43. "Those brick positions oriented in a horizontal alignment are called stretcher, header, rowlock stretcher, and rowlock. A rowlock stretcher is sometimes called a shiner. The two corresponding vertical orientations are the soldier and sailor positions."
  11. ^ Samuel Y. Harris. Building Pathology. Wiley. New York. 2001. Page 212. "The short face, or the end laid horizontally, is a header; laid vertically, a rowlock."
  12. ^ Rob W. Sovinski. Brick in the Landscape. A Practical Guide to Specification and Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York. 1999. Page 43. "Those brick positions oriented in a horizontal alignment are called stretcher, header, rowlock stretcher, and rowlock. A rowlock stretcher is sometimes called a shiner."
  13. ^ Charles F.Mitchell. Building Construction. Part 1. First Stage or Elementary Course. Second Edition—Revised. Published by B.T. Batsford, 52 High Holborn. 1889. Page 22.
  14. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. BRICKWORK. "[...] portions of a brick [...] a half header in width, [...] are called queen closers[.]"
  15. ^ Charles F.Mitchell. Building Construction. Part 1. First Stage or Elementary Course. Second Edition—Revised. Published by B.T. Batsford, 52 High Holborn. 1889. Page 18. "King Closers are bricks cut so that one end is half the width of a brick, and [are] used in positions where the greater width at back would add strength to the bond[...]."
  16. ^ Peter Nicholson, Practical Masonry Bricklaying and Plastering. Published by Thomas Kelly, Paternoster Row, London. 1841. Page 167. "[...] an arrangement, or combination of bricks when laid upon each other, [such] that the perpendicular joint formed by any two adjacent bricks may, at all times, be covered by the centre (or nearly so) of one laid immediately over the joint, by which means the nearest approximation to solidity will be attained that such materials are capable of producing."
  17. ^ Peter Nicholson. The New Practical Builder, and Workman's Companion. First edition. Published by Thomas Kelly, 17 Paternoster Row, London. 1823. Page 347. "BRICKS ARE LAID in a varied, but regular, form of connection, or Bond, as exhibited in Plate LXXXV."
  18. ^ Nicholson: The New Practical Builder, and Workman's Companion. Thomas Kelly, 17 Paternoster Row, London. 1823. Page 329. "BOND.—That regular connection, in lapping the stones upon one another, when carrying up the work, which forms an inseparable mass of building."
  19. ^ Denzil Nield. Walls & Wall Facings. Spon, London. 1949. Page 145. "Cavity walls... are being increasingly built with hollow blocks or other material in place of bricks for the internal leaf."
  20. ^ New Civil Engineer. Oct 3rd, 1991. Thomas Telford Ltd. London. Advertisement. "Single leaf wall with vertical and lateral load."
  21. ^ Barry's Introduction to Construction of Buildings. Second Edition. 2010. Stephen Emmitt and Christopher A. Gorse. Wiley-Blackwell, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ. isbn 9781405188548. Page 7
  22. ^ Barry's Introduction to Construction of Buildings. Second Edition. 2010. Stephen Emmitt and Christopher A. Gorse. Wiley-Blackwell, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ. isbn 9781405188548. Pages 232, 233. "Early cavity walls were constructed with bonding bricks laid across the cavity at internals to tie the two leaves together. [...] Later, iron ties were used to tie the two leaves together."
  23. ^ David Yeomans. Construction Since 1900: Materials. BT Batsford Ltd, 583 Fulham Road, London, SW6 5BY. 1997. isbn 0713466847. Page 60. "In 1974, a large section of the outer leaf of a wall of a comprehensive school at Newnham collapsed revealing a complete absence of ties over a considerable area [and] in 1983, a much larger section of a wall at Plymouth Polytechnic collapsed due to corrosion of the cavity ties."
  24. ^ CITB
    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY TRAINING BOARD
    Training Workbook
    Setting Out Brickwork
    Positioning Ranging Lines, Gauge, Dry Bonding, Broken Bonding
    WB 272
    Construction Industry Training Board, Bircham Newton, Kings Lynn, Norfolk PE31 6RH. 1994. isbn 185751095X. Page 35-37. "Wall thickness terms relate to a stretcher dimension of a brick. Wall (A) [pictured] is termed a half brick wall. Wall (B) [pictured] is termed a one brick wall [...]. This wall is a half brick thick wall [...]. This wall is a one brick
    thick wall [...]."
  25. ^ Bricks and Brickwork. Cecil C. Handisyde and Barry A. Haseltine. The Brick Development Association. 19 Grafton Street, London, W1X 3LE. 1974. Page 68. "Old buildings of solid wall construction were accepted as 'waterproof', often when brickwork was only 9 inches thick. Now it is generally agreed that solid walls of less than [one and a half] brick thickness are inadequate. Code of Practice 121 still includes unrendered one brick thick walls as acceptable for sheltered positions but this seems a questionable recommendation. Walling of [one and a half] brick thickness should be satisfactory for sheltered positions and may be adequate for moderate exposure."
  26. ^ Barry's Introduction to Construction of Buildings. Second Edition. 2010. Stephen Emmitt and Christopher A. Gorse. Wiley-Blackwell, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ. isbn 9781405188548. Page 206. "In exposed positions such as high ground and near the coast, a wall 2B thick may be needed to resist penetration to inside faces [...]. In positions of very severe exposure to wind-driven rain, as on high open ground facing the prevailing wind and on the coast facing open sea, it is necessary to protect both solid and cavity walls with an external cladding."
  27. ^ Fuller, Chicago Tribune, December 7, 1958.
  28. ^ A. C. Smeaton. The Builder's Pocket Manual; Containing the Elements of Building, Surveying and Architecture; with Practical Rules and Instructions in Carpentry, Bricklaying, Masonry &c. Published by M. Taylor, Barnard's Inn, Holborn. 1837. Page 29, 30. "The two principal methods of bricklaying are severally called English and Flemish bond. [...] Flemish bond consists in placing a header and a stretcher alternately throughout every course."
  29. ^ R.W. Brunskill. Brick Building in Britain. Victor Gollancz (Publisher) in association with Peter Crawley. An imprint of the Cassell Group. Wellington House, 125 Strand, London WC2R 0BB. 1997. isbn 0575065354. Page 57, 58.
  30. ^ The Architectural Review. May 1936. The Architectural Press. 9 Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster, S.W.1. London. Page 233.
  31. ^ R.W. Brunskill. Brick Building in Britain. Victor Gollancz (Publisher) in association with Peter Crawley. An imprint of the Cassell Group. Wellington House, 125 Strand, London WC2R 0BB. 1997. isbn 0575065354. Page 91. "SINGLE FLEMISH BOND: gives the appearance of Flemish Bond on the outside face only of a wall more than 9 inches thick. The same appearance on both inner and outer faces is given by DOUBLE FLEMISH BOND."
  32. ^ Peter Nicholson, Practical Masonry Bricklaying and Plastering. Published by Thomas Kelly, Paternoster Row, London. 1841. Page 102. "[...] the bricks are disposed alike on both sides of the wall, the tail of the headers being placed contiguous to each other, so as to form square spaces in the core of the wall for half-bricks."
  33. ^ Charles F.Mitchell. Building Construction. Part 1. First Stage or Elementary Course. Second Edition—Revised. Published by B.T. Batsford, 52 High Holborn. 1889. Page 25, figures 37 & 38.
  34. ^ a b The Dictionary of Art. Grove. Volume Four, Biardeau TO Brüggemann. Edited by Jane Turner. Macmillan Publishers Limited. 1996. isbn 1884446000. Page 769.
  35. ^ The Architectural Review. May 1936. The Architectural Press. 9 Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster, S.W.1. London. Page 242. THE BONDING OF BRICKWORK. P.M. Stratton. "An extra cost over Flemish has to be met for labour on Monk bond and its derivatives, because the process is not so straightforward as Flemish, and the bricklayers have to stop and think more frequently."
  36. ^ The Architectural Review. May 1936. The Architectural Press. 9 Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster, S.W.1. London. Page 241. THE BONDING OF BRICKWORK. P.M. Stratton. "Monk bond [...] is popular in the North of Europe. Two stretchers are followed by one header in every course, the headers being so disposed that verticality of their axial lines is little apparent, and a striking result is obtained of diagonal lines of stretchers, which look like a series of corbels or cantilevers embedded in the wall."
  37. ^ A History of English Brickwork. Nathaniel Lloyd. First Published in 1925. Published by The Antique Collectors' Club Ltd, 2003. isbn 0907462367. Page 440. "FLEMISH GARDEN WALL or SUSSEX BOND. Three stretchers, then one header in every course."
  38. ^ The Architectural Review. May 1936. The Architectural Press. 9 Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster, S.W.1. London. Page 241. THE BONDING OF BRICKWORK. P.M. Stratton.
  39. ^ Charles F.Mitchell. Building Construction. Part 1. First Stage or Elementary Course. Second Edition—Revised. Published by B.T. Batsford, 52 High Holborn. 1889. Page 23.
  40. ^ A. C. Smeaton. The Builder's Pocket Manual; Containing the Elements of Building, Surveying and Architecture; with Practical Rules and Instructions in Carpentry, Bricklaying, Masonry &c. Published by M. Taylor, Barnard's Inn, Holborn. 1837. Page 29, 30. "The two principal methods of bricklaying are severally called English and Flemish bond .... English bond consists of alternating courses of headers and stretchers; thus, one course is formed with headers, that is, with bricks crossing the wall; the next with stretchers, that is, with bricks having their length in the same direction as that of the wall[.]"
  41. ^ Charles F.Mitchell. Building Construction. Part 1. First Stage or Elementary Course. Second Edition—Revised. Published by B.T. Batsford, 52 High Holborn. 1889. Page 21, figures 28 & 29.
  42. ^ a b The Architectural Review. May 1936. The Architectural Press. 9 Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster, S.W.1. London. Page 242. THE BONDING OF BRICKWORK. P.M. Stratton.
  43. ^ Ching, Francis (1995). A Visual Dictionary of Architecture. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-28451-3. 
  44. ^ A History of English Brickwork. Nathaniel Lloyd. First Published in 1925. Published by The Antique Collectors' Club Ltd, 2003. isbn 0907462367. Page 440. "ENGLISH CROSS BOND. Stretchers breaking joint. The second brick of alternate stretching courses is a header."
  45. ^ R.W. Brunskill. Brick Building in Britain. Victor Gollancz (Publisher) in association with Peter Crawley. An imprint of the Cassell Group. Wellington House, 125 Strand, London WC2R 0BB. 1997. isbn 0575065354. Page 50.
  46. ^ Charles F.Mitchell. Building Construction. Part 1. First Stage or Elementary Course. Second Edition—Revised. Published by B.T. Batsford, 52 High Holborn. 1889. Page 37.
  47. ^ "Brick Pattern Math". 
  48. ^ A History of English Brickwork. Nathaniel Lloyd. First Published in 1925. Published by The Antique Collectors' Club, 2003. isbn 0907462367. Page 440. "ENGLISH GARDEN WALL BOND. Three stretching courses to each heading course."
  49. ^ Susan Reed Smither (January 29, 2004). "National Register of Historic Places Registration: Clarke-Palmore House / Clarke Home". Virginia Historic Landmarks Commission. Retrieved 2010-05-08.  and Accompanying four photos at Virginia Historic Landmarks Commission, undated
  50. ^ A History of English Brickwork. Nathaniel Lloyd. First Published in 1925. Published by The Antique Collectors' Club Ltd, 2003. isbn 0907462367. Page 440. "HEADING BOND. All headers except a three-quarters brick at quoin in alternate courses."
  51. ^ The Architectural Review. May 1936. The Architectural Press. 9 Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster, S.W.1. London. Page 242, 245. THE BONDING OF BRICKWORK. P.M. Stratton.
  52. ^ Campbell, James W. P; Pryce, Will (2003). Brick: A World History. London: Thames and Hudson. pp. 304–305 and 313. ISBN 978-0-500-34195-7. 
  53. ^ a b c d e "Brick Pattern Math". 
  54. ^ R.W. Brunskill. Brick Building in Britain. Victor Gollancz (Publisher) in association with Peter Crawley. An imprint of the Cassell Group. Wellington House, 125 Strand, London WC2R 0BB. 1997. isbn 0575065354. Page 52.
  55. ^ R.W. Brunskill. Brick Building in Britain. Victor Gollancz (Publisher) in association with Peter Crawley. An imprint of the Cassell Group. Wellington House, 125 Strand, London WC2R 0BB. 1997. isbn 0575065354. Page 54.
  56. ^ R.W. Brunskill. Brick Building in Britain. Victor Gollancz (Publisher) in association with Peter Crawley. An imprint of the Cassell Group. Wellington House, 125 Strand, London WC2R 0BB. 1997. isbn 0575065354. Page 54, 87.
  57. ^ "Boral Best Block". 
  58. ^ Barry's Introduction to Construction of Buildings. Second Edition. 2010. Stephen Emmitt and Christopher A. Gorse. Wiley-Blackwell, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ. isbn 9781405188548. Page 154.

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