Bridge to Terabithia (novel)
|Bridge to Terabithia|
|October 21, 1977|
|Media type||Print (Hardcover and paperback)|
|ISBN||ISBN 0-690-01359-0 (hardback edition)|
|LC Class||PZ7.P273 Br|
Bridge to Terabithia is a work of children's literature about two lonely children who create a magical forest kingdom. It was written by Katherine Paterson and was published in 1977 by Thomas Crowell. In 1978, it won the Newbery Medal. Paterson drew inspiration for the novel from a real event that occurred in August 1974 when a friend of her son was struck by lightning and killed.
Bridge to Terabithia is the story of fifth grader Jesse Aarons, who becomes friends with his new neighbor Leslie Burke after he loses a footrace to her at school. Leslie is a smart, talented, outgoing tomboy, and Jesse thinks highly of her. Jesse is an artistic boy who, in the beginning of the novel, is fearful, angry, and depressed. After meeting Leslie, Jesse's life is transformed. He becomes courageous and learns to let go of his frustration.
The novel's content has been the frequent target of censors and appears at number eight on the American Library Association list of the 100 Most Frequently Challenged Books for the decade 1990–2000. The book is studied in English studies classes in Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and the United States.
Katherine Paterson lived for a time in Takoma Park, Maryland, a suburb of Washington. The novel was inspired by a tragedy of that time: on August 14, 1974, the best friend of Paterson's son David, Lisa Christina Hill, was struck and killed by lightning at a beach in Delaware called Bethany Beach. She was 8 years old. There is a tree dedicated to Lisa in a memorial outside Takoma Park Elementary School (pre-K to second grade), which she and David Paterson attended. A creek that runs through Takoma Park, Sligo Creek, may have provided inspiration, too.
The name of the imaginary kingdom Terabithia is similar to that of the Narnian island Terebinthia, created by C. S. Lewis in 1951 or earlier for Prince Caspian and The Voyage of the Dawn Treader. Paterson observed in 2005:
- "I thought I had made it up. Then, rereading The Voyage of the Dawn Treader by C. S. Lewis, I realized that I had probably gotten it from the island of Terebinthia in that book. However, Lewis probably got that name from the Terebinth tree in the Bible, so both of us pinched from somewhere else, probably unconsciously."
Bridge to Terabithia makes a direct reference to The Chronicles of Narnia as a set of books that Leslie lends to Jess so he can learn to behave like a king.
The book chronicles the life of an artistic young boy named Jesse Aarons and the burdens and hardships customary to his home life, such as his duties on his family's farm and the constant agitations and annoyances of his many sisters. After having trained all summer to become his classroom's fastest runner, he is infuriated when this position is claimed by an intelligent and fast newcomer named Leslie, whom he strongly dislikes. After following Jesse's experiences with classroom tormentors or rivals including Gary Fulcher, he anticipates the arrival of music class due to his strong infatuation for the subject's beautiful young teacher, Miss Edmunds. However, it is during music class one day that he discovers a fondness for the eccentric and ostracized Leslie, and the two develop a friendship. While swinging together over a creek on a sunny day, they decide to design an imaginary sanctuary from the burdens and pains of everyday life over which they reign as monarchs, calling it Terabithia and constructing a small refuge from these burdens in which their imaginary escapades take place.
At school, the pair also is challenged through the presence of an older bully named Janice Avery whom they immensely detest, and it is after she snatches a dessert from the lunch of Jesse's younger sister May Belle that the two forge a romantic letter under the guise of Willard Hughes, the object of Janice's infatuation, in conspiracy against her. After the plan's success exposes Janice to public mortification, the triumphant Jess and Leslie indulge in their victory; however, after encountering a sobbing Janice Avery in the girls' restroom one day and learning of the abuse to which she is subjected, Leslie develops sympathy and a friendship with the misunderstood bully. In the meantime, her bond with Jesse also increases powerfully, and they continue to indulge in the pleasures derived from Terabithia, the two friends adopting a puppy named Prince Terrien, abbreviated to P.T.
After being invited to a trip to an art museum with Miss Edmunds, Jesse accepts the offer without properly notifying Leslie or his parents beforehand. After enjoying a day together at an art exhibit, Jesse is horrified to return home and learn of Leslie's untimely and accidental death by drowning in the creek after the rope swing used to access Terabithia snapped. A shocked Jesse, incapable of absorbing or accepting the impact or horror of Leslie's sudden death, is rendered in a state of denial of any grief or even of his friend's existence, and he is terrified at the concept of Leslie's being sentenced to eternal damnation due to her doubts regarding religion. After Jesse miserably accepts the inevitability and unpreventability of her demise, he is saddened even further by the grief exhibited by Leslie's mourning family, who have decided to return to their previous home. Jesse decides to pay tribute to his deceased friend with P.T. by crafting a memorial wreath, but soon afterward he discovers a terrified May Belle by the creek, who had attempted to use a fallen tree as a bridge to Terabithia. After assisting his sister, Jesse chooses to fill the void left by Leslie's passing by making May Belle the new queen of Terabithia, permitting her to join in his sanctuary from then onward.
- Jesse Oliver Aarons Jr.—In the beginning of the novel, is habitually fearful, angry and depressed. He also has a crush on his music teacher, which plays an integral role in the final events of the story. After meeting and then ultimately losing Leslie, Jesse is transformed, in that he becomes courageous and lets go of his anger and frustration.
- Leslie Burke—An intelligent, talented, imaginative, outgoing girl, it was Leslie who created Terabithia. Her talents include gymnastics, creative writing, swimming and running. Jesse Aarons thinks highly of her, and they are loyal friends. She is not socially accepted by the other students in Jesse's school, to whom she is a newcomer. She is an atheist. She dies when she falls into a creek and sustains a fatal head injury.
- Joyce Ann Aarons—Jess' bratty four-year-old sister. May Belle thinks Joyce Ann is "nothing but a baby."
- May Belle Aarons—May Belle is one of Jesse's younger sisters. She is described as the only one of Jesse's siblings with whom he feels comfortable. However, because she is six years to Jesse's 10, she does not fit the mold of the ideal confidante to Jesse, leaving him still desperate for companionship. She clearly worships him from the beginning, and like him, feels that she does not have a place in the family. She is the first of his sisters to learn about Terabithia, and becomes queen after Leslie dies. She is the only one Jesse allows to enter his world and the only one who has any sort of empathy for, or acceptance of, Jesse in his family.
- Ellie & Brenda Aarons—Ellie and Brenda Aarons are Jesse's two older sisters. They primarily exist as secondary static characters, or characters who do not grow or change as a result of the events of a story. They are never mentioned separately within the novel and are never portrayed in a positive light. From the beginning of the story, they continually ask for favors from their mother, and pocket money which she cannot afford to give them. With sufficient whining, they know how to get their way with their parents, such as asking for five dollars to pay for school supplies from their mother by saying that their father promised that they could have the money. Being the elder of the two and the eldest child in the family, Ellie develops their ideas. Both have an incredible desire not to have anything to do with Jesse specifically, but with all of their younger siblings more broadly. At the climax of the story, when Jesse learns of Leslie's death, Brenda is the one who tells him of it. The fact that Brenda is the one who breaks the news to Jesse in the novel only serves to increase the shock.
- Janice Avery—The school bully at Lark Creek. Janice is very overweight and tends to become very offended when people tease her for being so. She has a crush on Willard Hughes, which Jesse uses to trick her. Janice's father beats her, and she secretly smokes.
- Miss Edmunds—The somewhat unconventional and controversial music teacher, whom Jesse greatly admires. She invites Jesse to go to the Smithsonian Museum, which leads Leslie to go to Terabithia by herself. As a result, Leslie is alone when she falls from the rope.
- Prince Terrien—A puppy that Jesse gave Leslie as a present for Christmas. He is the guardian and court jester of Terabithia. In the book, Prince Terrien is referred to as P.T.
- Gary Fulcher—He and Jesse both hope to be the fastest kid in the fifth grade; he serves as another bully in the story, but he is not quite as mean as Janice Avery.
- Mrs. Myers—Jesse and Leslie's teacher, who is given the nickname "Monster Mouth Myers." She favors Leslie the most out of her class, and says to Jesse when Leslie had died that she was the best student she had ever had. Her husband had also died.
- Leslie's Parents—Novelists who come to the story's location for their work. Mom — book writer, Dad — political writer. Unlike most of the locals, they do not watch television.
The novel's content has been the frequent target of censors and appears on the American Library Association list of the 100 Most Frequently Challenged Books of 1990-2000 at number eight. The censorship attempts stem from death being a part of the plot; Jess' frequent use of the word "lord" outside of prayer; allegations that the book promotes secular humanism, New Age religion, occultism, and Satanism; and for use of offensive language.
The book is studied in English studies classes in Ireland, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Philippines, Ecuador, the United Kingdom, Costa Rica, Panama, South Africa and the United States.
There have been two films made based on this book. One was a PBS TV movie made in 1985, starring Annette O'Toole, Julian Coutts, and Julie Beaulieu. A theatrical film version, starring Josh Hutcherson, AnnaSophia Robb and Zooey Deschanel, was released on February 16, 2007.
- "The 100 Most Frequently Challenged Books of 1990–2000". ALA.org. Office for Intellectual Freedom, American Library Association. 2001.
- Kohn, Diana (2004). "Lisa Hill and the Bridge to Terabithia". Takoma-Silver Spring Voice. Archived from the original on 2006-05-22. Retrieved 2007-02-14.
- "Questions". Katherine Paterson (terabithia.com). Retrieved 2007-02-08.
- "Local Connection". The Washington Post. February 15, 2007. Retrieved 2010-03-01. "After you have read or seen Bridge to Terabithia, visit Takoma Park Elementary, the school David Paterson and Lisa Hill—the inspirations for Jess and Leslie—attended in the 1970s." (subscription required)
- "Questions for Katherine Paterson". Bridge to Terabithia, 2005 Harper Trophy edition.
- Paterson, Katherine; Diamond, Donna. Bridge to Terabithia Movie Tie-in Edition. HarperEntertainment. ISBN 0-06-122728-5.The last sentence of the novel, "Shhh, yes. There's a rumor going around that the beautiful girl arriving today might be the queen they've been waiting for."
- The National Council of English Teachers' curriculum report including section "Why Bridge To Terabithia Should Not Be Banned" which discusses the death issue Retrieved 2007-02-08 Archived January 27, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "Opinion: What Have Other People Thought About Bridge to Terabithia?" by Scholastic Books Retrieved 2007-02-08
- Annotated list from "Ten Most Challenged Books of 2003" Retrieved 2009-09-07
- American Booksellers Association "Connecticut Residents Seek to Ban Two Newbery Medal Winners from School" (2002) Retrieved 2007-02-08
- Annotated list from "Ten Most Challenged Books of 2002” Retrieved 2009-09-07
- British Columbia Ministry of Education Grade 5 Reading List Retrieved 2007-02-08
- National Strategy Literacy and Learning in Religious Education "Year 9 curriculum" Retrieved 2007-02-08
- Bridge to Terabithia, Hardcover edition (ISBN 0-690-01359-0)
- Study guide created by the author (PDF)
- "Lisa Hill and the Bridge to Terabithia" by Diana Kohn (PDF)
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